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MAD-1021 slapper fabrication, LASL P.O. CM8-2909G-1

Description: One hundred MAD-1021 slapper test devices were built to fill the reimbursable order CM8-2909G-1 for W.F. Hemsing of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques were successfully used to prepare the slapper foil assemblies. The 0. 381 mm square bridge foils were of aluminium 3 micrometers thick. Copper solder pads of 1.0 to 1.5 micrometer thickness were also applied using PVD techniques. A total of 120 were fabricated and submitted to the fabrication group for assembly. The 100 completed slapper units were fabricated with 0.025 mm thick Kapton flyers. Barrels for these slapper units were 0.38 mm long with a 0.42 mm diameter.
Date: January 29, 1979
Creator: Nesslage, G.V. & VanKlompenberg, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Chiefs of Staff: Notes

Description: The purpose of the paper is to state the rationale upon which the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) bases its opposition to further extension of the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). The argumentation of the paper is hinged primarily on the contention that the USSR is ahead of the US in nuclear weapon technology. Accordingly, there is much for the US to do, so that the Soviets do not, primarily through the deployment of an Anti-Ballistic Missile [ABM] system, alter the strategic balanc the US should not agree to further restrictions on testing which would prevent the US from correcting the deficiencies of its strategic deterrent systems and making developments necessary for a Nike-Zeus warhead.
Date: August 29, 1966
Creator: Heckrotte, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

Description: Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.
Date: March 29, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial results of the CD-1 reliable multicast experiment

Description: During the past year, an experiment has been underway to test use of reliable multicast capabilities for transmission of continuous data in the Global Communication Infrastructure. For the experiment a version of the CD-1 protocol was multicast enabled. The experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting data in a multicast mode over the GCI. In the case of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty the sender could be the station and the receivers the International Data Center (IDC) and one or more National Data Centers (NDC). The potential advantages of multicasting include (a) the timely receipt of the data by the IDC and the host NDC and (b) the simultaneous availability of the raw station data at, at least, two locations. The latter, by introducing redundant data paths, decreases the probability of loss of station data due to a potential failure of a single data receiver. This experiment is only one element of a needed more thorough assessment of the reliability and cost-effectiveness of introducing redundancies in the data transmission paths and the data sinks of the IMS. The next stage of the multicast experiment planned is installation of the multicast-enabled CD-1 software at the GERES IMS station, at the German NDC and at the IDC for further experiments with actual IMS station data. This stage of the experiment is waiting on installation of a GCI link to the German NDC. Negotiations regarding price for this installation have been on going between the Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) contractor and the German NDC with no resolution. Current development of the CD-x protocol is proceeding in two complementary directions. Along with the work on a multicast enabled version of CD-1 there is also work to develop CD-1.1, which will add end-to-end reliability to the CD-1 protocol among other things. A possible future activity ...
Date: September 29, 2000
Creator: Agarwal, D.; Stead, R.; Coan, B.; Burns, J.E.; Shah, N. & Kyriakopoulos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution imaging of hypervelocity metal jets using advanced high-speed photographic techniques

Description: It is now possible to obtain high resolution sequential photographs of the initial formation and evolution of hypervelocity metal jets formed by shaped charge devices fired in air. Researchers have been frustrated by the high velocity of the jet material and the luminous sheath of hot gases cloaking the jet that made detailed observation of the jet body extremely difficult. The camera system that provides the photographs is a large format multi-frame electro-optic camera, referred to as an IC camera (IC stands for image converter), that utilizes electro-optic shuttering, monochromatic pulsed laser illumination and bandpass filtering to provide sequential pictures (in 3D if desired) with minimal degradation due to luminous air shocks or motion blur. The large format (75mm image plane), short exposure (15 ns minimum), ruby laser illumination and bandpass filtering (monochromatic illumination while excluding extraneous light) produces clear, sharp, images of the detailed surface structure of a metal shaped charge jet during early jet formation, elongation of the jet body, jet tip evolution and subsequent particulation (breakup) of the jet body. By utilizing the new camera system in conjunction with the more traditional rotating mirror high speed cameras, pulsed radiography, and electrical sensors, a maximum amount of, often unique, data can be extracted from a single experiment. This paper was intended primarily as an oral presentation. For purposes of continuity and simplicity in these proceedings, the authors have chosen to concentrate on the development of the IC camera system and its impact on the photography of high speed shaped chargejets.
Date: August 29, 1995
Creator: Shaw, L.L. & Muelder, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical study of TATB preheating methods

Description: TATB (1,3,5 - triamino 2,4,6 - Trinitrobenzene) is a very stable explosive that is remarkably insensitive to severe impact and thermal environment. Experiments on its initiation and detonation characteristics have found it difficult to initiate under the energy transfer of thin flyer plates accelerated by electrically exploded metal foils. Figure 1 shows the propagation of a detonation front in such an experiment. Generally, the detonation waves are confined in the region directly in front of the flyer impact surface, leaving a substantial portion of the HE undetonated. It has been suggested by Lawrence Livermore personnel that a preheated TATB charge may improve its sensitivity and thus reduce or eliminate this deficiency. The above experiments were performed at the sample temperatures ranging from -54{degrees} to +74{degrees}C. As the temperature was lowered while the flyer impact velocity remained the same, a pronounced increase in the curvature of the detonation front was observed. This results in a significant decrease in the divergence of the detonation wave. Although an accurate relationship between the wave front divergence and the sample temperature is not available, it is generally believed that, due to an accelerated rate of chemical reaction, the detonation will significantly improve at higher temperatures. It is assumed that desired results may be obtained if we preheat the TATB to 100{degrees}C at a depth of 1 cm from the flyer impact surface. Many parameters influence the methods to be considered for carrying out this HE preheating. The most important among them are the time allowed and the amount of energy available. The task is made extremely difficult by the fact that TATB is a poor thermal conductor and that deflagration occurs at around 250{degrees}C. In this study, we investigate several heating arrangements and predict the temperature distributions under prescribed boundary conditions.
Date: October 29, 1979
Creator: Chou, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuation application for the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a higher education consortium consisting of Texas A and M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas at Austin

Description: This report describes the 5 tasks to be covered under this project and compiles budget information. Task 1 is to establish a Plutonium Information Resource, which has been established in Amarillo, Texas. Task 2, Advisory Functions, coordinates studies and activities relating to the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Task 3, Environmental, Public Health, and Safety, supports soil remediation activities. Task 4, Education and Outreach, is supporting four programs: K--12 education improvement in science and math courses; Academic intervention to identify and encourage high ability high school and middle school students with potential to become scientists and engineers; Graduate education evaluation; and Public outreach programs. Task 5, Plutonium and other Materials Studies, is currently funding two projects for the disposition of high explosives: a feasibility study of burning a mixture of high explosives and other materials in a commercial coal-fired power plant and synthesis of diamond by shock compression of bucky ball with explosives.
Date: June 29, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station Centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 5 October - December 2003

Description: OAK-B135 Quarterly Technical Report summarizing BBN's support of the DOE/NNSA GNEM program. This report details BBN's efforts to improve the modeling of explosions and other events underwater and their propagation to hydroacoustic sensor networks. OK to release, no restriction on copyright
Date: March 29, 2004
Creator: Upton, Zachary M. & Pulli, Jay J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3D Geological Modeling of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site: A Preliminary Workflow and Model

Description: The Savannah River Site, located in South Carolina, contains nuclear defense products and nuclear waste byproducts as result of national defense operations dating to the 1950s. The facility has been the subject of a variety of scientific investigations focusing on potential groundwater transportation of nuclides and other hazardous materials through the different aquifers within the air. The area of particular interest, and the subject of this report, is the General Separations Area.
Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Flach, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PORTSIM verification summary report.

Description: This summary report is a compilation of six reports previously released on the verification efforts for the Port Simulation (PORTSIM) model, a discrete-event simulation model used for analyzing military seaport operations for embarkation. In addition to describing the PORTSIM verification efforts, the report also comments on the entire verification process, including an overview of the findings. The six verification reports correspond to the six combinations of cargo types-transportation modes modeled in PORTSIM. For each of the six studies, a simplified scenario and force file (i.e., cargo list) were created and implemented to facilitate verification of basic timing data. The patterns and logic used to compute the timing data were identified and quantified and are included for each of the six reports, along with details on scenario setup parameters. The verification efforts confirmed the accuracy of simulation output results and added greater levels of quality, confidence, and usefulness to PORTSIM. These efforts improved the model and user interface, uncovered and corrected numerous bugs and anomalies, and provided insights into model behaviors and relationships.
Date: August 29, 2002
Creator: Davidson, R. S. & VanKuiken, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border and Transportation Security: The Complexity of the Challenge

Description: This report uses a series of graphical presentations to form one possible framework that might assist policy makers in understanding the complex nature of border and transportation security. It is the first in a three-part series of CRS reports that make use of analytical frameworks to better understand complex problems in border and transportation security and cast them in terms that facilitate the consideration of alternative policies and practices.
Date: March 29, 2005
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E.; Robinson, William H. & Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border and Transportation Security: Selected Programs and Policies

Description: Border and Transportation Security (BTS) is a pivotal function in protecting the American people from terrorists and their instruments of destruction. This report addresses selected programs and policies now in place that seek to attain higher levels of BTS. It is the second in a three-part series of CRS reports that make use of analytical frameworks to better understand complex phenomena and cast them in terms that facilitate consideration of alternative policies and practices.
Date: March 29, 2005
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.; Lake, Jennifer E. & Robinson, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment calculation for Burzet

Description: Burzet is a proposed intermediate-yield underground test of a nuclear explosive at the Nevada Test Site. The possible existence of a high Paleozoic scarp and fault within 100 m of the proposed working point created concern as to their effect on the containment of the radioactive gases. A calculation of the expected stress wave interaction at the scarp and fault demonstrates that the effects are negligible. Results of the calculation are those expected from an event in a homogeneous media and are thus consistent with good containment experience on numerous previous detonations of similar yield, depth of burial, and medium properties.
Date: May 29, 1979
Creator: Terhune, R.W. & Moreno, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Navy ERP Adherence to Best Business Practices Critical to Avoid Past Failures

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense's (DOD) difficulty in implementing business systems that are efficient and effective continues despite the billions of dollars that it invests each year. For a decade now--since 1995--we have designated DOD's business systems modernization as "high-risk." GAO was asked to (1) provide a historical perspective on the planning and costs of the Navy's four Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) pilot projects, and the decision to merge them into one program; (2) determine if the Navy has identified lessons from the pilots, how the lessons are being used, and challenges that remain; and (3) determine if there are additional best business practices that could be used to improve management oversight of the Navy ERP."
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel: Enhanced Collaboration and Process Improvements Needed for Determining Military Treatment Facility Medical Personnel Requirements

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Military medical personnel, who are essential to maintaining one of the largest and most complex health systems in the nation, are in great demand due to the need to treat injured or ill servicemembers, and advances in technology that require specialized personnel. To determine how well the Department of Defense (DOD) and the services are developing their medical and dental personnel requirements, GAO evaluated (1) the extent to which the services have incorporated cross-service collaboration in their medical personnel requirement processes, and (2) the service-specific processes for determining their requirements for military and civilian medical personnel. To conduct this review, GAO evaluated manpower policies, analyzed the services' requirements data and determination processes, and interviewed officials from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and each of the services."
Date: July 29, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisitions: Observations on the Department of Defense Service Contract Inventories for Fiscal Year 2008

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) is the federal government's largest purchaser of contractor-provided services and relies on contractors to support its varied missions. DOD's contractors provide a range of services, such as consulting and administrative support, information technology services, and weapon system and base operations support. However, DOD contract management has been on our high-risk list since 1992, and our recent work continues to identify weaknesses in DOD's management and oversight of services contracts. In particular, we have reported on the need for reliable data on how service acquisition dollars are spent to make informed contract management decisions and achieve positive acquisition outcomes. Congress has enacted legislation in recent years to increase the availability of information on services acquisitions to improve DOD's ability to manage these purchases. As part of those efforts, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 amended 10 U.S.C. 2330a to require DOD to submit an annual inventory of the activities performed pursuant to contracts for services for or on behalf of DOD during the preceding fiscal year. These inventories are to contain a number of different elements for the service contracts listed, including information on the functions and missions performed by the contractor, the funding source for the contract, and the number of contractor full-time equivalents (FTE) working under the contract. Once compiled, the inventories are to be reviewed by senior DOD officials and used to inform a variety of acquisition and workforce decisions."
Date: January 29, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Warfighter Support: Improved Cost Analysis and Better Oversight Needed over Army Nonstandard Equipment

Description: A publication issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "As of March 2011, the Army had over $4 billion worth of nonstandard equipment in Iraq--that is equipment not included on units' standard list of authorized equipment. Concurrently, the Department of Defense (DOD) has acquired over $44 billion worth of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles (MRAP), most of which have been allocated to the Army. This equipment must be withdrawn from Iraq by December 31, 2011. GAO examined the extent to which the Army has plans and processes for the disposition of (1) nontactical nonstandard equipment; (2) tactical nonstandard equipment; and (3) MRAPs that are no longer needed in Iraq. In performing this review, GAO analyzed relevant documents, interviewed Army officials, and visited Sierra Army Depot, where most nontactical nonstandard equipment is shipped once it leaves Iraq."
Date: September 29, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Department Cyber Efforts: Definitions, Focal Point, and Methodology Needed for DOD to Develop Full-Spectrum Cyberspace Budget Estimates

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD) cyber and information assurance budget for fiscal year 2012 and future years defense spending. The objectives of this review were to (1) assess the extent to which DOD has prepared an overarching budget estimate for full-spectrum cyberspace operations across the department; and (2) identify the challenges DOD has faced in providing such estimates. The President has identified the cyber threat as one of the most serious national security challenges that the nation faces. In February 2011 the Deputy Secretary of Defense said that more than 100 foreign intelligence agencies have tried to breach DOD computer networks, and that one was successful in breaching networks containing classified information. To aid its efforts in countering cyberspace threats, DOD established the U.S. Cyber Command in 2010 and is currently undertaking departmentwide efforts to defend against cyber threats. DOD has defined some key cyber-related terms. Cyberspace operations is defined as the employment of cyber capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve military objectives or effects in or through cyberspace. Such operations include computer network operations and activities to operate and defend the global information grid. U.S. Cyber Command defines full-spectrum cyber operations as the employment of the full range of cyberspace operations to support combatant command operational requirements and the defense of DOD information networks. This includes efforts such as computer network defense, computer network attack, and computer network exploitation. Computer network defense is defined as actions taken to protect, monitor, analyze, detect, and respond to unauthorized activity within DOD information systems and computer networks. Computer network attack is defined as actions taken to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. Computer ...
Date: July 29, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The total estimated cost of the Department of Defense’s (DOD) 2011 portfolio of 96 major defense acquisition programs stands at $1.58 trillion. In the past year, the total acquisition cost of these programs has grown by over $74.4 billion or 5 percent, of which about $31.1 billion can be attributed to factors such as inefficiencies in production, $29.6 billion to quantity changes, and $13.7 billion to research and development cost growth. DOD’s portfolio is dominated by a small number of programs, with the Joint Strike Fighter accounting for the most cost growth in the last year, and the largest projected future funding needs. The majority of the programs in the portfolio have lost buying power in the last year as their program acquisition unit costs have increased. The number of programs in the portfolio has decreased from 98 to 96 in the past year and, looking forward, is projected to decrease again next fiscal year to its lowest level since 2004."
Date: March 29, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense: Further Actions Needed to Institutionalize Key Business System Modernization Management Controls

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For decades, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been challenged in modernizing its timeworn business systems. Since 1995, GAO has designated DOD's business systems modernization program as high risk. Between 2001 and 2005, GAO reported that the modernization program had spent hundreds of millions of dollars on an enterprise architecture and investment management structures that had limited value. Accordingly, GAO made explicit architecture and investment management-related recommendations. Congress included provisions in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 that were consistent with GAO's recommendations and required GAO to assess DOD's actions to comply with these provisions. To do so, GAO reviewed documents and interviewed military officials on the progress the military departments have made relative to developing their respective parts of the federated business enterprise architecture and establishing investment management structures and processes."
Date: June 29, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Health: DOD's Vaccine Healthcare Centers Network

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Members of the military have long been required to receive immunizations. The Department of Defense (DOD) estimates that over 2.2 million servicemembers receive at least one mandatory immunization annually. Immunizations are provided through the administration of vaccines, which contain "antigens" or parts of a specific virus or bacterium that are used to trigger an immune response to protect the body from disease. DOD's immunization requirements vary depending on several factors, such as a servicemember's branch of military service, location, age, and type of personnel, such as newly enlisted recruits, those conducting high-risk travel, and reserve forces. No immunization is completely safe. Like all individuals, servicemembers may experience side-effects as a result of their immunizations, known as adverse events. Most adverse events consist of relatively mild reactions, such as swelling near the site of the immunization. However, a small number of individuals may experience more severe reactions, such as some servicemembers who received the anthrax and smallpox vaccines. Some servicemembers who received these vaccines experienced severe reactions such as migraines, heart problems, and the onset of diseases including diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Since then, the adverse events associated with these vaccines have caused concern among members of Congress about the safety of some mandatory immunizations. In response to three congressional directives, DOD established the Vaccine Healthcare Centers (VHC) Network in September 2001 with initial funding provided by the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the VHC Network is to meet the health care needs of servicemembers receiving mandatory immunizations. DOD placed the VHC Network under the command of the Army Surgeon General. However, neither DOD nor the Army provided the VHC Network with a mission statement. As a ...
Date: June 29, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contingency Operations: Army Should Do More to Control Contract Cost in the Balkans

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed Army's efforts to control the costs of its Balkans Support Contract, focusing on whether: (1) the Army is taking effective actions to contain costs; and (2) improvements are needed in how the Army and other Department of Defense (DOD) agencies involved in Balkan operations manage activities under the primary Balkan contract."
Date: September 29, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department