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Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will concentrate on geophysical surveys to confirm the presence or absence of ...
Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Methods for Earth Penetrating Weapon Applications

Description: This report provides a review of the open literature relating to numerical methods for simulating deep penetration events. The objective of this review is to provide recommendations for future development of the ALEGRA shock physics code to support earth penetrating weapon applications. While this report focuses on coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian methods, a number of complementary methods are also discussed which warrant further investigation. Several recommendations are made for development activities within ALEGRA to support earth penetrating weapon applications in the short, intermediate, and long term.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: BROWN, KEVIN H.; BURNS, SHAWN P. & CHRISTON, MARK A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.
Date: May 5, 2002
Creator: McLin, Stephen G. & Lyons, Dale W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H1259 Container Foams: Performance Data on Aged Materials

Description: Samples of the three cushioning foams used in the H1259 weapon storage container were obtained in 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2001 and tested for density, compression set and compressive strength using the same procedures specified for acceptance testing. Foams from six containers, all about 30 years old and located at Pantex, were evaluated. The bottom cushioning foam is a General Plastics polyurethane foam and the two side pads are rebonded polyurethane foams. All the tests were carried out at room temperature. When compared to the original acceptance requirements the foams were generally in-spec for density and compressive strength at 10% strain and were generally out-of-spec for compression set and compressive strength at 50% strain. Significant variability was noted in the performance of each foam sample and even more in the container-to-container foam performance. The container-to-container variability remains the major unknown in predicting the long-term suitability of these containers for continued use. The performance of the critical bottom cushion foams was generally more uniform and closer to the specified performance than that of the rebonded foams. It was judged that all the foams were adequate for continued use as storage container foams (not shipping) under controlled conditions to mitigate temperature extremes or high impact. This archived information is important in evaluations of the continued suitability for weapon storage use of the H1259 containers and other containers using the same foam cushions.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Domeier, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site Fiscal Year 2001 Current Status

Description: The performance objectives of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified radioactive material, and high-specific-activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1 968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Becker, B. D.; Clayton, W. A. & Crowe, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

Description: The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System{sup 2} (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry{sup 3}. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure.
Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A. & Neal, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Force Aircraft: Preliminary Information on Air Force Tanker Leasing

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO addressed the Air Force's plan to replace a portion of its KC-135 aerial refueling tanker fleet with leased Boeing 767 aircraft. Although the Air Force has a long term requirement to replace its aging fleet of KC-135 tankers, the urgency of the need in the short term is unclear. The Air Force stated that the leasing arrangement would allow it to acquire new tankers three years earlier than through its most recent procurement plan. This would allow the Air Force to retire old, less capable KC-135s, thus saving maintenance costs on those aircraft. Because the Air Force is still negotiating the lease details, it could not provide information on the cost effectiveness of leasing aircraft instead of purchasing them. Although GAO has not taken a position on the overall policy of leasing versus purchasing defense equipment, it found that, from a cost standpoint, leasing is more expensive in the long run. Because the 767 aircraft is larger than the KC-135, there will be some infrastructure improvement costs, such as for building or modifying hangars, taxiways, and runway aprons. Additional costs would likely include simulators and project management. The depots have undertaken some measures to speed up KC-135 maintenance and repair times; however, the extent to which these actions are helping or whether other measures could be taken is unknown."
Date: May 15, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues in Implementing International Peace Operations

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Between fiscal years 1996 and 2001, the United States provided $3.45 billion in direct contributions and $24.2 billion in voluntary or indirect contributions to 33 U.N. peacekeeping operations in such areas as the Congo, Sierra Leone, Kosovo, Bosnia, and, most recently, Afghanistan. The prospects for implementing peace agreements are enhanced if all major parties to the conflict participate in negotiating the agreements and if these agreements include specific authority and mechanisms for their enforcement. Peace operations are more likely to succeed if the military forces carrying out the operations have clear objectives, sufficient resources, and the authority to carry out their tasks. Military forces can help create a secure environment for civilian work to proceed. Moreover, the slow or late deployment of a peace operation's civil administrators might impede efforts to establish good governance. Finally, peace operations tend to be more successful when locals participate at every reasonable opportunity."
Date: May 24, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Budget: Need to Strengthen Guidance and Oversight of Contingency Operation Costs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The incremental costs for overseas military contingency operations, which include the enforcement of no-fly zones, humanitarian assistance, and peace enforcement, totaled more than $29 billion since 1991. Most of these costs were incurred in the Balkans and Southwest Asia. The Department of Defense (DOD) defines incremental costs as those above and beyond baseline training, operations, and personnel costs. Although most contingency operations expenditures GAO reviewed were appropriate, as much as $101 million was spent on questionable items, including cappuccino machines, golf memberships, and decorator furniture. Limited guidance and oversight, combined with a lack of cost consciousness, contributed to the questionable expenditures."
Date: May 21, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Force Structure: Air Force Needs a Periodic Total Force Assessment

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Air Force began to test the force requirements in its manpower requirements-determination process in May 2000. The defense strategy envisions simultaneously fighting two major theater wars and conducting multiple contingency operations in peacetime. The Total Force Assessment was the Air Force's first evaluation of manpower adequacy in these contexts since 1995. Because the Total Force Assessment was not implemented as planned, the Air Force cannot demonstrate that it has the forces needed to carry out the full spectrum of military operations. Although intended to examine whether authorized Air Force personnel were sufficient to meet both the wartime and peacetime scenarios, the assessment only addressed the wartime scenario and did not address the adequacy of manpower for conducting multiple contingency operations in peacetime. Air Force officials concluded that manpower was adequate to support the wartime scenario but this assessment was inconclusive because the effort was discontinued before all discrepancies in the assessment's results were resolved. Although the Air Force spent considerable time and effort conducting at least a portion of its planned assessment, it has not used the results to the extent anticipated."
Date: May 2, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Transformation: Army Actions Needed to Enhance Formation of Future Interim Brigade Combat Teams

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In 1999, the Army announced its plans to transform its forces during the next 30 years to enable them to deploy more rapidly and operate more effectively during all types of military conflicts, from small-scale contingencies to major wars. The Army's goal is to be able to deploy a brigade anywhere in the world within 96 hours, a division within 120 hours, and five divisions within 30 days. The first step is to form and equip six interim brigade combat teams by 2008. Created to fill a gap in military capability, the teams are intended to be a lethal and survivable deterrent force that can be rapidly deployed around the world. The commanders in chief envision different uses for the teams according to the unique requirements of their respective regions. However, they generally agree that the teams should provide them with a broader choice of capabilities to meet their operational needs. The Army faces many challenges in assembling its first team. For example, some planned combat capabilities will not be present when the team is certified for deployment next year. In addition, the interim armored vehicle delivery schedule has compressed the time available for training. Army officials believe that the organization at Fort Lewis that was created to help assemble the brigades has been effective in dealing with day-to-day challenges. The Army is chronicling lessons learned in forming the teams, but this information is not readily available in a central source. As a result, the Army may be unaware of some best practices or may repeat mistakes in forming later teams."
Date: May 17, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisitions: Navy Needs Plan to Address Rising Prices in Aviation Parts

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Since fiscal year 1999, the Navy's budget for repairing spare parts to support its aviation weapons systems has increased by about 50 percent, from $1.2 billion to $1.8 billion. Some military commands have asserted that the escalating cost of these parts has adversely impacted the funds available for the readiness of military forces. Overall, the prices for Navy repairable spare parts continue to climb for the three aircraft and their engines that GAO focused on in its November 2000 report. GAO's assessment of selected parts being repaired showed that while nearly 45 percent of the parts decreased in price, about 55 percent increased an average of 91.5 percent between fiscal year 1999 and 2002. The price increases were primarily due to the dramatically higher costs of the materials needed to repair spare parts, although other factors, such as overhead fees and labor rates, contributed. However, GAO could not determine the underlying causes for the rising material costs because the Navy's database lacked key information on each repair. The Navy's progress in developing an overall plan to identify and address the reasons for higher spare parts prices has been limited. It has not yet identified and implemented ways to reduce and stabilize prices. Further, the Navy has undertaken several initiatives, but most of these efforts focused on improving the reliability or the maintenance processes for repairing spare parts rather than on identifying why prices continue to rise. One initiative, the establishment of an automated serial number tracking system for spare parts, however, has potential for providing the specific information needed to determine why the spare parts prices are increasing and develop a strategy for stabilizing them. In addition, the Navy may learn from the Defense Logistics Agency's ...
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Health Care: Health Care Benefit for Women Comparable to Other Plans

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Half of all beneficiaries in the Department of Defense's (DOD) Tricare health care program are women. With a health care system historically oriented towards men, DOD has had to work to ensure that its women beneficiaries receive the full range of medical services they are entitled to, including obstetrical and gynecological care and diagnostic services such as Pap smears and mammograms. TRICARE-covered benefits are in line with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines and are comparable to women's health benefits offered by two of the largest health plans under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). DOD also requires some beneficiaries to share in the cost of their health care. Both DOD's and FEHBP's copayments, which are the same for men and women, vary depending on the plan option and the providers selected. Women beneficiaries report being satisfied with the health care benefits they receive under TRICARE. Some women beneficiaries, however, have expressed concerns about obtaining services when they are stationed overseas or in remote areas. Some active duty women are also concerned that command personnel may not understand women's health care needs."
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Training: DOD Needs a Comprehensive Plan to Manage Encroachment on Training Ranges

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The following eight "encroachment" issues are hampering the military's ability to carry out realistic training: endangered species' critical habitat, unexploded ordnance and munitions, competition for radio frequency spectra, protected marine resources, competition for airspace, air pollution, noise pollution, and urban growth around military installations. Officials at all the installations and major commands GAO visited in the continental United States reported that encroachment had affected some of their training range capabilities, requiring work-arounds that are unrealistic. Service officials believe that population growth is responsible for current encroachment problems in the United States and is likely to cause more training range losses in the future. Despite concerns about encroachment, military readiness reports do not indicate the extent to which encroachment is harming training. Improvements in readiness reporting can better reveal shortfalls in training, but the ability to fully assess training limitations and their impact on capabilities and readiness will be limited without (1) more complete baseline data on training range capabilities, limitations, and requirements and (2) consideration of how live training capabilities may be complemented by training devices and simulations. Progress in addressing individual encroachment issues has been made, but more will be required to comprehensively plan for encroachment. Legislation proposed by the Department of Defense to "clarify" the relationship between military training and various environmental statues may require trade-offs between environmental policy and military training objectives."
Date: May 16, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

Description: The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate was created in July 2000 by Bruce Tarter, Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Director called for the new organization to execute and support programs that apply cutting-edge physics and advanced technology to develop integrated solutions to problems in national security, fusion energy, information science, health care, and other national grand challenges. When I was appointed a year later as the PAT Directorate's first Associate Director, I initiated a strategic planning project to develop a vision, mission, and long-term goals for the Directorate. We adopted the goal of becoming a leader in frontier physics and technology for twenty-first-century national security missions: Stockpile Stewardship, homeland security, energy independence, and the exploration of space. Our mission is to: (1) Help ensure the scientific excellence and vitality of the major LLNL programs through its leadership role in performing basic and applied multidisciplinary research and development with programmatic impact, and by recruiting and retaining science and technology leaders; (2) Create future opportunities and directions for LLNL and its major programs by growing new program areas and cutting-edge capabilities that are synergistic with, and supportive of, its national security mission; (3) Provide a direct conduit to the academic and high-tech industrial sectors for LLNL and its national security programs, through which the Laboratory gains access to frontier science and technology, and can impact the science and technology communities; (4) Leverage unique Laboratory capabilities, to advance the state universe. This inaugural PAT Annual Report begins a series that will chronicle our progress towards fulfilling this mission. I believe the report demonstrates that the PAT Directorate has a strong base of capabilities and accomplishments on which to build in meeting its goals. Some of the highlights include: (1) Leadership of the Laboratory's Physical Data Research Program that provides ...
Date: May 9, 2002
Creator: Jacobs, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich-Von Neumann-Doring Theory and Reactive Flow Modeling of Detonation

Description: This paper discusses the Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation waves and the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model of shock initiation and detonation wave propagation in solid explosives. The NEZND theory identified the non-equilibrium excitation processes that precede and follow the exothermic decomposition of a large high explosive molecule into several small reaction product molecules. The thermal energy deposited by the leading shock wave must be distributed to the vibrational modes of the explosive molecule before chemical reactions can occur. The induction time for the onset of the initial endothermic reactions can be calculated using high pressure, high temperature transition state theory. Since the chemical energy is released well behind the leading shock front of a detonation wave, a physical mechanism is required for this chemical energy to reinforce the leading shock front and maintain its overall constant velocity. This mechanism is the amplification of pressure wavelets in the reaction zone by the process of de-excitation of the initially highly vibrationally excited reaction product molecules. This process leads to the development of the three-dimensional structure of detonation waves observed for all explosives. For practical predictions of shock initiation and detonation in hydrodynamic codes, phenomenological reactive flow models have been developed. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model of shock initiation and detonation in solid explosives has been very successful in describing the overall flow measured by embedded gauges and laser interferometry. This reactive flow model uses pressure and compression dependent reaction rates, because time resolved experimental temperature data is not yet available. Since all chemical reaction rates are ultimately controlled by temperature, the next generation of reactive flow models will use temperature dependent reaction rates. Progress on a statistical hot spot ignition and growth reactive flow model with multistep Arrhenius chemical reaction pathways ...
Date: May 2, 2002
Creator: Tarver, C M; Forbes, J W & Urtiew, P A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Whither Deterrence?'' A Brief Synopsis May, 2002

Description: To most audiences, deterrence has been interconnected with nuclear weapons whose purpose had been to deter a Soviet attack. But, the Soviet Union has been gone for almost a decade. President George W. Bush has stated that Russia is not an enemy of the US and the numbers of nuclear weapons can be dramatically reduced. It is important to note that deterrence has always transcended nuclear weapons. The US' first line of deterrence has been its formidable conventional warfare capability, designed to prevent conflict and win wars if necessary. The role of nuclear weapons has been to deter the,use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction against U.S. interests during the conduct of conventional warfare and to ensure our ability to inflict massive destruction on any who would use nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, against us. With regard to the Soviet Union, the threat of the use of nuclear weapons was a critical component of our deterrent to prevent massive Soviet conventional attack against our allies in Europe. However, the events of September 11, 2001 make clear that we have not convinced all who seek to harm us that we will be able to respond in a manner to make them wish they had not even tried. The September 11 attacks, as well as other past conflicts, do not mean that deterrence has failed-it remains effective against the threats for which it was designed. We have known there are other threats for which we did not have a credible deterrent. The challenge is to sustain deterrence against the classic threats as they evolve in technical sophistication while remaining alert to the need to evaluate continuously our ability to deter previously unforeseen challenges. How then should we be looking at deterrence as we consider fifteen or ...
Date: May 29, 2002
Creator: Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nach, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Diverging Sphere and the Rib in Prompt Detonation

Description: Steady state corner-turning in the rib is possible if R{sub 0}/R{sub 1} << 0.15, where R{sub 0} is the half-width and R{sub 1} the inner radius. For thicker ribs, the kinetics will further slow the turn. A steady state turn will have a symmetrical detonation front. The inverse radius relation appears to hold for the diverging sphere, at least for large radii. The reaction zone lengths for diverging spheres and ratesticks increase with the radius of curvature and are comparable.
Date: May 3, 2002
Creator: Souers, P C; McGuire, E; Garza, R; Roeske, F & Vitello, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department