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Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane

Description: The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry

Description: Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J. & Moses, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling

Description: The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifier and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifier (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas). Results are presented on the devolatilization of large coal particles; transport reactor modeling; fluidized bed model; nitrogen evolution from small and large coal particles; modeling of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia release during coal pyrolysis; oxidation rates for large coal particles at high pressures; advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; application of ACERC combustion and gasification codes to AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC; and submodel for lean premixed combustion of natural gas in industrial gas turbines.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S. & Radulovic, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF): Recent advances

Description: The objectives of this project are: (1)Investigate fluid rheological behavior, dynamic fluid leak-off behavior, and proppant transport characteristics of various fracturing fluids used for stimulating oil and gas bearing formations. (2) Develop new information for characterizing the behavior of fracturing fluids under conditions more representative of the behavior in actual fractures. (3) Continue utilizing the advanced capabilities of the high pressure simulator (HPS) to perform near-term research and development activities and not to construct a large-scale simulator that was proposed originally. This paper describes equipment enhancements, data acquisition and instrumentation upgrades, R&D test results, and future research planned for the Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Shah, S.N. & Fagan, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Technology for America`s Electric Power Industry. Emissions reduction in gas turbines

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is examining alternatives to straight natural gas firing. Research has shown that the addition of certain catalytic agents, such as in hydrogen co-firing, shows promise. When hydrogen co-firing is used in tandem with steam injection, a decrease in both CO and NO{sub x} emissions has been observed. In-process hydrogen production and premixing with the natural gas fuel are also being explored.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Quarterly technical progress report, [April 1995--June 1995]

Description: This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field. Brief summaries are presented for reservoir characterization; documentation of the BVW-BVZ pay discrimination technique; reservoir simulation; and outcrop analog.
Date: July 21, 1995
Creator: Van Kirk, C.W. & Thompson, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: This DOE research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field. Brief summaries are provided for the following six tasks: reservoir selection and data gathering; outcrop/core/log analysis/and correlations; internal architecture description; seismic analysis; detailed reservoir engineering evaluation; and permeability experimental work. Where appropriate reports by the research professors and the research assistants are included in the appendix.
Date: January 27, 1995
Creator: Van Kirk, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural gas monthly, July 1995

Description: The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.
Date: July 21, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural gas monthly, June 1995

Description: The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.
Date: June 21, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Distributive Impact Assessment Model (DIAM): Technology share component

Description: The models described in this report are used to allocate total energy consumption in an energy end-use service area by fuel type (including electricity) within the Distributive Impact Assessment Model (DIAM) framework. The primary objective of the DIAM is to provide energy consumption and expenditure forecasts for different population categories that are consistent with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) forecast, which is produced annually in the Annual Energy Outlook and periodically in support of DOE policy formulation and analysis. The models are multinominal logit models that have been estimated using EIA`s 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Three models were estimated: space heating share, water heating share, and cooking share. These models are used to allocate total end-use service consumption over different technologies defined by fuel type characteristics. For each of the end-use service categories, consumption shares are estimated for a subset of six fuel types: natural gas, electricity, liquid petroleum gas, fuel oil/kerosene, wood, and other fuel.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Poyer, D.A.; Earl, E. & Bonner, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

Description: PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field verification of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies for the revitalization of existing underground gas storage wells

Description: Improved, more efficient natural gas transmission and deliverability systems will be essential for meeting the expected growth in U.S. gas demand in coming decades. Role of gas storage will be important. The most cost-effective means for providing the additional seasonal storage capacity and peak-day deliverability is to improve efficiency of the existing gas storage system (370 gas storage facilities and 17,000 gas storage wells). Up to 5 new fracture stimulation techniques will be field tested. Test sites have been acquired for the 1995 RD&D program.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Reeves, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced turbine systems program--conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, November 1994--January 1995

Description: Research continued in the design and development of advanced gas turbine systems. This report presents progress towards turbine blade development, diffuser development, combustion noise investigations,catalytic combustion development, and diagnostic probe development.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 7, January--March 1995

Description: This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the seventh program quarter from January 1--March 31, 1995, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is Funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: Two new batches of catalysts were prepared for the reaction of methane with hydrogen sulfide to produce carbon sulfide; potential commercializing partners were contacted. Several companies expressed interest in possible applications of this technology.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Erekson, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of a CNG series hybrid concept vehicle

Description: Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has favorable characteristics as a vehicular fuel, in terms of fuel economy as well as emissions. Using CNG as a fuel in a series hybrid vehicle has the potential of resulting in very high fuel economy (between 26 and 30 km/liter, 60 to 70 mpg) and very low emissions (substantially lower than Federal Tier II or CARB ULEV). This paper uses a vehicle evaluation code and an optimizer to find a set of vehicle parameters that result in optimum vehicle fuel economy. The vehicle evaluation code used in this analysis estimates vehicle power performance, including engine efficiency and power, generator efficiency, energy storage device efficiency and state-of-charge, and motor and transmission efficiencies. Eight vehicle parameters are selected as free variables for the optimization. The optimum vehicle must also meet two perfect requirements: accelerate to 97 km/h in less than 10 s, and climb an infinitely long hill with a 6% slope at 97 km/h with a 272 kg (600 lb.) payload. The optimizer used in this work was originally developed in the magnetic fusion energy program, and has been used to optimize complex systems, such as magnetic and inertial fusion devices, neutron sources, and mil guns. The optimizer consists of two parts: an optimization package for minimizing non-linear functions of many variables subject to several non-linear equality and/or inequality constraints and a programmable shell that allows interactive configuration and execution of the optimizer. The results of the analysis indicate that the CNG series hybrid vehicle has a high efficiency and low emissions. These results emphasize the advantages of CNG as a near-term alternative fuel for vehicles.
Date: September 22, 1995
Creator: Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Perkins, L.J.; Haney, S.W. & Flowers, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

Description: This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Rastorfer, J.R.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D. & Wilkey, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas

Description: For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Thomas, C.P. & Robertson, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand

Description: We are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. We then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but are more robust and have higher catalytic site density. We envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid ethanol.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Watkins, B.E. & Satcher, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand

Description: A binuclear, unsymmetric coordinating ligand that is an effective metal chelator has been designed and synthesized. The new ligand has been shown to react readily with iron(II)/(III) forming a variety of coordination complexes. The binuclear complexes are of significant interest since they represent proof-of-principle for the development of coordinatively asymmetric, binuclear metal chelate compounds. Although this structural type of chelator now appears to be common in biological systems, it has not been previously described for inorganic coordination chemistry. The isolation of oxidation products will be helpful in establishing reaction mechanism(s) of these complexes with molecular oxygen. It is expected that this ligand and derivatives of it will play an important role in the development of bioinorganic complexes that aim to mimic enzyme active sites that function by substrate interaction at only one metal site of a multimetal active site.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Watkins, B.E. & Satcher, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of prechambers on flame propagation in a natural-gas powered engine

Description: Large-bore two-stroke natural-gas-fueled engines commonly are located along natural gas pipelines, siphoning off a small portion of gas from the pipeline for use as a fuel, in order to pump the remaining gas along the pipeline. The KIVA-3 computational fluid dynamics program was used to simulate the compression stroke, combustion, and power stroke in a natural-gas-fueled engine by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. These calculations include cases with and without prechambers. Prechamber stoichiometry and spark locations were independently varied with the goal of understanding how various prechamber parameters influence the ignition of the fuel-air charge in the main chamber. The goal is to allow the use of very lean main-chamber charges to minimize nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) production. These calculations were performed in both two and three dimensions.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Tonse, S. R. & Cloutman, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constraints on elastic parameters and implications for lithology on VTI media

Description: Energy considerations provide constraints on elastic stiffnesses in media exhibiting transverse isotropy with a vertical axis of symmetry. If the anisotropy is due to thin layers, additional constraints hold. The constraints can be used to provide insight into the mechanisms causing the anisotropy, which in turn gives information about the lithology. These ideas are illustrated by some examples of anisotropic sedimentary rocks and sediments from the literature.
Date: June 2, 1995
Creator: Berge, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

Description: The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Hadder, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

Description: The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Hughes, P.J. & Laitner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department