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Correspondence (Top Secret) of the Manhattan Engineer District, 1942--1946

Description: This pamphlet prepared by the National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives Records Service provides an overview to a collection of formerly security classified `Top Secret` correspondence maintained by Major General Leslie Groves when commanding general of the Manhattan District from September, 1942 to December, 1946. The pamphlet describes the administrative history of the record collection. The records are described as well as how they are arranged along with finding aids and content of records. For further details concerning the se records the user is referred to the US National Archives, Washington.
Date: December 31, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal to study stem forgings

Description: Reservoir designs consist of two primary features including the stem(s) and the body segment. The stem is either an integral part of the reservoir or is joined at some point in the fabrication sequence. The current interest is in high strength stems for advanced reservoir designs. The processing necessary to achieve these strength levels may result in heavily cold worked microstructures which may not interface well with the stem requirements. For instance, cold worked 316 plate stock has shown decreased hydrogen compatibility when contrasted to the annealed version in laboratory tests. More recently, Precision Forge produced a 100 ksi yield strength, 304L stem forging with a heavily deformed microstructure which also may show decreased compatibility in hydrogen. The proposed forging contract will evaluate the influence of forging parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 304L and 316 stem forgings. A summary of the data available on 304L stem forgings is shown graphically. The yield strength values are shown for each set of forging parameters. Tensile tests and microstructural examination will be conducted to complete the information for 304L and create a similar graph for 316 stem forgings.
Date: June 25, 1982
Creator: Odegard, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation hydrodynamics

Description: This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.
Date: December 31, 1982
Creator: Pomraning, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

Description: This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Martin, S.B. & Alger, R.S. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HNS-I small-scale gap-test acceptance-criteria investigation

Description: HNS-I small scale gap tests were conducted at three densities to determine the effect of density on gap sensitivity and the reproducibility of the gap test. Density was found to have a lower effect on sensitivity than the existing HNS-I acceptance region indicates. The reproducibility of the gap test was determined to be +- 0.21 db at a 95% confidence level.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Demerson, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of LX-17 made from water-aminated TATB

Description: Water-aminated TATB was formulated into LX-17 at both Pantex and Holston. Mechanical properties, growth, pressed density, corner turning and gap sensitivity properties were compared. Mechanical properties, corner turning and gap sensitivity were similar to those of LX-17 made from dry-aminated TATB. Permanent expansion resulting from thermal aging may be slightly greater than that of LX-17 with dry-aminated TATB.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Osborn, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivation of the Shock-Tunnel Facility at Fort Cronkhite. Final report

Description: This final report describes the results of work undertaken to reactivate the Shock Tunnel Facility at Battery Townsley, Fort Cronkhite, Marin County, California. The facility has been reactivated and can not be utilized for blast testing. The major emphasis will be testing of concepts pertaining to programs of interest to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and in particular to civil defense oriented research. However, a wide variety of testing requirements can be accommodated. For example, past programs at the facility have included: tests of debris from trees subjected to blast for Bell Telephone Laboratories; tests of the response of aluminum hull panels to blast loading and of the response of a model surface effects ship for the Naval Ship Research and Development center, and tests of the response of a radome prototype to blast loading conducted for ANCOM (the radome manufacturer). The Shock Tunnel Facility is located in a former coastal defense 16-inch gun emplacement constructed by the US Army beginning in 1938. It was converted in 1967 to serve as a facility for full-scale testing of the loading and response of structural elements and civil defense equipment. It remained in operation until November 1976 when Battery Townsley was turned over to the National Park Service. Work under the present purchase order consisted of the following major tasks: (I) cleanup and secure the facility, (II) reactivate the shock tunnel, and (III) design permanent facility improvements. (WHK)
Date: May 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to nuclear test engineering

Description: The basic information in this report is from a vu-graph presentation prepared to acquaint new or prospective employees with the Nuclear Test Engineering Division (NTED). Additional information has been added here to enhance a reader's understanding when reviewing the material after hearing the presentation, or in lieu of attending a presentation.
Date: July 15, 1982
Creator: O'Neal, W.C. & Paquette, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and technology review

Description: Three areas of research are discussed: microcomputer technology applied to inspecting machined parts to determine roundness in ultraprecision measurements; development of an electrolytic technique for preparing dinitrogen pentoxide as a potentially less expensive step in the large-scale synthesis of the explosive HMX; and the application of frequency conversion to short wavelengths in the Novette and Nova lasers to improve the performance of inertial-confinement fusion targets. (GHT)
Date: August 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

Description: The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Heuze, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Look at nuclear artillery yield options using JANUS, a wargame simulation code

Description: JANUS, a two-sided, interactive wargame simulation code, was used to explore how using each of several different yield options in a nuclear artillery shell might affect a tactical battlefield simulation. In a general sense, the results or outcomes of these simulations support the results or outcomes of previous studies. In these simulations the Red player knew of the anticipated nuclear capability of the Blue player. Neither side experienced a decisive win over the other, and both continued fighting and experienced losses that, under most historical circumstances, would have been termed unacceptable - that is, something else would have happened (the attack would have been called off). During play, each side had only fragmentary knowledge of the remaining resources on the other side - thus each side desired to continue fighting on the basis of known information. We found that the anticipated use of nuclear weapons by either side affects the character of a game significantly and that, if the employment of nuclear weapons is to have a decided effect on the progress and outcome of a battle, each side will have to have an adequate number of nuclear weapons. In almost all the simulations we ran using JANUS, enhanced radiation (ER) weapons were more effective than 1-kt fission weapons in imposing overall losses on Red. The typical visibility in the JANUS simulation limited each side's ability to acquire units deep into enemy territory and so the 10-kt fission weapon was not useful against enemy tanks that were not engaged in battle. (Troop safety constraints limited its use on tanks that were engaged in direct fire with the enemy).
Date: June 15, 1982
Creator: Andre, C.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

Description: The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Denney, R.M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic shear behavior of alumina-filled epoxy

Description: Thin-walled tubular specimens of alumina-filled epoxy were loaded in torsion at a strain rate of approximately 10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ using a stored-torque Kolsky bar. In addition to measuring the time resolved shear stress and shear strain in the specimen, the axial stress generated by the dilation of the material during shear deformation was also obtained as a function of time. Tests were conducted at room temperature and at -60/sup 0/C. At room temperature, a moderate amount of plastic deformation occurred before failure. Material dilation was associated with the plastic flow. At -60/sup 0/C, there was a marked increase in failure stress over the failure stress at room temperature. However, little or no plastic deformation or dilation occurred before failure.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Costin, L.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acoustic disturbance at ionospheric heights caused by the MILL RACE explosion

Description: The principal objective of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the MILL RACE experiment was to measure the over-head ionospheric response due to the MILL RACE explosion. Such a measurement enables one to test computer models designed to quantitatively predict ionospheric disturbances caused by known sources. The emphasis of the models has been directed at calculating effects on rf propagation associated with the predicted ionospheric disturbances. Consequently vertical incidence phase sounding measurements of a well-characterized source provide a direct and sensitive test of the computer models and, for this reason, a vertical incidence phase sounder was located 3300 meters to the west of the MILL RACE ground zero. Another area of interest is the development of an understanding of the atmospheric response to known sources at distances where the acoustic response no longer dominates. Such an undertaking requires measurements at these remote points. Deployment of a bistatic sounding network enabled the investigation of this area of interest. Results are reported.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rickel, D.G. & Simons, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser-shock-wave simulation of two-dimensional nuclear shock waves

Description: Results from experiments that used shock waves generated by a high-power laser to simulate multi-dimensional nuclear shocks are described. The shocks were produced in 50 torr air by irradiating hollow plastic shell targets with 30J, 300 ps Nd-glass laser pulses. The individual near-spherical shocks were investigated to determine over what range the shock radius, R/sub s/, obeyed the Taylor-von-Neumann-Sedov expansion law, R/sub s/..cap alpha..t/sup 2/5/. The relationship was found to hold for 0.9 cm less than or equal to R/sub s/ less than or equal to 2.0 cm. Also, the shocks were modeled with the nuclear effects code RADFLO and good agreement was found between calculation and data for R/sub s/ vs t and also gas and electron densities determined from two-wavelength interferograms of the shock waves. Based on the understanding of the individual shocks, two experiments were designed to investigate two-dimensional shock waves. The first experiment consisted of reflecting a spherical shock off a plastic block suspended 0.9 cm above the target. In the second experiment, two identical spherical shocks were simultaneously generated approx. 1.8 cm apart and allowed to collide. The reflected shocks were compared through scaling laws to the Teapot/Met shock wave generated from a 22 KT nuclear explosion 122 M above the ground. The Mach structures were found to be similar. Then the reflecting and interacting shocks were modeled with a two-dimensional effects code using the one-dimensional RADFLO output to start the problem. Calculation and data for Mach angles and triple point propagation were found to be in good agreement.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Wilke, M.D.; Stone, S.N. & Barasch, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rummy high-altitude pressure measurements and analysis

Description: Five pressure-measurement canisters equipped with parachutes were deployed from an A7C aircraft on the Rummy test. Their altitudes above Yucca flat were over 8.5 km when the pressure pulse arrived. Three successful measurements were obtained. These time histories showed a more complicated behavior than histories obtained on Pahute Mesa tests because the Rummy event developed double spall closures over a large area. Excellent agreement was obtained between the observed pressure histories and those calculated from surface acceleration measurements. The Yucca Flat terrain was so level that pressure pulses were not appreciably changed or weakened by elevation differences.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Banister, J.R. & Hereford, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MC3644 detonator development status report for the period ending October 30, 1981

Description: The MC3644 detonator is being developed as a replacement for the MC3132 flying plate detonator in the parachute deployment system of the B83 weapon. The MC3644 is a CP, deflagration-to-detonation transition device. Two models are being developed: an interim design using the MC3423 ignitor and a new production version with a one-piece ignitor/header assembly. Features of both designs are described. Results of development tests involving the interim design are presented. No-fire sensitivity test and proof-test results with the WR version are also included. The development program is on schedule.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Jacobson, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

Description: Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Skenandore, L.H. & Johnson, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRESS: a computer program for evaluating explosive-material loading processes

Description: The loading process for an explosive device must control within fixed tolerances not only the amount but the length of the explosive material that is compacted in the device's chargeholder. Most loading processes are empirically determined to achieve the desired tolerances with respect to the amount and length of the explosive material that is compacted in the chargeholder of the explosive device. An acceptable loading process for an explosive device can be established analytically by using the computer program, PRESS, which utilizes the known compaction behavior of the explosive material and a simple one-dimensional analysis to determine the effect of chargeholder friction and the applied compaction pressure on the final dimensions and the stress-density states of the compacted explosive material. PRESS is configured to evaluate the effects of unloading in addition to the effects of changes in the chargeholder dimensions, the applied compaction pressure and the coefficient of friction between the chargeholder and the explosive material. The details of the analysis that is incorporated into the computer program, PRESS, and an illustrative example of the results of a loading process parameter study are presented.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Burchett, O.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytic model for surface ground motion with spall induced by underground nuclear tests

Description: This report provides a detailed presentation and critique of a model used to characterize the surface ground motion following a contained, spalling underground nuclear explosion intended for calculation of the resulting atmospheric acoustic pulse. Some examples of its use are included. Some discussion of the general approach of ground motion model parameter extraction, not dependent on the specific model, is also presented.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: MacQueen, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the implicit TENSOR code to studies of containment of undergound nuclear tests

Description: The TENSOR code, a two-dimensional finite-difference code, has been used extensively for the solution of stress wave propagation problems in materials, particularly those associated with the containment of underground nuclear test. These problems are typically characterized by shock waves at early times and by nearly incompressible flow at later times. To address this type of problem more economically, an implicit Newmark time integration has been implemented. Implicit differencing requires the solution of a coupled system of equations, by either direct or interative methods. An iterative technique has been selected to reduce the impact of the algorithm on the code structure and because it is the more economical method when only modest increases in timestep are desired. Although the algorithm is similar in some respects to the ICE method of Harlow and Amsden, substantial differences are required by the involvement of a complete stress tensor (instead of a scalar pressure) and by the highly nonlinear nature of the earth material constitutive relations.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Burton, D.E.; Bryan, J.B.; Lettis, L.A. Jr. & Rambo, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical and experimental evaluation of a proposed self-forging fragment munition

Description: Analytical and experimental tools have been used to study the formation of a proposed self-forging fragment projectile. The primary objective of this study is the determination of the interior and exterior shape of the fully formed fragment, and to determine if the fragment tumbles in flight. In addition, it is of interest to compare computer predictions to experimental results. An experiment was performed using high speed photography and high-energy flash x-ray radiography to study liner and case motion and projectile formation. Fabrication and assembly tolerances were closely controlled in an effort to eliminate tolerances as a possible source of fragment instability. X-ray film-density contours were analyzed to determine the fully formed fragment interior and exterior shape. Down-range yaw screens showed fragment tumbling in flight. The computed fragment shape was compared to experimental results and it was found that a retaining ring in the computational model near the liner periphery had a significant effect on the final computed fragment shape. With the retaining ring in the computational model and full two-way sliding between all material interfaces, the final computed fragment showed very good agreement with the experiment on both exterior and interior shapes.
Date: December 27, 1982
Creator: Tuft, D.B. & Folsom, E.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADPIC: a tool for the NEST-On-Scene-Commander

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability code ADPIC is used to calculate dose and ground deposition from mitigated and unmitigated high explosive detonation of a radiation dispersal device. Comparisons are made assuming differing particle size and activity distributions associated with the mitigation effort.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Greenly, G.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

Description: The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.
Date: May 7, 1982
Creator: Burden, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department