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Direct use of Geothermal Energy at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant

Description: This report provides a chronological and technical evaluation of the successful use of geothermal energy in San Bernardino, California to provide heating for wastewater treatment facilities. The annual cost savings for the currently tested system is more than $29,425 for the single anaerobic digester now being heated. Expansion of the wastewater facility, resulting in two additional digesters, could result in three geothermal heated digesters on line--a minimum of two. This expanded usage, together with expected natural gas price increases, should result in recovery of all investment costs in less than ten years.
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A thermal resistance method for computing surface heat flow and subsurface temperatures with application to the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah

Description: The thermal resistance method has been modified to test the utility of oil and gas well bottom-hole temperature data in determining heat flow and subsurface temperature patterns. Thermal resistance, defined as the quotient of a depth parameter '{Delta}{sub z}' and thermal conductivity 'k'', governs subsurface temperatures as follows: T{sub B} = T{sub 0} + q{sub 0} B {summation} z=0 ({Delta}z/k){sub i} where T{sub B} is the temperature at depth z = B, T{sub 0} is the surface temperature, q{sub 0} is surface heat flow and the thermal resistance ({Delta}z/k) is summed for all lithological units between the surface and depth B. In practice, bottom-hole temperatures are combined with a measured or estimated thermal conductivity profile to determine the surface heat flow q{sub 0}, which in turn is used for all consequent subsurface temperature computations. The method has been tested in the Tertiary Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah, a region of intermediate geologic complexity (structurally simple yet lithologically complex) where numerous oil and gas well data are available. Thermal conductivity values, determined for 852 samples from five representative wells varying in depth from 670 to 5180 meters, were used to assign average conductivities to geologic formations and to investigate the effect of facies changes on intra-formation conductivities. In situ conductivities were corrected for porosity and temperature effects. Formation thicknesses needed for the thermal resistance summation were obtained by utilizing approximately 2000 wells in the WEXPRO Petroleum Information file, the computations being expedited by describing all formation contacts as fourth order polynomial surfaces. Bottom-hole temperatures were used from 97 selected wells where multiple well logs permitted correcting temperatures for drilling effects.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Chapman, David S. & Keho, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Commercial Densimeters for LNG Service

Description: Abstract: Densimeters for liquefied natural gas (LNG) from four manufacturers were tested in liquid methane and an LNG-like mixture of methane, propane, and nitrogen in the density reference system (DRS). The calibration and performance of one type tested for the first time are reported. The stability of the calibrations and performances of three densimeters of a type previously tested have been examined and are also reported here.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Siegwarth, J. D. & LaBrecque, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

Description: Abstract: The symposium on Oil and Gas Supply Modeling, held at the Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (June 18-20, 1980), was funded by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy and co-sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards' Operations Research Division. The symposium was organized to be a forum in which the theoretical and applied state-of-the-art of oil and gas supply models could be presented and discussed. Speakers addressed the following areas: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply. This volume documents the proceedings (papers and discussion) of the symposium.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Gass, Saul I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of confining pressure on pore volume in tight sandstones

Description: The effect of confining pressure on the pore volume of some tight sandstones from the Uinta Basin, Utah, was investigated. A new method based on the pressure-volume relationships of a gas was developed and used to measure pore volume reduction. The results were compared with the results obtained using the more common method that involves the measurement of liquid expelled from a saturated core and were found to be in good agreement. Pore volume compressibility of the samples studies is in the range of values reported by other investigators and ranges from 2.0 x 10/sup -6/ to 1.3 x 10/sup -5/ pv/pv/psi at a confining pressure of 5,000 psi.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Sampath, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data base for hydraulically stimulated gas wells producing from tight sands formations

Description: A data base was assembled in 1978 consisting of well records from more than 900 hydraulically fractured wells in the Piceance, Uinta, Washakie, Sand Wash, and Denver Basins. The purpose of the present study is to develop a western gas sand computerized data base for hydraulically stimulated gas wells by adapting and expanding the above-mentioned data file. This report describes the data file, tasks accomplished to date, and a sample well record. (DMC)
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of data gathered from unmineable coal seams. Final report

Description: As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) programs directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources INTERCOMP Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. (INTERCOMP) is under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide for the reduction of uncertainties in critical parameters related to the methane recovery from unmineable coals in the United States. To accomplish this objective INTERCOMP has assisted in test site selection, planning, and monitoring when requested and evaluated the results of test in terms of methane production potential and economics for selected well sites, geologic settings, and geographical areas. This is a continuation of two earlier contracts in which an optimized test program was specified and in which the results of that program were partially implemented and evaluated. In this report INTERCOMP's effort in assisting the Bureau of Mines to understand the nature of a communication problem between the vertical dewatering hole and the three horizontal degasification legs in the Emerald Mines Horizontal Drilling project is described. Recommendations made by INTERCOMP on how to determine the amount of communication and the answers to several other questions asked are given in the section Assistance in Test Planning. The use of INTERCOMP's numerical simulation model was necessary in this effort. The section entitled Resource Assessment gives the evaluation of each specific well site tested for methane production that furnished to INTERCOMP by METC.
Date: June 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report

Description: Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.
Date: May 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Wells of Opportunity Program final contract report, 1980-1981

Description: The geopressured-geothermal candidates for the Wells of Opportunity program were located by the screening of published information on oil industry activity and through direct contact with the oil and gas operators. This process resulted in the recommendation to the DOE of 33 candidate wells for the program. Seven of the 33 recommended wells were accepted for testing. Of these seven wells, six were actually tested. The first well, the No. 1 Kennedy, was acquired but not tested. The seventh well, the No. 1 Godchaux, was abandoned due to mechanical problems during re-entry. The well search activities, which culminated in the acceptance by the DOE of 7 recommended wells, were substantial. A total of 90,270 well reports were reviewed, leading to 1990 wells selected for thorough geological analysis. All of the reservoirs tested in this program have been restricted by one or more faults or permeability barriers. A comprehensive discussion of test results is presented.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulator for unconventional gas resources multi-dimensional model SUGAR-MD. Volume I. Reservoir model analysis and validation

Description: The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are: (1) To develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales. (2) To determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales. (3) To recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales. (4) To analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance. (5) To study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. The flow equations that are the mathematical basis of the two-dimensional model are presented. It is assumed that gas transport to producing wells in Devonian shale reservoirs occurs through a natural fracture system into which matrix blocks of contrasting physical properties deliver contained gas. That is, the matrix acts as a uniformly distributed gas source in a fracture medium. Gas desorption from pore walls is treated as a uniformly distributed source within the matrix blocks. 24 references.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

Description: The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.
Date: February 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special core analysis for western tight sands. Project 61031 annual report, August 1, 1980-July 31, 1981

Description: This report presents the results of laboratory investigations of low-permeability sandstones at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Chicago. The core samples used in these studies were from the following wells: (1) Mapco RBU 11-17F well from the Uinta Basin, Utah; and (2) PTS 24-19 Federal from Sublette County, Wyoming. Core samples from the Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming were also used in some of the experiments. Permeability to gas was measured as a function of pore pressure, confining pressure, and partial water saturation. Porosity characteristics of the samples were also measured, and a new method was developed to measure pore volume compressibility of sandstone samples. A comprehensive theoretical analysis of anisotropy in porous media was completed, and a novel experimental technique was developed to characterize anisotropy in sandstone sediments. Correlations have been developed to describe the dependence of permeability of tight sandstones on confining pressure and partial water saturation. In addition, a cooperative program was developed with USGS Denver, whereby the results of petrographic analyses conducted at the USGS were used in conjunction with reservoir parameters measured at IGT to better understand the properties of tight sandstones. Topical reports on the measurement of directional permeability trends and another one on the dependence of porosity on confining pressure have been prepared and are presented as separate Special Reports.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Sampath, K. & Rose, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

Description: This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GRS/industry eastern gas shale data base

Description: The Gas Resource Information System (GRIS) is a computerized data base that contains historical data on eastern gas shale wells. It contains all those elements which industry feels are important for the evaluation of drilling, completion, stimulation and production techniques for eastern gas shale wells. While GRI will be researching the data on the base to optimize production from the eastern gas shales, it will make GRIS available to industry as a mutually beneficial tool.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Zielinski, R.E. & Sharer, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential-energy-demand modeling and the NIECS data base: an evaluation

Description: The purpose of this report is to evaluate the 1978-1979 National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data base in terms of its usefulness for estimating residential energy demand models based on household appliance choice and utilization decisions. The NIECS contains detailed energy usage information at the household level for 4081 households during the April 1978 to March 1979 period. Among the data included are information on the structural and thermal characteristics of the housing unit, demographic characteristics of the household, fuel usage, appliance characteristics, and actual energy consumption. The survey covers the four primary residential fuels-electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas - and includes detailed information on recent household conservation and retrofit activities. Section II contains brief descriptions of the major components of the NIECS data set. Discussions are included on the sample frame and the imputation procedures used in NIECS. There are also two extensive tables, giving detailed statistical and other information on most of the non-vehicle NIECS variables. Section III contains an assessment of the NIECS data, focusing on four areas: measurement error, sample design, imputation problems, and additional data needed to estimate appliance choice/use models. Section IV summarizes and concludes the report.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cowing, T.G.; Dubin, J.A. & McFadden, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximation of continuity of lenticular Mesaverde Group sandstone lenses utilizing close-well correlations, Piceance Basin, NW Colorado. SPE 11610

Description: Mesaverde Group sandstone units in 13 closely-spaced wells in the central and southern Piceance Basin of Colorado were correlated utilizing wireline log response quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on these correlations, the environmental subdivisions of the Mesaverde Group were characterized as follows: (1) paralic (upper mixed-marine) zone, occurring in the uppermost Mesaverde Group, includes thick sandstone units which are interpreted to be regionally continuous, (2) fluvial zone, containing point-bars 20 to 30+ ft thick, is interpreted to be correlatable to a maximum of 6800 ft, and (3) paludal zone has insufficient data to adequately characterize the sand units. However, 63 percent of the units are correlatable across at least 139 ft. An approximation of the dimensional characteristics of Mesaverde sandstone units has potential applications in designing hydraulic fracturing treatments and estimating gas reserves more accurately. 15 figures, 2 tables.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Peterson, R.E. & Kohout, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations

Description: The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E & Roach, J F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertial navigation system for directional surveying

Description: A Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) was developed and tested. Developed for directional surveying of geothermal, oil, and gas wells, the system uses gyros and accelerometers to obtain survey errors of less than 10 ft (approx. 3 m) in a 10,000-ft (approx. 300-m) well. The tool, which communicates with a computer at the surface, is 4 in. (approx. 10 cm) in diameter and 20 ft (approx. 6.1 m) long. The concept and hardware is based on a system developed by Sandia for flight vehicles.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Kohler, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LNG annotated bibliography

Description: This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G. & Pelto, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

Description: The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M. & Powers, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-energy gas-fracturing development. Annual report, April 1981-March 1982

Description: The objective of this program is to develop and optimize the High Energy Gas Fracturing technique for producing multiple fractures about a wellbore and thereby stimulate natural gas production. Most gas wells in Devonian shales require stimulation to obtain commercially economic production. A propellant based technology has been developed which permits control of pressure loading to obtain multiple fracturing in a borehole. The High Energy Fracturing technique uses a full borehole charge of propellant tailored to produce multiple fractures radiating from the wellbore. The multiple fracture regime has been defined as a function of borehole size, pressure risetime, and surface wave velocity. The pressure risetime and peak pressure obtained in a borehole have been measured for different propellants and borehole diameters. These data make possible propellant specifications for a given peak pressure and pressure risetime. Semiempirical models using results from earlier experiments successfully predict stress and acceleration levels and fracture radii in surrounding rock. A finite element model has been developed which predicts fracture type, and direction of fractures as a function of pressure loading, in situ stress, and material properties. The High Energy Gas Fracturing program consists of three parts: (1) In situ experiments at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS), (2) modeling activities, and (3) a full scale experimemt in a Devonian shale gas well.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Cuderman, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening of three proposed DOE geopressured-geothermal aquifer natural gas project areas for potential conflicting commercial production: Freshwater Bayou, Lake Theriot, and Kaplan, Louisiana

Description: Three proposed DOE geopressured geothermal prospects defined by the Louisiana State University resource assessment group were screened for possible conflict with existing gas production. The analysis used the public records available at the Louisiana Department of Conservation offices in Baton Rouge and structural and statigraphic interpretations made by the L.S.U. resource assessment group. (MHR)
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Knutson, C.F. & Rogers, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

Description: Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Reed, R.M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department