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Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation

Description: This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability of an individual in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that would greatly impact subsequent events. The present project was framed around a sensor-shooter scenario as a soldier interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls). A software model of the ''Sensor Shooter'' scenario from Desert Storm was developed in which the framework consisted of a computational instantiation of Recognition Primed Decision Making in the context of a Naturalistic Decision Making model [1]. Recognition Primed Decision Making was augmented with an underlying foundation based on our current understanding of human neurophysiology and its relationship to human cognitive processes. While the Gulf War scenario that constitutes the framework for the Sensor Shooter prototype is highly specific, the human decision architecture and the subsequent simulation are applicable to other problems similar in concept, intensity, and degree of uncertainty. The goal was to provide initial steps toward a computational representation of human variability in cultural, cognitive, and physiological state in order to attain a better understanding of the full depth of human decision-making processes in the context of ambiguity, novelty, and heightened arousal.
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: RAYBOURN,ELAINE M. & FORSYTHE,JAMES C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

Description: Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: BROWN, M.J. & PARDYJAK, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: House Interparliamentary Groups

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "To assist the Committee on International Relations evaluate the extent to which five House Interparliamentary Groups' schedules of receipts, disbursements, and fund balance for 2000 and 1999 appropriately reflected the cash receipts and disbursements and fund balance for those years, GAO reviewed documentation supporting each group's recorded receipt and disbursement transactions and related fund balances for evidence that the transactions were properly authorized and recorded. The schedules, prepared by the treasurer of each group, present for 2000 and 1999 the opening fund balance, total receipts, and disbursements by category, and ending fund balance, on a cash basis, for each of the five groups. GAO also recalculated and compared the recalculated amounts to the reported amounts in each group's 2000 and 1999 schedule."
Date: August 14, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel: Longer Time Between Moves Related to Higher Satisfaction and Retention

Description: A briefing report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "About one-third of all military service members make permanent change of station (PCS) moves each year. These moves, which may involve the members' dependents and household goods, are a considerable cost to both the government and individual service members. Not all relocation and moving costs are covered by the government. Reimbursements are based on what property a member was authorized to move and weight allowances that vary by grade and dependents. GAO found that the average duration time between PCS moves was about two years. Personnel who were unmarried and without dependents had the least time between PCS moves. Among the services, the Marine Corps had the shortest average time between PCS moves. Among enlisted personnel, those in the combat occupations had the shortest time between moves; for officers, those who were in the intelligence and tactical operations areas had the shortest average tours. GAO found that the duration of PCS tours was related to satisfaction. Those with shorter time spent between moves were less likely to be satisfied and were more likely to have a spouse who favored the member leaving the military. The most frequently cited problems with PCS moves were losses or decreases in a spouse's income, changes in the cost of living, waits for permanent housing to become available, and spousal employment. Service members cited several reasons for why they traveled alone, including that the service member was separated or divorced, the service member's spouse worked or was in school, or the government would not pay for the cost of moving dependents. Those serving unaccompanied tours were less satisfied with the overall military way of life, types of assignments received, and amount of personal or family time available."
Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Army's Procurements of Battle Effects Simulators

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Army uses battle effects simulators on training ranges to help prepare its soldiers for realistic combat conditions. The simulators fire pyrotechnic cartridges that simulate the sound, smoke, and flash of shells being fired from or striking targets, such as armored vehicles. Concerns have been raised about the safety of the simulators now being used by the Army and the possibility that U.S. companies may be excluded from full and open competition for new simulators. The Army's existing battle effects simulators have experienced more than 120 documented malfunctions, many of which caused serious injuries, such as third-degree burns, loss of appendages, and lacerations. The Army has tried to make the devices safer and has suspended their use many times. It is also assessing the safety and the effectiveness of a new system from a foreign source. However, it does not plan to assess a U.S. system due to funding limitations. The Army could rely on the Marine Corps' planned type classification of a U.S. produced device to certify another qualified source for future competition."
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Inventory: Navy Spare Parts Quality Deficiency Reporting Program Needs Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) budgets billions of dollars each year to purchase and repair the spare parts needed to maintain its weapons systems and support equipment. The quality of the spare parts can greatly determine if the Department's investment of funds is effective, efficient, and economical. This report examines the Navy's Product Quality Deficiency Reporting Program and the extent to which the program has gathered the data needed for the analysis, correction, and prevention of deficiencies in spare parts. GAO found that data on parts defects identified at the time of installation were underreported. Data on parts that failed after some operation but before their expected design life were not collected as part of this program. In the quality reports GAO reviewed, some key information was omitted on the cause of the parts' failures and some reports did not identify who was responsible for the defects. To a large extent, the program's ineffectiveness can be attributed to lack of management, limited training and incentives to report deficiencies, and competing priorities for the staff resources needed to carry out the program."
Date: August 8, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Weapons: FEMA and Army Must Be Proactive in Preparing States for Emergencies

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Millions of people who live and work near eight Army storage facilities containing 30,000 tons of chemical agents are at risk of exposure from a chemical accident. In 1988, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) to assist 10 states with communities near these eight storage facilities. The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) share the federal government's responsibility for the program's funding and execution. Since its inception, the program has received more than $761 million in funding. One third of this amount has been spent to procure critical items. Because each community has its own site-specific requirements, funding has varied greatly. For example, since the states first received program funding in 1989, Illinois received as little as $6 million, and Alabama received as much as $108 million. GAO found that many of the states have made considerable progress in preparing to respond to chemical emergencies. Three of the 10 states in the CSEPP are fully prepared to respond to an emergency and four others are making progress and are close to being fully prepared. This is a considerable improvement since 1997, when no state was fully prepared. However, three states are still considerably behind in their efforts and will require additional technical assistance to become fully prepared to respond to a chemical accident."
Date: August 13, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Combat: Services Should Consider Greater Use of New Test Equipment for Their Aircraft

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The armed services have had problems for years with their ability to adequately test their electronic combat systems. The success of the new Joint Service Electronic Combat Systems Tester Program in providing improved test capability is a positive development. Because the tester has identified many more faults in the F-15C and F/A-18C electronic combat systems than has the current test equipment, existing readiness, logistics, and maintenance problems with such systems could worsen. However, pilots would at least have greater knowledge about the readiness and reliability of their self-protection systems and their need for support from specialized aircraft designed to suppress enemy air defenses. GAO believes that it makes sense for the Air Force and Navy to consider using the new test equipment on their non-fighter aircraft."
Date: August 30, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Housing: DOD Needs to Address Long-Standing Requirements Determination Problems

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report reviews the Department of Defense's (DOD) family housing program. GAO discusses (1) whether DOD has implemented a standard process for determining the required military housing based on housing available in the private sector and (2) how an increase in the housing allowance is likely to affect the need for housing on military installations over the long term. Despite calls from Congress, GAO, and DOD's Inspector General, DOD has not introduced a standard process for determining military housing requirements. DOD and the services have worked to develop the framework for the process, but technical concerns, such as standards for affordable housing and commuting distance, have stalled its adoption. Increasing the housing allowance underscores the urgent need for a consistent process to determine military housing requirements because it is expected to increase demand for civilian housing and lessen the demand for military housing. From a policy standpoint, increasing the allowance better positions DOD to rely on the private sector first for housing because it removes the financial disincentive to living in civilian housing. From a management standpoint, considerable evidence suggests that it is less expensive to provide allowances for military personnel to live on the civilian market than to provide military housing. Although overall program costs are increasing significantly in the short term to cover increased allowances, DOD could save money in the longer term by encouraging more personnel to move into civilian housing."
Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Management: Better Guidance Needed in Selecting Operating Methods for Name-Brand, Fast-Food Restaurants

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The military exchange services operate a wide range of retail activities, such as department stores, florist shops, barber and beauty shops, gas stations, and restaurants. Hamburger restaurants represent a major segment of the exchange services' name-brand, fast-food sales. The exchange services use either a direct or an indirect method to operate these restaurants. Under the direct method, the exchange service enters into a franchise agreement with a name-brand company to sell its product on a military installation. As the franchisee, the exchange service builds and operates the restaurant and directly employs and trains the personnel. In turn, the exchange service receives all of the revenues and profits and usually pays the company a licensing fee plus a percentage of the restaurant's sales. Under the indirect method, the exchange service contracts with a name-brand company that, in turn, builds the restaurant and either operates it as a company restaurant or provides a licensed operator. The company or its licensed operator hires, trains, and pays the restaurant personnel and usually pays annual fees and commissions to the exchange service on the basis of restaurant's sales. Under this agreement, the exchange service receives a percentage of the restaurant's annual sales; annual licensing fees; and, in some cases, a signing bonus or minimum guaranteed commissions. GAO's analysis of fiscal year 1998 and 1999 financial data from the Army and Air Force Exchange Service and the Navy Exchange Service Command showed that the indirect method of operating name-brand hamburger restaurants was more profitable than the direct method, regardless of the restaurants' sales volume, restaurant type (free-standing or part of a food court), or location. GAO's investment analysis projected that if new name-brand, hamburger restaurants were to be built, the indirect method ...
Date: August 24, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisitions: Actions to Improve Navy SPAWAR Low-Rate Initial Production Decisions

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "During its review of the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Command's fiscal year 2001 budget request, GAO found that many information technology systems were being procured and fielded in relatively large quantities--sometimes exceeding 50 percent of the total--during low-rate initial production and before completion of operational testing. The primary purpose of low-rate initial production is to produce enough units for operational testing and evaluation and to establish production capabilities to prepare for full-rate production. Commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) best practices have shown that completing a system's testing before producing significant quantities substantially lowers the risk of costly fixes and retrofits. For major weapons systems, statutory provisions limit the quantities of systems produced during low-rate initial production to the minimum quantity necessary. These statutory provisions also require justification for quantities exceeding 10 percent of total production. Although these provisions do not apply to non-major systems, DOD and Navy acquisition regulations encourage these programs to make use of the low-rate initial production concept. This report reviews (1) information systems being procured and fielded for SPAWAR in large numbers before operational testing, (2) what effects this practice was having on SPAWAR and the fleet, and (3) what the Navy is doing to mitigate the risks associated with this practice. GAO found that the main reason for the high percentage of low-rate initial production quantities is to more quickly respond to fleet demands for information systems improvements. Many information technology systems purchased and fielded during low-rate initial production and prior to completing operational testing experienced problems that negatively impacted fleet operations and capabilities. SPAWAR has taken several steps to mitigate the risks of high percentage low-rate initial production procurements, such as requiring program managers to use ...
Date: August 7, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Transformation: Navy Efforts Should Be More Integrated and Focused

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "With the end of the Cold War, national security strategies changed to meet new global challenges. The Navy developed a new strategic direction in the early 1990s, shifting its primary focus from open ocean "blue water" operations to littoral, or shallow water, operations closer to shore. GAO found that although the Navy has recently placed more emphasis on transformation, it does not have a well-defined and overarching strategy for transformation. It has not clearly identified the scope and direction of its transformation; the overall goals, objectives, and milestones; or the specific strategies and resources to be used in achieving these goals. It also has not clearly identified organizational roles and responsibilities, priorities, resources, or ways to measure progress. Without a well-defined strategic plan to guide the Navy's efforts, senior leaders and Congress will not have the tools they need to ensure that the transformation is successful."
Date: August 2, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Overview of Economic Recovery, Property Transfer, and Environmental Cleanup

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony reviews the progress of the Department of Defense's (DOD) base realignments and closures (BRAC) in 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1995 and the implementation of the BRAC Commissions' recommendations. Although some communities surrounding closed base areas are faring better than others, most are recovering from the initial economic impact of base closures. The short-term impact can be very traumatic for BRAC-affected communities, but the long-term economic recovery of communities depends on several factors, including the strength of the national and regional economies and successful redevelopment of base property. Key economic indicators show that the majority of communities surrounding closed bases are faring well economically in relation to U.S. unemployment rates and show some improvement since the time closures began in 1988. Implementation of BRAC recommendations is essentially completed, but title to only 41 percent of unneeded base property has been transferred. As of August 20, 2001, DOD reported that it has essentially implemented all of the BRAC Commission's 451 recommendations. Although DOD has made progress and established numerous initiatives to expedite cleanup, many cleanup activities remain. Cleaning up environmental contamination on BRAC-affected installations has proven to be costly and challenging for DOD and can delay the transfer of the title of property to other users. DOD expects to continue its environmental efforts well beyond fiscal year 2001, the final year of the base closure implementation authority."
Date: August 28, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tactical Aircraft: Impact of F-22 Production Cost Reduction Plans on Cost Estimates

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Air Force started developing the F-22 aircraft in 1991, and plans to complete development in September 2003. The Air Force plans to procure 333 production aircraft at a cost now capped at $37.6 billion. The law does not specify the total number of aircraft to be procured. This testimony discusses (1) potential cost reduction plans, (2) production cost estimates by the Air Force and the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and (3) the Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to implement GAO's earlier recommendations (see GAO/NSIAD-00-178, August 2000). GAO found that the F-22 contractors' estimated amount of cost reduction plans total about $26.5 billion. Both the Air Force and the Office of the Secretary of Defense cost estimators projected in late 2000 that F-22 production costs would still exceed the $37.6 billion congressional cost limitation if the Air Force were to procure 333 F-22s. DOD plans to reconcile the number of F-22s needed with the amount of the congressional cost limitation on F-22 production as part of the next Quadrennial Defense Review."
Date: August 2, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL Calibration Program: Data Collection, Ground Truth Validation, and Regional Coda Magnitude

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) integrates and collects data for use in calibration of seismic detection, location, and identification. Calibration data is collected by (1) numerous seismic field efforts, many conducted under NNSA (ROA) and DTRA (PRDA) contracts, and (2) permanent seismic stations that are operated by national and international organizations. Local-network operators and international organizations (e.g. International Seismic Center) provide location and other source characterization (collectively referred to as source parameters) to LLNL, or LLNL determines these parameters from raw data. For each seismic event, LLNL rigorously characterizes the uncertainty of source parameters. This validation process is used to identify events whose source parameters are accurate enough for use in calibration. LLNL has developed criteria for determining the accuracy of seismic locations and methods to characterize the covariance of calibration datasets. Although the most desirable calibration events are chemical and nuclear explosions with highly accurate locations and origin times, catalogues of naturally occurring earthquakes offer needed geographic coverage that is not provided by man made sources. The issue in using seismically determined locations for calibration is validating the location accuracy. Sweeney (1998) presented a 50/90 teleseismic, network-coverage criterion (50 defining phases and 90{sup o} maximum azimuthal gap) that generally results in 15-km maximum epicenter error. We have also conducted tests of recently proposed local/regional criteria and found that 10-km accuracy can be achieved by applying a 20/90 criteria. We continue to conduct tests that may validate less stringent criteria (which will produce more calibration events) while maintaining desirable location accuracy. Lastly, we examine methods of characterizing the covariance structure of calibration datasets. Each dataset is likely to be effected by distinct error processes that result in a distinct covariance structure. We present covariance models for select data sets and demonstrate how these datasets can be integrated into one calibration-event ...
Date: August 28, 2001
Creator: Myers, S C; Mayeda, K; Walter, C; Schultz, C; O'Boyle, J; Hofstetter, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten Salt Oxidation: A Thermal Technology for Waste Treatment and Demilitarization

Description: MSO is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes including obsolete explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit and in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. LLNL, under the direction and support of the Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) program, is currently building an integrated MSO plant for destroying explosives, explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated activated charcoal. In a parallel effort, LLNL also provides technical support to DOE for the implementation of the MSO technology at industrial scale at Richland, Washington. Over 30 waste streams have been demonstrated with LLNL-built MSO systems. In this paper we will present our latest experimental data, our operational experience with MSO and also discuss its process capabilities.
Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Hsu, P C; Watkins, B; Pruneda, C & Kwak, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL PuPS Weld Qualification Plan

Description: This plan ensures the quality of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) DOE 3013 Standard Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS) can welds meet the requirements stipulated in the DOE Standard 3013-00 ''Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials'' (Reference 1) and G-ESR-G-00035, Revision 1 dated July 26, 2000, ''Savannah River Site Stabilization and Packaging Requirements for Plutonium Bearing Materials for Storage.'' (Reference 2) This plan also meets the requirements for a weld qualification plan as stipulated in the G-ESR-G-00035. The Outer Can weld must meet ASME VIII & IX. The Outer Can welds will be evaluated initially and during production. The initial evaluation will be done by performing the following: ASME IX welding procedure qualification, ASME IX operator qualification, and a 25 can Dummy Outer Can (DOC) verification run. During production, product cans and DOCs will be evaluated. Product cans will be evaluated by a combination of visual examination of the weld faces and the use of helium leak checking. The DOCs will be examined by visual examination, leak check, radiographic examination and metallographic examination. Appendix 2 summarizes the requirements of each of these evaluations. The Inner Can weld must meet the leak tightness requirements of DOE 3013. The Inner Can weld, while not required to meet ASME requirements, will be controlled as described in this plan to ensure a reliable leak path barrier and consistent production processing behavior. The product Inner Cans will be evaluated by a combination of visual examination of the weld faces and the use of helium leak checking.
Date: August 24, 2001
Creator: Dodson, K E & Riley, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Plutonium in Sediment and Seawater from the Marshall Islands

Description: During the summer 2000, I was given the opportunity to work for about three months as a technical trainee at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, or LLNL as I will refer to it hereafter. University of California runs this Department of Energy laboratory, which is located 70 km east of San Francisco, in the small city of Livermore. This master thesis in Radioecology is based on the work I did here. LLNL, as a second U.S.-facility for development of nuclear weapons, was built in Livermore in the beginning of the 1950's (Los Alamos in New Mexico was the other one). It has since then also become a 'science center' for a number of areas like magnetic and laser fusion energy, non-nuclear energy, biomedicine, and environmental science. The Laboratory's mission has changed over the years to meet new national needs. The following two statements were found on the homepage of LLNL (http://www.llnl.gov), at 2001-03-05, where also information about the laboratory and the scientific projects that takes place there, can be found. 'Our primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide'. 'Our goal is to apply the best science and technology to enhance the security and well-being of the nation and to make the world a safer place.' The Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology group at the Health and Ecological Assessments division employed me, and I also worked to some extent with the Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) group. The work I did at LLNL can be divided into two parts. In the first part Plutonium (Pu) measurements in sediments from the Rongelap atoll in Marshall Islands, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) were done. The method for measuring these kinds of samples is ...
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: Leisvik, M & Hamilton, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Progress in the Scale-Up of TATB by the VNS Method

Description: The explosive TATB is used in the Department of Energy's main charges and boosters, where its extraordinary insensitivity to impact, spark and heat make it highly advantageous. This IHE is also used in booster applications in naval weapons, and is being tested as a main charge fill for hard target penetrator projectiles. (Slides 2-5) In order to meet demand, a continuing supply of TATB will be required. However, no production base exists in the U.S. for TATB production, and processes once used to make TATB are relatively expensive, complicated, and considered environmentally hazardous (Slide 6). The primary objective of this project is to reestablish the industrial base for TATB production, using LLNL's new Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution (VNS) methodology. A secondary objective is to enable a reduction in the cost of TATB production, thus making this explosive attractive to U.S. Department of Defense and commercial customers. This presentation will update information presented at the 1998 NDIA IM & EM meeting held in San Diego, California.
Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Schmidt, R D; Mitchell, A R; Lee, G S; Quinlin, W T; Cates, M & Coburn, M D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of Chemical Detonation Waves With Hydrodynamics and Thermochemical Equation of State

Description: We model detonation waves for solid explosives, using 2-D Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics, with an equation of state (EOS) based on thermochemical equilibrium, coupled with simple kinetic rate laws for a few reactants. The EOS for the product species is based on either a BKWC EOS or on an exponential-6 potential model, whose parameters are fitted to a wide range of shock Hugoniot and static compression data. We show some results for the non ideal explosive, urea nitrate. Such a model is a powerful tool for studying such processes as initiation, detonation wave propagation and detonation wave propagation as a function of cylindrical radius.
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Souers, P C & Vitello, P A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of Amino- and Nitro-Substituted Heterocycles as Insensitive Energetic Materials

Description: In this paper we will describe the synthesis of several amino- and nitro-substituted heterocycles, examples from a continuing research project targeted at the synthesis of new, insensitive energetic materials that possess at least 80% the power of HMX (28% more power than TATB). Recently we reported the synthesis and scale-up of the insensitive energetic material, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105). The energy content (81% the power of HMX) and thermal stability of LLM-105 make it a viable candidate material for insensitive boosters and deep oil perforation. We will report on recent synthetic improvements and several performance and safety tests performed on LLM-105, including a 1 in. cylinder shot and plate dent. We will also report on the synthesis and characterization of 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole (LLM-116), an interesting new insensitive energetic material with a measured crystal density of 1.90 g/cc, to our knowledge the highest density yet measured for a five-membered heterocycle containing amino- and nitro-substituents. LLM-116 was synthesized by reacting 3,5-dinitropyrazole with 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide (TMHI) in DMSO in the presence of base. The synthesis and characterization of 4-amino-5-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (ANTZ) and 43-dinitro-1,2,3-triazole (DNTZ), first described by Baryshnikov and coworkers, will also be presented along with the synthesis of several new energetic materials derived from ANTZ and DNTZ.
Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Mitchell, A R & Schmidt, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department