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Inversion of Passive Electromagnetic Fields to Locate Weapons of Mass Destruction

Description: A resolution study, employing a 3D nonlinear optimization technique, has been undertaken to study the viability of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements to detect and characterize buried facilities that make weapons of mass destruction. A significant advantage of the MT method is that no active source is required because the method employs passive field emissions. Thus measurements can be carried out covertly. Findings indicate it is possible to image WMD facilities, including depth of burial and lateral extent if a sufficient number of measurements are taken on the perimeter of the facility. Moreover if a station measurement can be made directly over the facility then the resolution is improved accordingly. In all cases it was not possible to image the base of the facility with any confidence as well as provide any precise inferences on the facility electrical conductivity. This later finding, however, is really not that critical since knowledge of facility geometry is far more important than knowledge of its conductivity. For the WMD problem it is recommended that MT measurements be made solely with the magnetic field ratios. In this context it would then be possible to deploy with far greater ease small coils about a suspected facility and would allow for the measurements to be conducted in a more covert manner. Before testing such a measurement system in the field, however, it would be necessary to carry out a similar resolution analysis as was done with MT measurements based on electric and magnetic fields. This is necessary to determine sensitivity of the proposed measurement to underground facilities along with needed data coverage and quality. Such a study is indispensable in producing useful reconstructions of underground facilities.
Date: December 24, 1998
Creator: Day, D.M. & Newman, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear War Survival Skills

Description: The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.
Date: June 24, 2002
Creator: Kearny, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

Description: The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.
Date: July 24, 1996
Creator: Nordyke, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China

Description: The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.
Date: September 24, 1996
Creator: Taylor, S.R. & Hartse, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1, February 1999

Description: The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 266 consists of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-09 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 266. Corrective Action Unit 266 is located southwest of Building 3124 which is located southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Operations within Building 3124 from 1962 through the early 1990s resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations, various laboratories including a high-level radioactivity environmental sample handling laboratory, and possibly the Treatability Test Facility. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include radionuclides, oil/diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act characteristic volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and metals. Samples will also be analyzed for radionuclides and polychlorinated biphenyls not considered during the DQO process. Additional samples will be analyzed for geotechnical and hydrological properties and a bioassessment may be performed. ...
Date: February 24, 1999
Creator: U.S. Department Of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical validation of the conceptual design of the LLNL 60-kg contained-firing facility

Description: In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to modify an existing facility to add a 60-kg firing chamber and related support areas. This modification will provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the hazardous waste generated. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of its long-term ability to contain all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was engineered, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design.
Date: February 24, 1995
Creator: Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F. & Simmons, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General parameter study of a bare, cylindrical reactor having the same materials as Tory II-C

Description: This memorandum describes studies undertaken to investigate the properties of Tory II-C with the aims of reducing weight and size and in increasing performance. Space and weight limitations aboard existing sea-going launch vehicles required this general parameter study which utilizes a bare, cylindrical reactor having the same materials as Tory II-C.
Date: August 24, 1962
Creator: Stubbs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 463: Areas 2, 3, 9, and 25 Housekeeping Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts of the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 13 CASs within CAU 463 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of debris (e.g., wooden pallets, metal, glass, and trash) and other material. In addition, these forms confirm prior removal of other contaminated materials such as metal drums or buckets, transformers, lead bricks, batteries, and gas cylinders. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs.
Date: November 24, 1999
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Various ATA notes: 60, 79, 116, and 136

Description: The purpose of note No. 60 is to outline the reasons why it is important to develop and test a steam ejector for use on the differential pumping station. Note No. 79 discusses two stream instability of an electron beam in the differential pumped transport section. Note No. 116 covers the steam ejector prototype unit (Stage 1). And lastly, note No. 136 presents the results of a survey done to find the commercially available equipment to meet differential pump requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator.
Date: October 24, 1994
Creator: Caporaso, G.; Denhoy, B.; Hanson, C.L. & Chambers, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactions between self-assembled monolayers and an organophosphonate: A detailed study using surface acoustic wave-based mass analysis, polarization modulation-FTIR spectroscopy, and ellipsometry

Description: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) having surfaces terminated in the following functional groups: -CH{sub 3}, -OH, -COOH, and (COO{sup -}){sub 2}Cu{sup 2+} (MUA-Cu{sup 2+}) have been prepared and examined as potential chemically sensitive interfaces. Mass measurements made using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices indicate that these surfaces display different degrees of selectivity and sensitivity to a range of analytes. The response of the MUA-Cu{sup 2+} SAM to the nerve-agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is particularly intriguing. Exposure of this surface to 50%-of-saturation DIMP yields a surface concentration equivalent to about 20 DIMP monolayers. Such a high surface concentration in equilibrium with a much lower-than-saturation vapor pressure has not previously been observed. Newly developed analytical tools have made it possible to measure the infrared spectrum of the chemically receptive surface during analyte dosing. Coupled with in-situ SAW/ellipsometry measurements, which permit simultaneous measurement of mass and thickness with nanogram and Angstrom resolution, respectively, it has been possibly to develop a model for the surface chemistry leading to the unusual behavior of this system. The results indicate that DIMP interacts strongly with surface-confined Cu{sup 2+} adduct that nucleates growth of semi-ordered crystallites having substantially lower vapor pressure than the liquid.
Date: June 24, 1997
Creator: Crooks, R.M.; Yang, H.C. & McEllistrem, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

Description: Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.
Date: May 24, 1995
Creator: Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Ishikawa, M. & Hyde, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

Description: This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) ...
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Johnson, CM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 288: Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly/Treatability Test Facility Chemicals Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 11 CASs within CAU 288 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of debris, crates containing contaminated materials, chemicals, and other material. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs.
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics and Government

Description: In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete'' was proclaimed.
Date: August 24, 1999
Creator: Hendry, Nancy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Description: A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data ...
Date: March 24, 1999
Creator: Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in the chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

Description: The objective of this program is to develop novel, innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus explosives resulting from the demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions by DOE and DoD. Studies related to the conversion of TNT and Explosive D to potentially useful materials are described. The paper describes the feasibility of conversion of TNT to TATB; conversion of TNT to 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT); conversion of TNT to tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and nitrotolylene and diisocyanate (NTDI); chelating resins derived from trinitroarenes.
Date: January 24, 1995
Creator: Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F. & Sanner, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infrared Thermography in High Level Waste

Description: The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy, government-owned, company-operated industrial complex built in the 1950s to produce materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors were built to support the production of nuclear weapons material. Irradiated materials were moved from the reactors to one of the two chemical separation plants. In these facilities, known as ''canyons,'' the irradiated fuel and target assemblies were chemically processed to separate useful products from waste. Unfortunately, the by-product waste of nuclear material production was a highly radioactive liquid that had to be stored and maintained. In 1993 a strategy was developed to implement predictive maintenance technologies in the Liquid Waste Disposition Project Division responsible for processing the liquid waste. Responsibilities include the processing and treatment of 51 underground tanks designed to hold 750,000 to1,300,000 gallons of liquid waste and operation of a facility that vitrifies highly radioactive liquid waste into glass logs. Electrical and mechanical equipment monitored at these facilities is very similar to that found in non-nuclear industrial plants. Annual inspections are performed on electrical components, roof systems, and mechanical equipment. Troubleshooting and post installation and post-maintenance infrared inspections are performed as needed. In conclusion, regardless of the industry, the use of infrared thermography has proven to be an efficient and effective method of inspection to help improve plant safety and reliability through early detection of equipment problems.
Date: August 24, 2004
Creator: GLEATON, DAVIDT.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

Description: Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials.
Date: August 24, 1979
Creator: Pettibone, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rock equation of state: a constitutive computer model

Description: A constitutive model for a rock equation of state was developed in HEMP and CEL-HEMP computer codes. The model includes the mechanical and thermal properties of soil, such as elasticity, pore closure, compaction, and vaporization. Three test problems were computed using the equation of state: ground motion following the LATIR event, impact vaporization of preheated plates, and surface motion produced from exploding a 3.7-kg(10-lb) charge at a depth of 6.5 m. Agreement between our computations from the model and actual measurements is remarkably close.
Date: August 24, 1977
Creator: Kamegai, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense: Use of Neurocognitive Assessment Tools in Post-Deployment Identification of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: A publication issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as a serious concern among U.S. forces serving in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The widespread use of improvised explosive devices in these conflicts increases the likelihood that servicemembers will sustain a TBI, which the Department of Defense (DOD) defines as a traumatically induced structural injury and/or physiological disruption of brain function as a result of an external force. TBI cases within DOD are generally classified as mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating. From 2000 to March 2011 there were a total of 212,742 TBI cases reported by the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center within DOD. A majority of these cases, 163,181, were classified as mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI)--commonly referred to as concussions. Early detection of injury is critical in TBI patient management. Diagnosis of moderate and severe TBI usually occurs in a timely manner due to the obvious and visible nature of the head injury. Identification of mTBI presents a challenge due to its less obvious nature. With mTBI, there may be no observable head injury. In addition, in the combat theater, an mTBI may not be identified if it occurs at the same time as other combat injuries that are more visible or life-threatening, such as orthopedic injuries or open wounds. Furthermore, some of the symptoms of mTBI--such as irritability and insomnia--are similar to those associated with other conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Although the majority of patients with mTBI recover quickly with minimal intervention, a subset of patients develops lingering symptoms that interfere with social and occupational functioning. Accurate and timely identification of mTBI is important as treatment can mitigate the physical, emotional, and cognitive effects of the injury. Neurocognitive deficits associated with mTBI can ...
Date: October 24, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) wants to create a networked force where soldiers and systems are able to operate together seamlessly. To help facilitate this transformation, DOD began the Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) program in January 2004. We reported in 2003 that TSAT was about to begin without sufficiently mature technology. In this report, at your request, we followed up with an assessment of (1) how the TSAT program is progressing, and (2) whether the program is using an acquisition approach that will provide the knowledge needed to enter product development."
Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arleigh Burke Destroyers: Additional Analysis and Oversight Required to Support the Navy's Future Surface Combatant Plans

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Navy relied on its 2009 Radar/Hull Study as the basis to select DDG 51 over DDG 1000 to carry the Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) as its preferred future surface combatant—a decision that may result in a procurement of up to 43 destroyers and cost up to $80 billion over the next several decades. The Radar/Hull Study may not provide a sufficient analytical basis for a decision of this magnitude. Specifically, the Radar/Hull Study:"
Date: January 24, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: DOD Can Better Assess and Integrate ISR Capabilities and Oversee Development of Future ISR Requirements

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense's (DOD) intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities-such as satellites and unmanned aircraft systems-are crucial to military operations, and demand for ISR capabilities has increased. For example, DOD plans to invest $28 billion over the next 7 years in 20 airborne ISR systems alone. Congress directed DOD to fully integrate its ISR capabilities, also known as the ISR enterprise, as it works to meet current and future ISR needs. GAO was asked to (1) describe the challenges, if any, that DOD faces in integrating its ISR enterprise, (2) assess DOD's management approach for improving integration of its future ISR investments, and (3) evaluate the extent to which DOD has implemented key activities to ensure proposed new ISR capabilities fill gaps, are not duplicative, and use a joint approach to meeting warfighters' needs. GAO assessed DOD's integration initiatives and 19 proposals for new ISR capabilities. We supplemented this analysis with discussions with DOD officials."
Date: March 24, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department