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Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

Description: For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.
Date: March 13, 1994
Creator: Rinehart, Ben N. & Seigel, Ben H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994]

Description: Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Sutton, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Novel active transport membrane devices. Phase I. Final report, 31 October 1988--31 January 1994

Description: The main objective of this program was to identify and develop a technique for fabricating Active Transport Materials (ATM) into lab-scale membrane devices. Air Products met this objective by applying thin film, multilayer fabrication techniques to support the AT material on a substrate membrane. In Phase IA, spiral-wound hollow fiber membrane modules were fabricated and evaluated. These nonoptimized devices were used to demonstrate the AT-based separation of carbon dioxide from methane, hydrogen sulfide from methane, and ammonia from hydrogen. It was determined that a need exists for a more cost efficient and less energy intensive process for upgrading subquality natural gas. Air Products estimated the effectiveness of ATM for this application and concluded that an optimized ATM system could compete effectively with both conventional acid gas scrubbing technology and current membrane technology. In addition, the optimized ATM system would have lower methane loss and consume less energy than current alternative processes. Air Products made significant progress toward the ultimate goal of commercializing an advanced membrane for upgrading subquality natural gas. The laboratory program focused on developing a high performance hollow fiber substrate and fabricating and evaluating ATM-coated lab-scale hollow fiber membrane modules. Selection criteria for hollow fiber composite membrane supports were developed and used to evaluate candidate polymer compositions. A poly(amide-imide), PAI, was identified for further study. Conditions were identified which produced microporous PAI support membrane with tunable surface porosity in the range 100-1000{Angstrom}. The support fibers exhibited good hydrocarbon resistance and acceptable tensile strength though a higher elongation may ultimately be desirable. ATM materials were coated onto commercial and PAI substrate fiber. Modules containing 1-50 fibers were evaluated for permselectivity, pressure stability, and lifetime.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Laciak, D.V.; Quinn, R.; Choe, G.S.; Cook, P.J. & Tsai, Fu-Jya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of hydrocarbon fuels to high-value-added products

Description: This report describes the design of a membrane reactor for converting methane into value added products. The design includes an outer tube of perovskite which contacts air, an inner tube of zirconium oxide which contacts methane, and a bonding layer of a mixture of zirconium oxide and perovskite.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S. & Kobylinski, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

Description: This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Francois, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts. Quarterly report, September--November, 1994

Description: Experimental research in the direct conversion of methane to methanol using a double bed reactor and with gaseous steam as cofeed with the CH{sub 4}/air reactant mixture continued during this quarter in order to improve the methanol space time yield. Work was carried out along several pathways that included a stability test of the second bed catalyst 1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} that yielded up to 100 g methanol/kg cat/hr and investigation of the effect of pressure on methanol yields. Redox dopants were put onto several metal oxide supports in an attempt to find better second bed catalysts. A catalyst that was reasonably selective towards oxygenates was obtained when SiO{sub 2} was used as the support and low quantities of Fe or Cu were utilized. Attempts were also made to incorporate alkali ions into the catalysts to improve the surface hydrolyzability. Experiments were carried out to examine the effect of pressure and temperature on the oxygenate productivity over a double-layered catalyst bed of 0.1 g 1 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the first bed and 0.1 g 1 wt% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} as the second bed without H{sub 2}O cofeed in a glass-lined tubular down-flow reactor at pressures of 0.1--3.2 MPa (14.7--460 psig), temperatures of 450--500 C, and with a reactant flow rate having a ratio of CH{sub 4}/air = 150/50 ml/min. Reaction products observed were methanol, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, acetylene, ethylene, and ethane. The overall activity of the catalyst increased at low pressures and high temperature. However, testing at low temperature and high pressure was found to favor methanol production.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Shi, C.; Wang, C.B. & Sun, Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental evidence for deterministic chaos in thermal pulse combustion

Description: Given the existence of chaotic oscillations in reacting chemical systems, it is reasonable to ask whether or not similar phenomena can occur in combustion. In this paper, the authors present experimental evidence that kinetically driven chaos occurs in a highly simplified thermal pulse combustor. The combustor is a well-stirred reactor with a tailpipe extending from one end. Fuel and air are injected into the combustion chamber through orifices in the end opposite the tailpipe. Propane with the fuel used in all cases. From the experimental data analyses, it is clear that deterministic chaos is an important factor in thermal pulse combustor dynamics. While the authors have only observed such behavior in this particular type combustor to date, they infer from their understanding of the origins of the chaos that it is likely to exist in other pulse combustors and even nonpulsing combustion. They speculate that realization of the importance of chaos in affecting flame stability could lead to significant changes in combustor design and control.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Daw, C.S.; Thomas, J.F.; Richards, G.A. & Narayanaswami, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

Description: The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: White, J.S.; Witman, P.M.; Harbaugh, L.; Rubow, L.N. & Horazak, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments. Annual technical report

Description: This DOE research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field. Field selection consumed nearly the first four months of the project. The choice was the Hambert Field area which is the field area being studied. During the remainder of the year, a significant portion of the data was gathered and entered into a data base. Cores have been described, log analysis performed on over 100 wells, and regional mapping and correlation of sedimentary packages completed. Compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocity data was measured on 8 core plugs at various conditions and lithologies. The analysis of the 3D seismic data has been started and supports the interpretation that the structural component will be a significant factor for reservoir compartmentalization in this reservoir. The experimental permeability work completed includes the pressure decay profile permeability measurements on the cores. Relationships of porosity and permeability with net confining stress were developed. Core relative permeability measurements were also completed during the year. Additional experimental measurements completed include Young`s Modulus, Shear Modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and the bulk compressibility as a function of the effective stress. Preliminary engineering analysis of the pressure build-up data from two wells supports the conclusion that sealing faults may act as barriers to flow.
Date: October 28, 1994
Creator: Van Kirk, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of gas-reburning and low NO{sub x} burners on a wall fired boiler. Technical progress report number 17, October 1--December 31, 1994

Description: The primary objective of this CCT project is to evaluate the use of Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners (GR-LNB) for NO{sub x} emission control from a wall fired boiler. Low NO{sub x} burners are designed to delay the mixing of the coal fuel with combustion air to minimize the NO{sub x} formation. With GR, about 80--85% of the coal fuel is fired in the main combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by over fire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced to the extent that natural gas replaces sulfur-containing coal. The level of NO{sub x} reduction achievable with 15--20% natural gas is on the order of 50--60%. Thus the emission reduction target of the combination of these two developed technologies is about 70%. This project is being conducted in three phases at the host site, a 172 MW wall fired boiler of Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Cherokee Unit 3 in Denver, Colorado: Phase 1--Design and Permitting; Phase 2--Construction and Start-up; and Phase 3--Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Phase 3 activities during this reporting period involved initiation of the second generation gas reburning parametric testing. This technology utilizes enhanced natural gas and overfire air injectors with elimination of the flue gas recirculation system. The objective is to demonstrate NO{sub x} reductions similar to that of long term testing but with a reduced capital cost requirement through elimination of the FGR system.
Date: December 13, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

Description: Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Hadgen, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company

Description: Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air ...
Date: October 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes-proof-of-concept stage -- Phase 6. Final report, February 1--October 31, 1994

Description: During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement, the authors uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of light alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of light hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane > propane > ethane > methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of-concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase 5). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases 4, 6), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases 7 through 9). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phase 5 and 6 so that further work is not anticipated. 72 refs.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

Description: Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: define a rational approach for inhibitor design, using the most probable molecular mechanism; improve the performance of inhibitors; test inhibitors on Colorado School of Mines apparatuses and the Exxon flow loop; and promote sharing field and flow loop results. This report presents the results of the progress on these four goals.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demographic impacts of utility rate designs

Description: Historically, utility customers have been differentiated into various customer classes, based on their utility service demand characteristics. In this paper we argue that greater differentiation, if based on value and cost of service, can be justified on grounds of economic efficiency, and if done properly can also promote economic equity. This would require a break with traditional customer classifications. With this break, more detailed information on how and why certain utility services arc consumed would be required. In line with the issue of heterogeneity, within the residential customer class, is the differential impact that different utility rates might have on different population groups. The purpose of this paper is to show how differences in the pattern of energy use may give rise to disparate economic impacts depending on the rate structure and how more equitable and efficient outcomes might be achieved if these differences are taken into account. For this purpose, an analytical model has been developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity. The Energy Policy Socioeconomic Impact Model (EPSIM), an econometric simulation model, has been developed to assess the economic impact of utility rate designs and demand-side management programs on various population groups. The following discussion provides a conceptual description of the theoretical underpinnings associated with the EPSIM.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Butler, J. & Poyer, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing. Semi-annual report, April--September 1994

Description: Objective was to ensure reliable supply of high-quality natural gas by reducing the cost of treating subquality natural gas containing H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and/or trace quantities of other gaseous impurities by applying high-efficiency rotating and structured packing gas liquid contactors. The work included analysis of base case residence time, viscosity studies on low pressure rotary contactor system, and surface tension studies on the contactor.
Date: November 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The feasibility assessment of a U.S. natural gas production reporting system uniform production reporting model. Final report, July 1993--June 1994

Description: The Uniform Production Reporting Model (UPRM) project was charged with identifying the best practices and procedures of the natural gas producing states related to the gathering, management, and dissemination of production data. It is recommended that the producing states begin the process of upgrading state systems using the concepts embodied in the UPRM model.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1993--December 1993

Description: The purpose of this contract is to develop a process for converting light alkane gases to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination using highly selective, stable catalysts in fixed-bed reactors designed to remove the large amount of heat generated, so as to control the reaction temperature. Further, the objective is to obtain the engineering data base necessary for developing a commercially feasible process and to evaluate the economics of the process. The key technical progress this quarter was the great deal of progress in equipment design, instrument selection and data sheet preparation for the PDU. This work is outlined under the Task 2.0 and 3.0 sections below. Catalyst definition this quarter provided limited progress due to the attempt to start up a new screening reactor than ran at higher pressures. The use of high pressure without the availability of a HCl removal unit operation resulted in many experimental problems. This will be solved by the use of the separation unit operation lab equipment as a catalyst screening reactor in the future. Work continued on the development of the separation system. Results showed that at a given pressure and L/G , as the amount of methyl chloride in the feed gas increases, the removal efficiency also increases. Variation of column parameters showed that the ``absorber`` acts not only as an absorber, but also as a direct contact condenser. This will provide significant benefit to the PDU.
Date: February 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

Description: The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, data reduction/evaluation and interpretation from the long term four hundred hours Proof-of-Concept System Test under Task 3 were completed. Cumulatively, a total of approximately 563 hours of coal testing was performed with 160 hrs on 100% coal and over 400 hours with co-firing coal and gas. The primary objectives of this testing were to: (1) obtain steady state operation consistently on 100% coal; (2) increase carbon conversion efficiency from 95% to the project goal of 98%; and (3) maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lbs/MBtu. The following specific conclusions are based on results of coal-fired testing at Penn State and the initial economic evaluation of the HEACC system: a coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion to a gas/oil-designed boiler; the boiler thermal performance requirements were met; the NOx emission target of was met; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below the target of 98%; the economic playback is very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; continuous long term demonstration is needed to quantify ash effects and how to best handle ashes. The following modifications are recommended prior to the 1,000 hour demonstration phase testing: (1) coal feeding improvements--improved raw coal/storage and transport, installation of gravimetric feeder, and redesign/installation of surge bin bottom; (2) burner modification--minor modification to the tip of the existing HEACC burner to prevent change of flame shapes for no apparent reason.
Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. & McGowan, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USDOE study: Human health and ecological risk assessment for produced water discharges

Description: Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain high concentrations of radionuclides, organics and heavy metals. There are concerns about potential human health and ecological impacts from the discharge of these contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico. Data collected in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) field study are being used in a series of human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will support scientifically-based regulation and risk management. This presentation: summarizes risk assessments performed for produced water discharges; describes how uncertainties in these assessments are guiding data collection efforts in the USDOE field study; and outlines ongoing risk assessment studies. In these studies, risk assessment is treated as an iterative process. An initial screening-level assessment is performed to identify important contaminants, transport and exposure pathways, and parameters. These intermediate results are used to guide data collection efforts and refinements to the analysis. At this stage in the analysis, risk is described in terms of probabilities; the uncertainties in each measured or modeled parameter are considered explicitly.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M. & Hamilton, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continued support of {open_quotes}The Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma{close_quotes}: Inclusion of a native american focused report. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. This grant funds that ongoing development work as a continuation of earlier grant numbers DE-FG19-88BC14233, DE-FG22-89BC14483, and DE-FG22-92BC14853. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys; Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of NRIS Well History development is being placed on oil and gas data for Osage County, which is under the authority of the Osage Tribal Council.
Date: September 19, 1994
Creator: Mankin, C.J. & Banken, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical criteria for an Area-Of-Review variance methodology. Appendix B

Description: This guidance was developed by the Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation to assist Underground Injection Control Directors in implementing proposed changes to EPA`s Class 2 Injection Well Regulations that will apply the Area-Of-Review (AOR) requirement to previously exempt wells. EPA plans to propose amendments this year consistent with the recommendations in the March 23, 1992, Final Document developed by the Class 2 Injection Well Advisory Committee, that will require AORs to be performed on all Class 2 injection wells except those covered by previously conducted AORs and those located in areas that have been granted a variance. Variances may be granted if the Director determines that there is a sufficiently low risk of upward fluid movement from the injection zone that could endanger underground sources of drinking water. This guidance contains suggested technical criteria for identifying areas eligible for an AOR variance. The suggested criteria were developed in consultation with interested States and representatives from EPA, industry and the academic community. Directors will have six months from the promulgation of the new regulations to provide EPA with either a schedule for performing AOR`s within five years on all wells not covered by previously conducted AORs, or notice of their intent to establish a variance program. It is believed this document will provide valuable assistance to Directors who are considering whether to establish a variance program or have begun early preparations to develop such a program.
Date: January 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

Description: The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. & Fatemi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department