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China's Natural Gas: Uncertainty for Markets

Description: This report discusses China's natural gas plans. Despite China's pollution problems and international environmental commitments, the role of natural gas in China's energy mix remains relatively low, particularly compared to the United States; however, China has announced big plans for its natural gas development and use. These changes will require significant investment in exploration, production, infrastructure, and consumption.
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Ratner, Michael; Nelson, Gabriel M. & Lawrence, Susan V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak: State and Federal Response and Oversight

Description: This report briefly discusses the large, uncontrollable natural gas leak in the Aliso Canyon Underground Storage Facility near the Porter Ranch community in Los Angeles County, California, which occurred between October 23, 2015, and February 11, 2016.
Date: March 9, 2016
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K. & Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Natural Gas: A Growing Resource

Description: The role of natural gas in the U.S. economy is expected to be a major part of the debate over energy policy in the 112th Congress. This report briefly explains key aspects of global natural gas markets, including supply and demand, as well as major U.S. developments.
Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Gas Manual for the Home

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing a manual written for individuals who use natural gas in the home. As stated in the introduction, "its purpose is to tell about the supply, production, and distribution of natural gas, so that the necessity for preventing waste will be better understood" (p. 1). This report includes a map, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1922
Creator: Cattell, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation

Description: This report provides an overview of recent industry development of new LNG import terminals. The report summarizes LNG hazards and the industry's safety record. It discusses federal laws and regulations related to LNG terminal siting with a focus on the authorities of key federal agencies and safety provisions in the permitting of onshore facilities.
Date: December 14, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation

Description: This report provides an overview of recent industry development of new LNG import terminals. The report summarizes LNG hazards and the industry's safety record. It discusses federal laws and regulations related to LNG terminal siting with a focus on the authorities of key federal agencies and safety provisions in the permitting of onshore facilities.
Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basin-centered gas systems of the U.S. project

Description: The principal objective of this project is to perform an analysis of basin-centered gas occurrence in the U.S. and analyze its potential significance to future natural gas exploration and development. This project shall utilize state-of-the-art procedures and knowledge of basin-centered gas systems, including, stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, basin thermal dynamics and reservoir and pressure analyses. All information will be stored in database format, and products will be fully digital.
Date: June 30, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Influencing Flow of Natural Gas Through High-Pressure Transmission Lines

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of different operating conditions on high-pressure natural gas pipelines. Analysis of past and current studies on natural gas transmission are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, and an illustration.
Date: December 1931
Creator: Berwald, W. B. & Johnson, T. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation

Description: This report provides an overview of recent industry proposals for new LNG import terminals. The report summarizes LNG hazards and the industry's safety record. It discusses federal laws and regulations related to LNG terminal siting with a focus on the authorities of key federal agencies and safety provisions in the permitting of onshore facilities.
Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

Description: Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Dunbar, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

Description: The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.
Date: September 30, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane Hydrate Field Program

Description: This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report
Date: December 31, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

Description: In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) ...
Date: January 31, 2014
Creator: Torres, Marta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

Description: Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as ...
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Hause, Jennifer; Lovett, Raymond; Johnson, David Locke Harry & Patchen, Doug
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kevin-Sunburst Oil Field and Other Possibilities of Oil and Gas in the Sweetgrass Arch, Montana

Description: From introduction: The discovery of oil near Kevin, Mont., in March, 1922, gave prominence to the Sweetgrass arch, which is a large structural uplift somewhat similar in size and degree of folding to the Cincinnati arch. Most of the development so far attempted on this fold has been on the Kevin-Sunburst dome, a bulge upon the crest of the arch just south of the Canadian boundary. The dome covers about 16 townships, is nearly circular in outline, and has very low dips away from its highest point in all directions. Within the last five years (1923-1927) about 1,500 wells have been drilled upon it, over 880 of which are rated as productive. Since May, 1925, the field has stood second in production in the Rocky Mountain States being exceeded only by Salt Creek.
Date: 1929
Creator: Collier, Arthur J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Commercial Densimeters for LNG Service

Description: Abstract: Densimeters for liquefied natural gas (LNG) from four manufacturers were tested in liquid methane and an LNG-like mixture of methane, propane, and nitrogen in the density reference system (DRS). The calibration and performance of one type tested for the first time are reported. The stability of the calibrations and performances of three densimeters of a type previously tested have been examined and are also reported here.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Siegwarth, J. D. & LaBrecque, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department