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''Smart Gun'' Technology Update

Description: This report is an update to previous ''smart gun'' work and the corresponding report that were completed in 1996. It incorporates some new terminology and expanded definitions. This effort is the product of an open source look at what has happened to the ''smart gun'' technology landscape since the 1996 report was published.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: WIRSBINSKI, JOHN W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Sensor Particles for Remote Fluorescence Detection of Trace Analytes: UXO/CW

Description: This report summarizes the development of sensor particles for remote detection of trace chemical analytes over broad areas, e.g residual trinitrotoluene from buried landmines or other unexploded ordnance (UXO). We also describe the potential of the sensor particle approach for the detection of chemical warfare (CW) agents. The primary goal of this work has been the development of sensor particles that incorporate sample preconcentration, analyte molecular recognition, chemical signal amplification, and fluorescence signal transduction within a ''grain of sand''. Two approaches for particle-based chemical-to-fluorescence signal transduction are described: (1) enzyme-amplified immunoassays using biocompatible inorganic encapsulants, and (2) oxidative quenching of a unique fluorescent polymer by TNT.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: SINGH, ANUP K.; GUPTA, ALOK; MULCHANDANI, ASHOK; CHEN, WILFRED; BHATIA, RIMPLE B.; SCHOENIGER, JOSEPH S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Course of Action Analysis within an Effects-Based Operational Context

Description: This article summarizes information related to the automated course of action (COA) development effort. The information contained in this document puts the COA effort into an operational perspective that addresses command and control theory, as well as touching on the military planning concept known as effects-based operations. The sections relating to the COA effort detail the rationale behind the functional models developed and identify technologies that could support the process functions. The functional models include a section related to adversarial modeling, which adds a dynamic to the COA process that is missing in current combat simulations. The information contained in this article lays the foundation for building a unique analytic capability.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: SENGLAUB, MICHAEL E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Seismic Data System for Determining Nuclear Test Yields At the Nevada Test Site

Description: An important capability in conducting underground nuclear tests is to be able to determine the nuclear test yield accurately within hours after a test. Due to a nuclear test moratorium, the seismic method that has been used in the past has not been exercised since a non-proliferation high explosive test in 1993. Since that time, the seismic recording system and the computing environment have been replaced with modern equipment. This report describes the actions that have been taken to preserve the capability for determining seismic yield, in the event that nuclear testing should resume. Specifically, this report describes actions taken to preserve seismic data, actions taken to modernize software, and actions taken to document procedures. It concludes with a summary of the current state of the data system and makes recommendations for maintaining this system in the future.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: LEE, JONATHAN W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hierarchial Bayes Approach to System Reliability Analysis

Description: The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty of 1996 banned any future nuclear explosions or testing of nuclear weapons and created the CTBTO in Vienna to implement the treaty. The U.S. response to this was the cessation of all above and below ground nuclear testing. As such, all stockpile reliability assessments are now based on periodic testing of subsystems being stored in a wide variety of environments. This data provides a wealth of information and feeds a growing web of deterministic, physics-based computer models for assessment of stockpile reliability. Unfortunately until 1996 it was difficult to relate the deterministic materials aging test data to component reliability. Since that time we have made great strides in mathematical techniques and computer tools that permit explicit relationships between materials degradation, e.g. corrosion, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and reliability. The resulting suite of tools is known as CRAX and the mathematical library supporting these tools is Cassandra. However, these techniques ignore the historical data that is also available on similar systems in the nuclear stockpile, the DoD weapons complex and even in commercial applications. Traditional statistical techniques commonly used in classical re liability assessment do not permit data from these sources to be easily included in the overall assessment of system reliability. An older, alternative approach based on Bayesian probability theory permits the inclusion of data from all applicable sources. Data from a variety of sources is brought together in a logical fashion through the repeated application of inductive mathematics. This research brings together existing mathematical methods, modifies and expands those techniques as required, permitting data from a wide variety of sources to be combined in a logical fashion to increase the confidence in the reliability assessment of the nuclear weapons stockpile. The application of this research is limited to those systems composed of discrete components, e.g. those ...
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: ROBINSON,DAVID G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Tank Integrity Workshop

Description: The production of nuclear weapons in the United States to help defeat the Axis Powers in World War II and to maintain national security during the Cold War required the construction of a vast nuclear facility complex in the 1940's and 1950's. These facilities housed nuclear reactors needed for the production of plutonium and chemical plants required to separate the plutonium from fission products and to convert plutonium compounds to pure plutonium metal needed for weapons. The chemical separation processes created ''high-level waste'' that was eventually stored in metal tanks at each site. These wastes and other nuclear wastes still reside at sites throughout the United States. At the Savannah River Site, a facility (the Defense Waste Processing Facility) has been constructed to vitrify stored high-level waste that will be transferred to the national high-level waste repository. The liquid wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have largely been stabilized as a mixture of oxide particles (calcines) but liquid wastes remain to be treated and the calcined waste will probably require further processing into a final, stable form. The Hanford Site is now in the initial stages of waste treatment facility design and has a large number of single-shell tanks, many of which are known to be leaking into the subsurface. The Oak Ridge Site, which did not produce ''high-level waste'' as defined by DOE, continues to rely upon tank storage for nuclear wastes although most of its older liquid wastes have been successfully stabilized. The site at West Valley, near Buffalo, NY, marks the location of the nation's only commercial fuel reprocessing facility. As a result of an agreement with the state of New York, the DOE assumed a major role in the stabilization of the high-level waste stored at this site and its eventual closure. A ...
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Edelson, M.C. & Thompson, R. Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safe Deactivation of Energetic Materials and Use of By-products as Epoxy Curing Agents

Description: Sandia National Laboratories is developing innovative alternative technology to replace open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) operations for the destruction and disposal of obsolete, excess, and off-spec energetic materials. Alternatives to OB/OD are necessary to comply with increasingly stringent regulations. This program is developing an alternative technology to destruct energetic materials using organic amines with minimal discharge of toxic chemicals to the environment and defining the application of the by-products for the manufacture of structural materials.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: WALKER, PAMELA K.; MASSIS, THOMAS M.; PATTON, ROBERT T.; TADROS, MAHER E. & REBER, STEPHEN D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Warfighting: Attacking Time-Critical Targets

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report reviews the military's efforts to attack time-critical targets, such as mobile theater missiles, surface-to-air missile launchers, and cruise missile batteries. GAO found that the Defense Department (DOD) has developed guidance to help the armed services achieve system interoperability as well as develop oversight controls, directives, and policies and to achieve interoperability. DOD has also worked to develop joint capabilities through exercises and advanced concept technology demonstrations. The individual services have undertaken various efforts to improve their own capability to attack time-critical targets. Although these efforts are helping DOD to improve the sensor-to-shooter process, much more needs to be done to significantly reduce the time it takes to strike time-critical targets. First, DOD needs to overcome cultural impediments to joint warfighting. Second, some of DOD's current oversight and control mechanisms are simply not working. Third, DOD still lacks a joint service concept of operations to defeat time-critical targets. As a result, each military service plans and acquires systems to meet requirements under its own concept of operations. DOD has recently developed plans and initiatives to address these problems. It is too early to determine whether these steps will allow DOD to achieve more common, integrated systems."
Date: November 30, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on Proposed Changes to Profit Policy (DFARS Case 2000-D018)

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In July 2000, the Department of Defense published a proposed revision of its guidelines for developing profit objectives used in contract negotiations. The existing profit policy guidelines address investment in facilities and equipment, performance risk, and contract type risk. For each profit factor, the contracting officer determines an appropriate value and applies it against a specified base to develop the profit objectives. The proposed revision would make the following changes to the profit guidelines: (1) include a fourth element--cost efficiency, that would allow the contracting officer to reward cost reduction efforts; (2) eliminate profit on investment in buildings and reduce the amount of profit derived from equipment investment; (3) increase the amount of profit based on performance risk; and (4) add general and administrative expenses to the cost base used to compute profit for performance risk, contract type risk, and cost efficiency. The decrease in profit for investment in facilities would be offset by the increased profit derived from performance risk and the inclusion of general and administrative expenses."
Date: November 20, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Plans: Status of DOD's Efforts to Improve Its Joint Warfighting Requirements Process

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Because the military's weapon systems, particularly communication systems, have not been sufficiently interoperable, the services have experienced difficulty in operations ranging from the Gulf War to Kosovo. In Joint Vision 2020, a strategic statement on the transformation efforts of U.S. military forces, the Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff recognizes that a joint force is essential to operational success and envisions an interoperable joint force with technologically advanced warfighting capabilities able to dominate any adversary by 2020. This vision also emphasizes the importance of experimenting with new joint warfighting concepts. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council plays a key role in advancing the joint warfighting capabilities of U.S. forces in support of Joint Vision 2020. The Council oversees the joint requirements process by assessing and approving the services' joint requirements and deficiencies. The Council also reviews and approves plans for correcting those deficiencies. Finally, the Council ensures interoperability and that the services have linked their capabilities to Joint Vision 2020. The Chairman of the Joint Requirements Oversight Council and others have identified and begun to address several weaknesses. Because these efforts are in the early stages, it is too soon to assess whether they have improved the Council's oversight and the joint requirements process."
Date: November 9, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioterrorism: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Role in Public Health Protection

Description: A statement of record issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Federal research and preparedness activities related to bioterrorism center on detection; the development of vaccines, antibiotics, and antivirals; and the development of performance standards for emergency response equipment. Preparedness activities include (1) increasing federal, state, and local response capabilities; (2) developing response teams; (3) increasing the availability of medical treatments; (4) participating in and sponsoring exercises; (5) aiding victims; and (6) providing support at special events, such as presidential inaugurations and Olympic games. To coordinate their efforts to combat terrorism, federal agencies are developing interagency response plans, participating in various interagency work groups, and entering into formal agreements with other agencies to share resources and capabilities. However, coordination of federal terrorism research, preparedness, and response programs is fragmented, raising concerns about the ability of states and localities to respond to a bioterrorist attack. These concerns include insufficient state and local planning and a lack of hospital participation in training on terrorism and emergency response planning. This testimony summarizes a September 2001 report (GAO-01-915)."
Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depot Maintenance: Management Attention Required to Further Improve Workload Allocation Data

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Federal law states that not more than 50 percent of annual depot maintenance funding can be used for work by private sector contractors. In an earlier report, GAO could not determine whether the Department of Defense (DOD) had complied with the 50-percent limitation. More recent GAO testimony highlighted continuing and pervasive weaknesses in DOD's financial management systems, operations, and controls that impair its ability to accurately accumulate and report reliable budget execution and cost data. This report found that the military had mixed results complying with the 50-50 requirement for private sector workloads in fiscal years 1999 and 2000. The projections of the Army, Air Force, and Navy in DOD's report for fiscal years 2001 through 2005 are neither accurate nor reasonable estimates of the future allocations of public and private sector workloads. The services placed much less emphasis on the future-years data and reports. The reported projections use incorrect data and questionable assumptions and are inconsistent with existing budgets and management plans. DOD's report should be viewed with caution because it does not provide the best data available to DOD decisionmakers and congressional overseers, and the reported data are misleading about how future workloads are likely to be allocated between the public and private sectors. Although DOD has greatly improved the 50-50 reporting guidance and the implementation of the reporting process, further improvement could be made."
Date: November 9, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Force Structure: Options for Enhancing the Navy's Attack Submarine Force

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Maintaining a capable, appropriately sized submarine force is an integral part of the United States' military strategy. Since the end of the Cold War, significant changes in the strategic environment have led the Department of Defense (DOD) to reduce the size of its submarine force. DOD developed the following four options to a carry out the reduction: (1) refueling four SSN-688 attack submarines; (2) refueling four SSN-688 attack submarines and, upon reaching the end of their operational life after 10-12 years, replacing them with four new Virginia-class attack submarines; (3) refueling and converting four Trident SSBNs to SSGNs; and (4) refueling four SSN-688 attack submarines and converting two Trident SSBNs to SSGNs. All four options seek to reverse a projected decline in attack submarine force levels below the minimum requirement of 55, but they vary considerably in terms of the number of years they allow DOD to meet this goal. Both the refueled SSN-688s and SSGNs would be capable of various peacetime and wartime missions, but they differ in the extent to which they can perform them. Converting four Trident ballistic missile submarines to SSGNs is more cost-effective than the other options."
Date: November 14, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Transformation: Army Has a Comprehensive Plan for Managing Its Transformation but Faces Major Challenges

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Army has begun to transform itself into a more rapidly deployable and responsive force better able to meet the diverse defense challenges of the future. These far-reaching organizational and operational changes, which will affect virtually every aspect of the Army, will take decades to implement. Funding the transformation, from developing future combat systems to modernizing aging equipment, will be difficult. The Army has developed a Transformation Campaign Plan, which is a mechanism for integrating transformation efforts within the Army and for achieving the goal of transforming the Army over 30 years. The Army's Transformation Campaign plan serves as a common frame of reference for officials throughout the Army. It defines transformation goals, sets milestones for achieving them, and assigns lines of responsibilities for each aspect of the plan. The Army has established several forums at various levels to discuss evolving issues and address matters of concern. However, the lack of an overall DOD transformation strategy has led the Army to proceed with its transformation plans solely on the basis of broad departmental guidance rather than a clear understanding of how its efforts fit into an overall scheme for military transformation. Although the results of the Quadrennial Defense Review as well as other events are likely to affect the Army's plans, the Transformation Campaign Plan appears to be flexible enough to permit the Army to adapt its plans to evolving events."
Date: November 16, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Readiness: Effects of a U.S. Military Presence in Europe on Mobility Requirements

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The United States maintains 100,000 military personnel in Europe to provide rapid response in the event of a military crisis and help shape the international environment. These forward-deployed forces and equipment also facilitate the movement of U.S. forces to an area of operations. DOD has not quantified the impact of a forward presence in Europe on mobility requirements. However, Defense officials believe that, without forward-deployed forces and equipment in Europe, mobility requirements and costs would be considerably higher and deployment times longer, increasing war-fighting risk. The U.S. en-route system of airbases is critical to operations in Europe and Southwest Asia. U.S. prepositioned weapons and equipment in Europe facilitate military operations in nearby areas. Air Force aircraft and personnel deployed in Europe allow forces to move more quickly to small-scale contingencies in the area and reduce the airlift and sealift burden on U.S.-based units. As with the Air Force, Army combat and support units stationed in Europe allow forces to move more quickly and at less cost to small-scale contingencies in the area."
Date: November 28, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Should Clarify Expectations for Medical Readiness

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "A 1995 Presidential Decision Directive gave the highest priority to developing the capabilities to detect, prevent, defeat, and manage the consequences of a nuclear, biological, or chemical attack. In addition, the former Secretary of Defense emphasized at his 1997 confirmation hearing the threat that U.S. forces abroad face from chemical and biological weapons. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the joint staff, and the armed services play distinct but interrelated roles in ensuring medical readiness. Defense planning is led by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, which sets policy and develops defense planning guidance. On the basis of this guidance, the Joint Chiefs issue a biannual Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan for the nation's unified combat commands. These commands are responsible for fighting and winning wars within a particular area, usually defined by geographical boundaries. The commanders-in-chief develop war plans and requirements that specify the combat troops and support that will be needed to meet the threat and mission assigned by the Capabilities Plan. The services, in turn, train and equip the forces, including medical personnel, to meet the needs of the commanders-in-chief. So far, neither DOD nor the services have systematically examined the current distribution of medical personnel across specialties for adequacy in chemical and biological defense. This testimony summarizes an October report (GAO-02-38)."
Date: November 7, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department