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Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

Description: As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T. & Zupanic, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.
Date: February 21, 2007
Creator: Guan, Jie & Minh, Nguyen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

Description: The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and gathering of relevant literature; (2) synthesis ...
Date: October 26, 2007
Creator: LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

Description: This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Veil, J. A. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.
Date: July 16, 2007
Creator: Klein, J & Jeffrey Holder, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.
Date: July 2, 2007
Creator: Klein, J & Henry Sessions, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.
Date: May 2, 2007
Creator: Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T & Ps Lam, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: SUGAMA,T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)

Description: The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is an energy audit tool designed specifically to identify recommended weatherization measures for mobile homes as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program. A field validation of MHEA was performed using billing/delivery data collected on 86 mobile homes heated primarily by electricity, natural gas, or propane to assess the audit's accuracy and the validity of its recommendations. The validation found that MHEA overpredicts the annual space-heating energy savings of weatherization measures to be installed in mobile homes, which leads to low realization rates, primarily because of its large overprediction of annual pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption. However, MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates and realization rates can be improved considerably using MHEA's built-in billing adjustment feature. In order to improve the accuracy of MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates and realization rate, the cause of MHEA's overprediction of annual pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption needs to be further investigated and corrected. Although MHEA's billing adjustment feature improved MHEA's annual space-heating energy savings estimates, alternative methods of making the correction that may provide improved performance should be investigated. In the interim period before permanent improvements to MHEA can be made, the following recommendations should be followed: (a) do not enter into MHEA insulation thicknesses of 1 in. or less and especially zero (0 in.) unless such low levels have been verified through visual inspection of several parts of the envelope area in question; (b) use MHEA's billing adjustment feature to develop a list of recommended measures based on adjusted energy savings if possible, especially in mobile homes that have several major energy deficiencies; and (c) do not use MHEA's "evaluate duct sealing" option at this time (although certainly seal all duct leaks and use diagnostics as appropriate to find leakage sites and quantify ...
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Ternes, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Description: In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a ...
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul & Quinn, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

Description: During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol ...
Date: May 29, 2007
Creator: Li, Michael R. Milota : Kaichang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

Description: Geothermal energy extraction is typically achieved by use of long open-hole intervals in an attempt to connect the well with the greatest possible rock mass. This presents a problem for the development of Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS), owing to the challenge of obtaining uniform stimulation throughout the open-hole interval. Fluids are often injected in only a fraction of that interval, reducing heat transfer efficiency and increasing energy cost. Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. and GeothermEx, Inc. evaluated a variety of techniques and methods that are commonly used for hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells to increase and evaluate stimulation effectiveness in EGS wells. Headed by Leen Weijers, formerly Manager of Technical Development at Pinnacle Technologies, Inc., the project ran from August 1, 2004 to July 31, 2006 in two one-year periods to address the following tasks and milestones: 1) Analyze stimulation results from the closest oil-field equivalents for EGS applications in the United States (e.g., the Barnett Shale in North Texas) (section 3 on page 8). Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. has collected fracture growth data from thousands of stimulations (section 3.1 on page 12). This data was further evaluated in the context of: a) Identifying techniques best suited to developing a stimulated EGS fracture network (section 3.2 on page 29), and b) quantifying the growth of the network under various conditions to develop a calibrated model for fracture network growth (section 3.3 on page 30). The developed model can be used to design optimized EGS fracture networks that maximize contact with the heat source and minimize short-circuiting (section 3.4 on page 38). 2) Evaluate methods used in oil field applications to improve fluid diversion and penetration and determine their applicability to EGS (section 4 on page 50). These methods include, but are not limited to: a) Stimulation strategies (propped fracturing versus ...
Date: October 17, 2007
Creator: Dyke, Peter Van; Weijers, Leen; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Warpinski, Norm; Mayerhofer, Mike; Minner, Bill et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Final Report

Description: This project benefited the public by assisting manufacturing plants in the United States to save costly energy resources and become more profitable. Energy equivalent to over 75,000 barrels of oil was conserved. The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) visited 96 manufacturing plants and spent 101 days in those plants during the contract period from August 9, 2002, through November 30, 2006. Recommended annual energy savings for manufacturers were 37,400,000 kWh (127,600 MMBtu—site basis) of electricity and 309,000 MCF (309,000 MMBtu) of natural gas. Each manufacturer subsequently was surveyed, and based on these surveys reportedly implemented 79% of the electricity savings and 36% of the natural gas savings for an overall energy savings of 48% of recommended. Almost 800 (798) projects were recommended to manufacturers, and they accomplished two-thirds of the projects. Cost savings recommended were $12.3 million and implemented savings were $5.7 million or 47%. During the contract period our average time between site visit and report submittal averaged 46 days; and decreased from 48 days in 2003 to 44 days in 2006. Serving clients well and promptly has been a priority. We visited five ESA overflow clients during FY 06. The Texas A&M University IAC pioneered the presentation of air pollution information in reports, and includes NOx and CO2 reductions due to energy savings in all reports. We also experimented with formal PowerPoint BestPractices presentations called Lunchtime/Showtime in each plant and with delivering electronic versions of the report. During the period of the contract, the director served on the Texas Industries of the Future (IOF) Refining and Chemicals Committee, which oversaw the showcases in 2003 and 2006. The assistant director was the Executive Director of the International Energy Technology Conference held annually. The director and assistant director became qualified specialists in the Process Heating Assessment Scoping Tool ...
Date: February 24, 2007
Creator: Heffington, Warren M. & Eggebrecht, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program – Technology Delivery Plant-Wide Assessment at PPG Industries, Natrium, WV

Description: PPG and West Virginia University performed a plantwide energy assessment at the PPG’s Natrium, WV chemical plant, an energy-intensive manufacturing facility producing chlor-alkali and related products. Implementation of all the assessment recommendations contained in this report could reduce plant energy consumption by 8.7%, saving an estimated 10,023,192 kWh/yr in electricity, 6,113 MM Btu/yr in Natural Gas, 401,156 M lb/yr in steam and 23,494 tons/yr in coal and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 241 mm lb/yr. The total cost savings would amount to approximately $2.9 mm/yr. Projects being actively implemented will save $1.7 mm/yr; the remainder are undergoing more detailed engineering study.
Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: Lester, Stephen R.; Wiethe, Jeff; Green, Russell; Guice, Christina; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran & Turton, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The Georgia Institute of Technology’s Industrial Assessment Center (GT IAC) has a long history working on the IAC program with over 30 years of experience in meeting the IAC program’s goals in a very effective manner since beginning participation in the IAC program’s predecessor, the EADC, in 1977. During the last four year contract period, October 1, 2002 through September 31, 2006, the GT IAC continued this work with the assessments of eighty nine (89) industrial facilities. These assessments resulted in the reported implemented savings of forty eight thousand (48,000,000) kWh of electricity and seven hundred and fifty thousand (750,000) MMBtu of natural gas. The total calculated cost savings from the recommendations implemented was five and a half million dollars ($5,500,000). These savings reoccur annually. However, this cost savings is the total of various recommendations that were calculated during 2002 to 2006. During this time period, energy prices were almost always lower than current energy prices. If you adjust the cost savings number to account for current energy prices, the cost savings would exceed nine million dollars ($9,000,000) reoccurring annually. Beyond the reduction of industrial energy consumption and the cost savings benefit, education has also been an important element of this Center’s work. Primarily this entailed both formal and on the job training of this Center’s student employees. Over the four year time frame, this Center has had fifteen different student employees work for this Center. This Center has also instructed a graduate level senior mechanical engineering class that allowed senior engineering students to conduct IAC assessments under the supervision of IAC staff. This class exposed over one hundred students to industrial energy consumption and energy efficiency. In addition to educating students, the education of plant personnel has also been an important element for this Center. It is believed that ...
Date: October 26, 2007
Creator: Meffert, Bill & Soderlund, Matthew, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

Description: The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Peavey, Kevin & Bessette, Norm
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The Industrial Assessment Center at Iowa State University provided 93 companies in 5 states with Industrial Assessments. The total potential energy cost savings is approximately $11.43 million. The savings includes approximately 38.6 million kWh of electrical energy, 65 MW of electrical demand, and 426,000 MMBtu of natural gas. The center employed and trained 43 engineering students and involved 4 engineering faculty from both the Industrial and Mechanical Engineering Departments. Benefits to the public include increased productivity of manufacturing plants, training of engineering students in the area of industrial energy efficiency and reduced energy consumption.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Maxwell, Gregory M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: From September 1, 2002, to November 30, 2006, the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) conducted over 120 industrial assessments across 19 different industry types in five different states. In the 1,000+ assessment recommendations written during the award, the UIC-IAC has written recommendations that, if implemented will save several millions of kilowatt-hours of electricity and several million British thermal units of natural gas annually. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has achieved an overall implementation rate in excess of 50%. During the overall span of the award period, the UIC-IAC has trained over 50 students, nearly 25% of which have remained in the energy field in some way after graduating from the IAC program. UIC-IAC students have received over $23,000 in scholarships in the last two years alone. During the course of the award, the UIC-IAC has made it a priority to incorporate ITP tools and technologies whenever possible. The ITP Best Practices tools have been used on several assessments and introduced to clients. DOE technologies are constantly compared against assessment clients to determine what technologies have reached the stage where they can effectively be introduced into industrial operations. The UIC-IAC has been involved in several projects for the Department of Energy (DOE), including energy assessments of Department of Defense bases and industrial facilities, the Plant Energy Profiler (PEP) tool assessment, and expanding the range of assessments to include large- energy users. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has forged a close relationship with the Midwest CHP Application Center, working to incorporate combined heat and power (CHP) and distributed generation (DG) technologies into industrial plants. The most recent project is the Save Energy Now (SEN) six- and 12-month follow-up surveys being conducted by UIC-IAC students. The SEN surveys are an effort for the DOE to determine the implementation rate of ...
Date: April 18, 2007
Creator: Miller, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

Description: The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this project: (1) a low-cost, high-temperature heat exchanger, (2) a new radiant heat transfer system, and (3) a hybrid or integral advanced ...
Date: October 31, 2007
Creator: Briselden, Thomas D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

Description: This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the ...
Date: April 13, 2007
Creator: Rice, Steven F. & Mann, David P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant Wide Assessment of Energy Usage Utilizing SitEModelling as a Tool for Optimizing Energy Consumption

Description: The Evonik Degussa Corporation is the global market leader in the specialty chemicals industry. Innovative products and system solutions make an indispensable contribution to our customers' success. We refer to this as "creating essentials". In fiscal 2004, Degussa's 45,000 employees worldwide generated sales of 11.2 billion euros and operating profits (EBIT) of 965 million euros. Evonik Degussa Corporation has performed a plant wide energy usage assessment at the Mapleton, Illinois facility, which consumed 1,182,330 MMBTU in 2003. The purpose of this study was to identify opportunities for improvement regarding the plant’s utility requirements specific to their operation. The production is based mainly on natural gas usage for steam, process heating and hydrogen production. The current high price for natural gas in the US is not very competitive compared to other countries. Therefore, all efforts must be taken to minimize the utility consumption in order to maximize market position and minimize fixed cost increases due to the rising costs of energy. The main objective of this plant wide assessment was to use a methodology called Site Energy Modelling (SitE Modelling) to identify areas of potential improvement for energy savings, either in implementing a single process change or in changing the way different processes interact with each other. The overall goal was to achieve energy savings of more than 10% compared to the 2003 energy figures of the Mapleton site. The final savings breakdown is provided below: - 4.1% savings for steam generation and delivery These savings were accomplished through better control schemes, more constant and optimized loading of the boilers and increased boiler efficiency through an advanced control schemes. - 1.6% savings for plant chemical processing These saving were accomplished through optimized processing heating efficiency and batch recipes, as well as an optimized production schedule to help equalize the boiler load ...
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Janowsky, Ralf & Mole, Tracey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of 50 kW Fuel Processor for Stationary Fuel Cell Applications

Description: The objective of the project was to develop and test a fuel processor capable of producing high hydrogen concentration (>98%) with less than ppm quantities of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at lower capital cost and higher efficiency, compared to conventional natural gas reformers. It was intended that we achieve our objective by developing simple reactor/process design, and high durability CO2 absorbents, to replace pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or membrane separators. Cost analysis indicated that we would not meet DOE cost goals so the project was terminated before construction of the full scale fuel processor. The work on adsorbent development was focused on the development of calcium oxide-based reversible CO2 absorbents with various microstructures and morphologies to determine the optimum microstructure for long-term reversible CO2 absorption. The effect of powder production process variables was systematically studied including: the final target compositions, the reagents from which the final products were derived, the pore forming additives, the processing time and temperature. The sorbent materials were characterized in terms of their performance in the reversible reaction with CO2 and correlation made to their microstructure.
Date: August 29, 2007
Creator: Stevens, James F.; Krishnamurthy, Balaji; Atanassova, Paolina & Spilker, Kerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

Description: Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with ...
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Parks, James E., II; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J.; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department