59 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

Description: The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.
Date: April 15, 1985
Creator: Walter, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems

Description: This paper summarizes a method to evaluate the possible effects of magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems. This method is based on the approach adapted to study the impact of geomagnetic storms on power systems. The paper highlights the similarities and differences between the two phenomena. Also presented are areas of concern which are anticipated from MHD-EMP on the overall system operation. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C. & Tesche, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

Description: A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Jones, E.M. & Malone, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coherent and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy in shocked and unshocked liquids

Description: Coherent and non-coherent Raman spectroscopy is being used to study the structure and energy transfer in molecular liquids at high pressures. Stimulated Raman scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and Raman induced Kerr effect scattering measurements have been performed in liquid benzene and liquid nitromethane shocked to pressures up to 11 GPa. Frequency shifts were observed for the 992 cm/sup -1/ ring stretching mode of benzene and the 920 cm/sup -1/ CN stretching mode of nitromethane. Results of these dynamic experiments are compared to spontaneous Raman scattering measurements made in a high temperature diamond anvil cell. Also, a picosecond infrared pump/spontaneous anti-Strokes Raman probe experiment is being used to measure CH stretch vibrational relaxation times in liquid halogenated methanes statically compressed to a few tenths GPa. 87 refs., 17 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.; Schiferl, D.; Chatelet, M.; Turner, T.P.; Shaner, J.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SCAP - a Shaped Charge Analysis Program: user's manual for SCAP 1. 0

Description: The basic modeling and format for a shaped charge analysis program, SCAP, is described. The code models the motion of liner elements due to explosive loading, jet formation, jet breakup and target penetration through application of a series of analytical approximations. The structure of the code is intended to provide flexibility in shaped charge device and target configurations and in modeling techniques. The code is designed for interactive use and produces both printed and plotted output. Examples of code output are given and compared with experimental data. 19 refs., 13 figs.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Robinson, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single-pulse Raman and photoacoustic spectroscopy studies of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and related compounds. [Trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene(MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB)]

Description: Pulsed-laser-excited Raman scattering methods and photoacoustic spectroscopy have been applied to the study of porous, granular samples (i.e., pressed pellets) of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Single-pulse spontaneous Raman spectra have been obtained for all four materials. Using 532-nm excitation, the intensity of the background emission observed with the Raman scattered light varies as TNB > MATB > DATB > TATB. This trend is compared to information on the long-wavelength absorption edge of MATB, DATB and TATB as determined by the photoacoustic spectra of these materials. Stimulated Raman scattering has been observed for three of the compounds with conversion efficiency as follows: DATB > TATB > MATB. In the case of TATB, this process may be limited by photo-induced chemical reactions. The relatively efficient formation of one or more stable photolysis products in TATB is evident on the basis of its photoacoustic spectrum. Preliminary single-pulse Raman scattering measurements on shocked TATB are also described. 16 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M. & Jungst, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-resolved spectroscopic studies of detonating heterogeneous explosives. [HMX and HNS]

Description: Emission spectroscopy and pulsed-laser-excited Raman scattering methods have been applied to the study of detonating heterogeneous explosives, including PETN, HMX and HNS. Time-resolved spectra of emission from detonating HNS show the evolution of features due to electronically-excited radical species. For HNS, the CN(B-X) system near 388 nm has been studied at a wavelength resolution of 0.5 A. Boltzmann vibrational temperatures have been calculated by comparing the experimental data with computer-simulated spectra. These temperatures are consistent with the expected trend of detonation temperature as a function of charge density. Using 532-nm laser excitation, single-pulse Raman scattering measurements have been made at the free surface of detonating HMX and PETN samples. Monotonic attenuation of Raman scattering intensity over a 100-ns interval is observed after detonation front arrival at the free surface. Depletion of the Raman signal occurs prior to significant loss of the scattered laser light. The significance of the Raman measurements as a possible probe of reaction zone length in detonating explosives is discussed. 21 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Trott, W.M. & Renlund, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of CORRTEX to measure explosive performance and stem behavior in oil shale fragmentation tests

Description: Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time Experiments (CORRTEX) was used to monitor several conditions of blasts such as the detonation velocity of the explosive column, the functioning of different types of initiators and initiation schemes, and the behavior of the stemming column confining the explosive. The CORRTEX data were also used to deduce the occurrence of dead-pressing of ANFO slurry. Measurements of propagation speeds of shock waves in the stem column with various cables allowed some conclusions concerning bridging, stem failure, and stress levels in the stem. CORRTEX used time-domain reflectometry to interrogate the two-way transit time (TWTT) of a coaxial cable. As the shock front advanced the cable was shorted or destroyed and the resultant TWTT was shorter. Interpretation of these changes as a function of time allowed the position of the shock front to be inferred also as a function of time. This paper describes in some detail the CORRTEX technique and how it was applied to in-situ measurements. Detonation velocities are provided for pelletized ANFO and TNT as well as various ANFO slurries. Observations are made on stem performance as well as shock propagation velocities in several stem materials. Cable characteristics and methods of cable selection are discussed as are techniques for instrumentation of complex blasts to provide initiation time and burn velocity. 3 references, 7 figures.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Schmitt, G.G. & Dick, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive fallout

Description: Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F. & Peterson, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climatic consequences of nuclear war: Working Group No. 1

Description: Research needs on the climate consequences of nuclear war were discussed. These include: (1) a better definition of the emissions from massive urban fires; (2) the exploration of prescribed forest burns; (3) the dirty cloud problem; (4) microphysical studies of soot; and (5) simulation of the second summer season after nuclear war. (ACR)
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Knox, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earth Sciences Department Annual Report, 1984

Description: The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory comprises nine different disciplinary and programmatic groups that provide research in the geosciences, including nuclear waste management, containment of nuclear weapons tests, seismic treaty verification, stimulation of natural gas production by unconventional means, and oil shale retorting. Each group's accomplishments in 1984 are discussed, followed by a listing of the group's publications for the year.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Henry, A.L. & Donohue, M.L. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smoke inputs to climate models: optical properties and height distribution for nuclear winter studies

Description: Smoke from fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in land surface temperatures. The extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change depend on the optical characteristics of the smoke and how it is distributed with altitude. The height distribution of smoke over a fire is determined by the amount of buoyant energy produced by the fire and the amount of energy released by the latent heat of condensation of water vapor. The optical properties of the smoke depend on the size distribution of smoke particles which changes due to coagulation within the lofted plume. We present calculations demonstrating these processes and estimate their importance for the smoke source term input for climate models. For high initial smoke densities and for absorbing smoke ( m = 1.75 - 0.3i), coagulation of smoke particles within the smoke plume is predicted to first increase, then decrease, the size-integrated extinction cross section. However, at the smoke densities predicted in our model (assuming a 3% emission rate for smoke) and for our assumed initial size distribution, the attachment rates for brownian and turbulent collision processes are not fast enough to alter the smoke size distribution enough to significantly change the integrated extinction cross section. Early-time coagulation is, however, fast enough to allow further coagulation, on longer time scales, to act to decrease the extinction cross section. On these longer time scales appropriate to climate models, coagulation can decrease the extinction cross section by almost a factor of two before the smoke becomes well mixed around the globe. This process has been neglected in past climate effect evaluations, but could have a significant effect, since the extinction cross section enters as an exponential factor in calculating the light attenuation due to ...
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Penner, J.E. & Haselman, L.C. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow of cavity gas along fractures, cable bundles, and grouted cables

Description: Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for gas flow along isolated fractures in permeable media. Two different cases are considered: preexisting fractures with a uniform aperture, as well as hydraulically-driven fractures with a variable aperture which is proportional to the local overpressure (local fluid pressure less confining stress). Results for these two geometries are compared with one another and with results for wedge-shaped and penny-shaped fracture geometries. Application to underground nuclear testing is illustrated by a number of examples including: flow along shock-induced and hydraulically-induced fractures, seepage along single electrical cables surrounded by grout, and flow along a bundle of electrical cables surrounded by granular stemming material. 15 refs., 13 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Nilson, R.H. & Morrison, F.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real time analysis of PETN detonation products

Description: The freely expanding gases from the detonation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) pellet were analyzed as rapidly as the molecules arrived at the mass spectrometer detector. It was found that all of the products arriving at the detector earliest, irrespective of mass, had the same velocity, 11 km s/sup -1/ and peaked at 5 km s/sup -1/. The width of the time distributions varied from one species to another. Mass and velocity spectra of the important products were obtained and the most intense signals were found to be H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/, but H/sub 2/O was by far the largest. Smaller signals arising from O, HCN, HCO, and NO/sub 2/ were also found. Comparisons of the spectrum with other experiments are discussed. 8 refs. 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Blais, N.C. & Valentini, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of vibrational relaxation in dense molecular fluids

Description: In the understanding of high-temperatre and -pressure chemistry in explosives, first step is the study of the transfer of energy from translational degrees of freedom into internal vibrations of the molecules. We present new methods using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) for measuring vibrational relaxation in a diatomic fluid, where we expect a classical treatment of many-body collisions to be relevant because of the high densities (2 to 3 times compressed compared to the normal fluid) and high temperatures (2000 to 4000 K) involved behind detonation waves. NEMD techniques are discussed, including their limitations, and qualitative results presented.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Holian, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

Description: Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Hanson, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the President's Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management

Description: The President established the Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management at the direction of the Congress to address fiscal accountability and discipline in the nation's nuclear weapons program. The Task Group was asked to ''examine the procedures used by DOD and DOE in establishing requirements for, and providing resources for, the research, development, testing, production, surveillance, and retirement of nuclear weapons,'' and to recommend any needed change in coordination, budgeting, or management procedures. The Task Group was also asked to address ''whether DOD should assume the responsibility for funding current DOE weapon activities and material production programs.'' The Task Group found that the present relationship between DOD and DOE for managing the nuclear weapons program is sound. Accordingly, the Task Group sought a process for improving the integrated determination of nuclear weapon requirements and the management of nuclear weapon production.
Date: July 1, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detonation cell size measurements in H/sub 2/-air-H/sub 2/O mixtures

Description: Conclusions of this study are: (1) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures at 20/sup 0/C and a total pressure of 101 kPa, detonations have been achieved between 13.5% and 70% H/sub 2/ mole fraction. This compositional range is wider than the detonability limits previously reported for smaller tubes. (2) The addition of CO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/-air mixtures greatly reduces the detonability of the mixture. (3) For a given initial temperature, air density and equivalence ratio, the addition of steam to a H/sub 2/-Air mixture greatly decreases the detonability of the mixture. (4) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, detonation of H/sub 2/-air mixtures with up to 30% steam have been recorded. (5) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures, the detonability increases with increasing initial temperature at constant density. Consequently, the diluent effect of the addition of steam to a fixed volume of an H/sub 2/-air mixture in reducing detonability is partially offset if there is a concomitant temperature increase. (6) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, a 13.0% H/sub 2/-air mixture has been detonated. 18 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Shepherd, J.E.; Knystautas, R. & Lee, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Friction, impact, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials

Description: Impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials (explosives and pyrotechnics) used or manufactured at Mound were tested by the ''one-shot'' method. The Bruceton statistical method was used to derive 50% initiation levels, and the results were compared. The materials tested include: PETN, HMX, Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX), CP, TATB, RX26BB, RX26BH, barium styphnate, LX-15, LX-16, Ti/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/, Fe/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.75//B/CaCrO/sub 4/, Ti/B/CaCrO/sub 4/, B/CaCrO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//2B, TiH/sub 0.65//3B, 2Ti/B, TiH/sub 1.67//2B, Ti/2B, TiH/sub 1/67//3B, Ti/B, and Ti/3B. Some samples were investigated for aging effects, physical variables, and the effect of manufacturing paramters on sensitivities. The results show that in both friction and impact tests, CP and barium styphnate are the most sensitive; TiH/sub 1.65/KClO/sub 4/, LX-15, TATB and its related materials are the least sensitive; and other materials such as PETN and HMX are in the mid-range. In the electrostatic tests of Ti-based pyrotechnics, a decrease of sensitivity with increasing hydrogen concentration was observed. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: May 31, 1985
Creator: Wang, P.S. & Hall, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient gas or liquid flow along a preexisting or hydraulically-induced fracture in a permeable medium

Description: Similarity solutions are derived for the trasient two-dimensional flow of a gas or liquid along an isolated fracture in a permeable medium. The driving pressure at the fracture inlet is constant, and the confining stress is uniform. Two different cases are considered, pre-existing fractures with uniform aperture as well as hydraulic fractures with a variable aperture proportional to the local overpressure (fluid pressure less confining stress). The evolution of the pressure distribution is described by a set of four asymptotic solutions, each having a self-similar form. At early times the flow in the fracture is turbulent, and Darcian seepage losses into the porous surroundings are negligible. At late times the flow in the fracture is laminar, and seepage losses become a dominant consideration. At intermediate times there are two alternative asymptotes, depending upon physical parameters. The mathematical model also describe the flow along a fracture which is fulled with high-permeability porous material as well as the flow in an assemblage of porous blocks. 19 refs., 10 figs.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Nilson, R.H. & Morrison, F.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BTD building uranium mass balance study

Description: Fifteen test firings of depleted uranium (DU) munitions were made during the qualification study of the new target building at the BTD Range operated by the US Army Combat Systems Test Activity (CSTA) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Following these test firings, the total mass and mass distribution of DU inside the BTD facility was determined to define decontamination requirements for the new target building. 4 references, 17 figures, 17 tables.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Sutter, S.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Glissmeyer, J.A. & Athey, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kingfish striations and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Part 1

Description: The role of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in initiating the formation of the density striations observed in the Kingfish fireball is examined. Two idealized models are proposed for the velocity shear layer on the sides of the fireball, each of which includes essential characteristics of the Kingfish event insofar as the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is concerned. A complete linear analysis is presented for each model.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Hunter, J.H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF accelerators for fusion and strategic defense

Description: RF linacs have a place in fusion, either in an auxiliary role for materials testing or for direct drivers in heavy-ion fusion. For SDI, the particle-beam technology is an attractive candidate for discrimination missions and also for lethality missions. The free-electron laser is also a forerunner among the laser candidates. in many ways, there is less physics development required for these devices and there is an existing high-power technology. But in all of these technologies, in order to scale them up and then space-base them, there is an enormous amount of work yet to be done.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Jameson, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department