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Potential for use of all-MOX fuel in existing and evolutionary/advanced LWRs in the United States

Description: This paper reviews the application of US LWRs that are loaded with all-MOX fuel to dispose of excess weapon plutonium. The information presented is based on the DOE study results summarized in the 1993 DOE report, and the detailed reports submitted by reactor designers to DOE for that report. The reactor designs are the Westinghouse (Plutonium Disposition Reactor) PDR600, the GE Advanced BWR (ABWR), and ABB-Combustion Engineering System 80+. Analysis of published information in the nuclear community is the basis for an estimate of the capabilities of existing LWRs to switch from low-enriched uranium to all-MOX fuel. It is concluded to be feasible, if the conversion to PuO{sub 2} can be begun immediately, and lead test assemblies containing prototypical MOX fuel be made and irradiated. Russian VVERs should also be evaluated for Pu disposition.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Walter, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

Description: Preliminary estimates of the inspection effort to verify a Nuclear Material Cutoff Convention are presented. The estimates are based on (1) a database of about 650 facilities a total of eight states, i.e., the five nuclear-weapons states and three ``threshold`` states; (2) typical figures for inspection requirements for specific facility types derived from IAEA experience, where applicable; and (3) alternative estimates of inspection effort in cutoff options where full IAEA safeguards are not stipulated. Considerable uncertainty must be attached to the effort estimates. About 50--60% of the effort for each option is attributable to 16 large-scale reprocessing plants assumed to be in operation in the eight states; it is likely that some of these will be shut down by the time the convention enters into force. Another important question involving about one third of the overall effort is whether Euratom inspections in France and the U.K. could obviate the need for full-scale IAEA inspections at these facilities. Finally, the database does not yet contain many small-scale and military-related facilities. The results are therefore not presented as predictions but as the consequences of alternative assumptions. Despite the preliminary nature of the estimates, it is clear that a broad application of NPT-like safeguards to the eight states would require dramatic increases in the IAEA`s safeguards budget. It is also clear that the major component of the increased inspection effort would occur at large reprocessing plants (and associated plutonium facilities). Therefore, significantly bounding the increased effort requires a limitation on the inspection effort in these facility types.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Fishbone, L.G. & Sanborn, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of chemical agents, precursors and by-products using ion trap technology

Description: The utility of a new field portable ion trap-based instrument, the Generic Detector, for use in chemical weapons treaty verification is assessed. The ability of the instrument to detect targeted chemical agents, precursors and degradation products is examined. Instrumental characteristics (membrane vacuum interface, ion pump, air buffer gas) which resulted from, the reduction in size of the instrument are evaluated as to their impact on the detection limits for these selected compounds. Detection limits in the low nanogram range are obtainable for most of the chemical agents, precursors and by-products using both GC/MS and GC/MS/MS analysis.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Lammert, S.A.; Merriweather, R.; Sarver, E.W. & Wasseman, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center (a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year.
Date: September 8, 1994
Creator: Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O. & Watkins, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

Description: In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with ...
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

Description: In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.
Date: February 15, 1994
Creator: Sutcliffe, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human health risks from TNT, RDX, and HMX in environmental media and consideration of the US Regulatory Environment

Description: Although the most economical method for disposing of unwanted energetic high explosives [HEs; e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-triazine (RDX, also known as Cyclonite), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, also known as Octogen)] involves open burning and open or underground detonation [OB/O(U)D]; federal, state, and even local government agencies in the United States (U.S.) are implementing stricter environmental regulations that eventually may prevent such activities. These stricter regulations will promote alternative technologies that are designed to be environmentally benign. However, past HE-waste disposal practices at manufacturing and fabrication facilities in the U.S. have included uncontrolled OB/O(U)D, as well as direct surface discharge of HE-contaminated waste water, resulting in contaminated environmental media (e.g., ground water, soil, and perhaps even edible vegetation) near residential areas. Using TNT, RDX, and HMX as examples, this paper describes how risk-based standards for HEs can be derived that account for potential multimedia exposures (associated with contaminated air, water, food, and soil) by individuals near a contaminated site, and used to (1) protect public health and safety; (2)prevent limited resources from being dedicated to unnecessary cleanup activities; and (3) identify the most cost-effective, practical, and environmentally benign technologies suitable for integrating with the handling of the large quantity of high explosives scheduled for demilitarization.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Daniels, J.I. & Knezovich, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of models to assess the atmospheric dispersion of resuspended radionuclides on the Nevada Test Site

Description: A study of computer codes was made to determine the suitability of their use for modeling radionuclide dispersion from attachment to fugitive dust at the GMX safety shot area of the Nevada Test site. Two codes, the Industrial Source Complex 2 Long Term Model (ISCLT2) and the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM), were subsequently chosen to model the GMX site. Dose calculations were performed using the output values generated by the computer codes. The concentration values produced by the two codes were within a factor of two of each other and were not significantly different. The FDM, however, was felt to be a more useful code for use in calculating doses caused by attachment to fugitive dust.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Green, J.R. & Eckart, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim progress report addendun - environmental geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, January 1994 resurvey

Description: Geophysical surveying around Building E5032 using three new continuously recording geophysical instruments - two types of electromagnetic induction instruments and a cesium vapor magnetometer that were unavailable at the time of the original survey - has provided additional information for defining the location of buried debris, vaults, tanks, and the drainage/sump system near the building. The dominant geophysical signature around Building E5032 consists of a complex pattern of linear magnetic, electrical-conductivity, and electromagnetic field anomalies that appear to be associated with drainage/sewer systems, ditches, past railway activity, the location for Building T5033 (old number 99A), and the probable location of Building 91. Integrated analysis of data acquired using the three techniques, plus a review of the existing ground-penetrating-radar data, allow a more thorough definition of the sources for the observed anomalies.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Benson, M.A.; Borden, H.M. & Padar, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive

Description: Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, we examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. We also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C. & Kramer, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophysical exploration in the Lautertal at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

Description: Geophysical exploration was conducted in the Lautertal at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany, to determine the shallow geological framework of a typical dry valley in this karstic environment. The complementary methods of electromagnetic surveying, vertical electrical soundings, and seismic refraction profiling were successful in determining the depth and configuration of the bedrock surface, the character of the unconsolidated deposits resting on the bedrock surface, and the nature of the bedrock surface. Channels and other depressions in the bedrock surface are aligned with structurally induced fractures in the bedrock. The unconsolidated deposits consist of coarse alluvium and colluvium, which are confined to these channels and other depressions, and fine-grained loam and loess, which cover most of the Lautertal. Wide ranges in the electrical and elastic parameters of the bedrock surface are indicative of carbonate rock that is highly fractured and dissolved at some locations and competent at others. Most local groundwater recharge occurs in the uplands where the Middle Kimmeridge (Delta) Member of the Maim Formation (Jurassic) is widely exposed. These carbonate rocks are known to be susceptible to dissolution along the fractures and joints; thus, they offer meteoric waters ready access to the main shallow aquifers lower in the Malm Formation. These same rocks also form the bedrock surface below many of the dry valleys, but in the Lautertal, the infiltration of meteoric waters into the subsurface is generally impeded by the surficial layer of fine-grained loam and loess, which have low hydraulic conductivity. Further, the rocks of the Middle Kimmeridge Member appear to be closely associated with the localized occurrence of turbidity in such perennial streams as the Lauterach.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Heigold, P.C.; Thompson, M.D. & Borden, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ROQUEFORT: Containment data report

Description: Information on the ROQUEFORT event at the Nevada Test Site is given. Emphasis is on emplacement conditions and stemming performance, especially pressures, radiation dose rates, and ground motion. The containment was considered successful.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding requirements for the transport of nuclear warhead components under decommissioning

Description: The requirements to carry out accurate shielding calculations involved with the safe off-site transportation of packages containing nuclear warhead components, special assemblies and radioactive materials are discussed. The need for (a) detailed information on the geometry and material composition of the packaging and radioactive load, (b) accurate representation of the differential energy spectra (dN/dE) for the neutron and gamma spectra emitted by the radioactive materials enclosed in the packaging, (c) well-tested neutron and photon cross section libraries, (d) and accurate three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes are illustrated. A brief discussion of the need for reliable dose measurements is presented.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Hansen, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors

Description: There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Benjamin, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and biological systems for regenerating activated carbon contaminated with high explosives

Description: Activated carbon has been used as a substrate for efficiently removing high explosives (HEs) from aqueous and gaseous waste streams. Carbon that is saturated with HEs, however, constitutes a solid waste and is currently being stored because appropriate technologies for its treatment are not available. Because conventional treatment strategies (i.e., incineration, open burning) are not safe or will not be in compliance with future regulations, new and cost-effective methods are required for the elimination of this solid waste. Furthermore, because the purchase of activated carbon and its disposal after loading with HEs will be expensive, an ideal treatment method would result in the regeneration of the carbon thereby permitting its reuse. Coupling chemical and biological treatment systems, such as those described below, will effectively meet these technical requirements. The successful completion of this project will result in the creation of engineered commercial systems that will present safe and efficient methods for reducing the quantities of HE-laden activated carbon wastes that are currently in storage or are generated as a result of demilitarization activities. Biological treatment of hazardous wastes is desirable because the biodegradation process ultimately leads to the mineralization (e.g., conversion to carbon dioxide, nitrogen gas, and water) of parent compounds and has favorable public acceptance. These methods will also be cost- effective because they will not require large expenditures of energy and will permit the reuse of the activated carbon. Accordingly, this technology will have broad applications in the private sector and will be a prime candidate for technology transfer.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.I.; Stenstrom, M.K. & Heilmann, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic properties of Indiana, Fort Knox and Utah test range limestones and Danby Marble over the stress range 1 to 20 GPa

Description: The responses of the following carbonate materials to shock loading and release have been measured: Indiana limestone (18% porosity; saturated and dry), Jeffersonville/Louisville Limestones (Fort Knox limestone) (variable dolomitization, low porosity), Danby Marble (essentially pure calcite; low porosity), and a limestone from the Utah Test and Training Range (low porosity, with 22% silica). Various experimental configurations were used, some optimized to yield detailed waveform information, others to yield a clean combination of Hugoniot states and release paths. All made use of velocity interferometry as a primary diagnostic. The stress range of 0 - 20 GPa was probed (in most cases, emphasizing the stress range 0 -10 GPa). The primary physical processes observed in this stress regime were material strength, porosity, and polymorphic phase transitions between the CaCO{sub 3} phases I, II, III and VI. Hydration was also a significant reaction under certain conditions. The Indiana Limestone studies in particular represent a significant addition to the low-pressure database for porous limestone. Temperature dependence and the effect of freezing were assessed for the Fort Knox limestone. Experimental parameters and detailed results are provided for the 42 impact tests in this series.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Furnish, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of MACH2 to explosive magnetic flux compression generators: Improvements in detonation modeling. Final report

Description: Dramatic improvements have been made to the detonation modeling capability recently incorporated into MACH2. These improvements significantly improve the flexibility of the detonation model, allow for accurate depiction of real explosives, and permit highly efficient modeling of long, coaxial generators. In this document, we will first describe these improvements in some detail. We will then discuss the calibration of the detonation model to two explosive materials, PBX9501 and PBXN110. Finally, we will demonstrate the code`s capability for modeling long, coaxial magnetocumulative generators.
Date: April 27, 1994
Creator: Watrous, J.J. & Frese, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A perspective on safeguarding and monitoring of excess military plutonium

Description: The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective and framework for the development of safeguarding and monitoring procedures for the various stages of disposition of excess military plutonium. The paper briefly outlines and comments on some of the issues involved in safeguarding and monitoring excess military plutonium as it progresses from weapons through dismantlement, to fabrication as reactor fuel, to use in a reactor, and finally to storage and disposal as spent fuel. {open_quotes}Military{close_quotes} refers to ownership, and includes both reactor-grade and weapon-grade plutonium. {open_quotes}Excess{close_quotes} refers to plutonium (in any form) that a government decides is no longer needed for military use and can be irrevocably removed from military stockpiles. Many of the issues and proposals presented in this paper are based on, or are similar to, those mentioned in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on excess military plutonium. Safeguards for plutonium disposition are discussed elsewhere in terms of requirements established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here, the discussion is less specific. The term {open_quotes}safeguarding{close_quotes} is used broadly to refer to materials control and accountancy (MC&A), containment and surveillance (C&S), and physical protection of nuclear materials by the state that possesses those materials. This is also referred to as material protection, control, and accountancy (MPCA). The term {open_quotes}safeguarding{close_quotes} was chosen for brevity and to distinguish MPCA considered in this paper from international or IAEA safeguards. {open_quotes}Monitoring{close_quotes} is used to refer to activities designed to assure another party (state or international organization) that the nuclear materials of the host state (the United States or Russia) are secure and not subject to unauthorized use.
Date: October 2, 1994
Creator: Sutcliffe, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

Description: This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.
Date: August 15, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial hydrogen detonation data from the High-Temperature Combustion Facility

Description: The Brookhaven National Laboratory High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) is described and data from initial hydrogen detonation experiments are presented. Initial phase of the inherent detonability experimental program is described. Test gases thus far tested are hydrogen-air mixtures at one atmosphere initial pressure and temperatures 300K-650K. Detonation pressure, wave speed, and detonation cell size were measured. Data were consistent with earlier SSDA (small-scale development apparatus) test results. HTCF results confirm the conclusion from the SSDA program that the gas temperature decreases the cell size and, therefore, increases the sensitivity of mixtures to detonation. Data from the larger HTCF test vessel, however, also demonstrates that the effect of increased scale is to extend the range of detonable mixtures to lower concentration.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Ginsberg, T.; Ciccarelli, G. & Boccio, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JARLSBERG: Containment data report

Description: Information on the JARLSBERG event at the Nevada Test Site is given. Emphasis is on stemming performance, surface motion, and satellite hole (free-field) measurements. Some of the instrumentation was rendered inoperative by a preshot lightning strike on the grounding system and the EMP. The containment was satisfactory.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AOCM program 1992 to 1993 status report: Basilisk subscale laser experiments

Description: This report summarizes the work performed by the Advanced Optical Counter Measures (AOCM) program from January 1992 to February 1993, funded by the US DOD and administered by the US Army`s Night Vision and Electro-optics Directorate (NVEOD). The AOCM program objective was the development of an advanced anti-sensor weapon system, the Basilisk laser. Basilisk is a high power, white light laser. Its compact size permits deployment on a variety of platforms, including the Bradley Fighting vehicle, where Basilisk would augment the Bradley`s conventional weapon systems. The effectiveness of Basilisk was recently demonstrated in a series of battlefield simulations, CTAS 2.5, where its Mission Defeat Score was eight times higher than lower energy anti-sensor laser systems. In November 1991, a five phase strategy was proposed to develop the Basilisk white light laser system. This report documents the experimental activities performed by the AOCM program and describes several major experimental milestones we achieved during the first year of funding. The focus of this report is on a series of subscale experiments to demonstrate key laser physics and engineering technologies.
Date: January 13, 1994
Creator: Hermann, M.; Norton, M.; Honig, J. & Hackel, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of excess plutonium

Description: As a result of nuclear disarmament activities, many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the US and Russia, producing a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russia is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the US and Russia present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a relatively safe, durable, accountable, proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades of experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include immobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. A strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be discussed. In this strategy, the arsenal of vitrification tools, procedures and techniques already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a common, borosilicate glass form for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Wicks, G. G.; Mckibben, J. M. & Plodinec, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore Laboratories: Integration and collaboration solving science and technology problems for the nation

Description: More than 40 years ago, three laboratories were established to take on scientific responsibility for the nation`s nuclear weapons - Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore. This triad of laboratories has provided the state-of-the-art science and technology to create America`s nuclear deterrent and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and reliable. These national security laboratories carried out their responsibilities through intense efforts involving almost every field of science, engineering, and technology. Today, they are recognized as three of the world`s premier research and development laboratories. This report sketches the history of the laboratories and their evolution to an integrated three-laboratory system. The characteristics that make them unique are described and some of the major contributions they have made over the years are highlighted.
Date: December 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department