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Quadrennial Defense Review 2010: Overview and Implications for National Security Planning

Description: This report provides an overview of the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), partly with a view toward putting matters the QDR addresses into the context of the ongoing evolution of defense policy, and partly in an effort to identify issues for future QDRs or for a broader review of national security strategy.
Date: May 17, 2010
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low amplitude impact testing and analysis of pristine and aged solid high explosives

Description: The critical impact velocities of 60.1 mm diameter blunt steel projectiles required for ignition of exothermic chemical reaction were determined for heavily confined charges of new and aged (15-30 years) solid HMX-based high explosives. The explosives in order of decreasing impact sensitivity were: PBX 9404; LX-lo; LX-14; PBX 9501; and LX-04. Embedded pressure gauges measured the interior pressure histories. Stockpile aged LX-04 and PBX 9501 from dismantled units were tested and compared to freshly pressed charges. The understanding of explosive aging on impact ignition and other hazards must improve as systems are being deployed longer than their initial estimated lifetimes. The charges that did not react on the first impact were subjected to multiple impacts. While the violence of reaction increased with impact velocity, it remained much lower than that produced by an intentional detonation. Ignition and Growth reactive flow models were developed to predict HMX-based explosive impact sensitivity in other geometries and scenarios.
Date: August 17, 1998
Creator: Chidester, S K; Garza, R & Tarver, C M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing the capacity of the Tory II-C Side Support System

Description: The Tory II-C lateral suspension has been designed for 4 g`s of lateral acceleration of the duct. Calculations and model tests indicate that this requirement has been met or exceeded. In order to have a more realistic model to test, Tory II-C springs are going to be fitted around the full scale core slice which was previously built up. Instrumented accelerations of this assembly should give the most direct demonstration that is possible of the response of the system to flight. This memorandum discusses, knowing the capabilities of the present system, the design changes necessary to suit different maximum accelerations by increasing the capacity of the Tory II-C side support system.
Date: July 17, 1963
Creator: Platt, E. A. & Smiley, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Localized wave pulses in the keyport experiment

Description: Localized wave (LW) pulses were produced using a standard Navy array in the anechoic tank at Navy Underwater Weapons Center (NUWC) Keyport. The LW pulses used were the MPS pulse first derived by Ziolkowski, and a new type of pulse based on a superposition of Gaussian beam modes. This new type is motivated by a desire to make a comparison of the MPS pulse with another broad band pulse built from solutions to the wave equation. The superposed Gaussian pulse can be described by parameters which are analogous to those describing the MPS pulse. We compare the directivity patternsand the axial energy decay between the pulses. We find the behavior of the pulses to be similar so that the superposed Gaussian could be another candidate in the class of low diffractive pulses known as localized waves.
Date: February 17, 1998
Creator: Chambers, D.H. & Lewis, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a monolithic, multi-MEMS microsystem on a chip demonstrating iMEMS{trademark} VLSI technology. R and D status report number 10, January 1--March 31, 1996

Description: This quarter saw the first silicon from the iMEMS{reg_sign} test chip, with complete circuits and beam structures. The wafers looked fine cosmetically and the circuits functioned as designed, but the beams suffered an anomaly that the authors have never seen before. Diagnostic work is under way to sort out the root cause, and other wafers are coming out this quarter to see if it was a one-time anomaly. Work on the process-development front has slowed because of the construction of a dedicated fabrication line for the last-generation process. With the current robust market place for ADI`s business, the existing fabrication line has been operating at 100% capacity. On the device front, great progress has been made by both Berkeley and ADI in the area of gyroscopes. Measurements of close to a degree per second or better have been made for gyros of all three axes and of both single- (linear) and double- (rotary) axis devices. In addition, ADI has designed a gyro that can be packaged in air that very well might meet some of the low-precision needs. Accelerometers of several new formats have been designed and several have been implemented in silicon. First samples of the ADXL 181 designed especially for the fuzing, safe and arming application have been assembled and are in characterization by ADI and others. In addition, 2-axis, Z-axis and digital output designs have been demonstrated. A 3-axis micro-watt accelerometer has been designed and is in fabrication. A 2-axis design for tilt applications is also nearing silicon realization. This portfolio of linear accelerometers, and even angular versions of the same provide, an arsenal of capability for specialized needs as they arise in both commercial and military applications.
Date: April 17, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-piledriver re-entry

Description: This report details post-Piledriver Re-entry. Re-entry down the Piledriver shaft went slowly. The shaft collar had bounced so high and hard that there was a separation directly under the collar and approximately 30 feet vertically of shaft wall in that area spalled off and fell into the skip Docket. The collar area had to be packed with new concrete prior to advancing further downshaft. Drilling, sampling, gas analysis, and radiation monitoring activities are detailed.
Date: November 17, 1967
Creator: Rabb, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kingman reef

Description: This memorandum describes the search for an acceptable test site for surface detonations of nuclear devices. Concern is expressed over possible Tsunami hazards. Kingman Reef is recommended as a designated target area, and it is recommended that Palmyra Island be investigated as to availability.
Date: February 17, 1965
Creator: Gilbert, F. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consistent finite-volume discretization of hydrodynamic conservation laws for unstructured grids

Description: We consider the conservation properties of a staggered-grid Lagrange formulation of the hydrodynamics equations (SGH). Hydrodynamics algorithms are often formulated in a relatively ad hoc manner in which independent discretizations are proposed for mass, momentum, energy, and so forth. We show that, once discretizations for mass and momentum are stated, the remaining discretizations are very nearly uniquely determined, so there is very little latitude for variation. As has been known for some time, the kinetic energy discretization must follow directly from the momentum equation; and the internal energy must follow directly from the energy currents affecting the kinetic energy. A fundamental requirement (termed isentropicity) for numerical hydrodynamics algorithms is the ability to remain on an isentrope in the absence of heating or viscous forces and in the limit of small timesteps. We show that the requirements of energy conservation and isentropicity lead to the replacement of the usual volume calculation with a conservation integral. They further forbid the use of higher order functional representations for either velocity or stress within zones or control volumes, forcing the use of a constant stress element and a constant velocity control volume. This, in turn, causes the point and zone coordinates to formally disappear from the Cartesian formulation. The form of the work equations and the requirement for dissipation by viscous forces strongly limits the possible algebraic forms for artificial viscosity. The momentum equation and a center-of-mass definition lead directly to an angular momentum conservation law that is satisfied by the system. With a few straightforward substitutions, the Cartesian formulation can be converted to a multidimensional curvilinear one. The formulation in 2D symmetric geometry preserves rotational symmetry.
Date: October 17, 1994
Creator: Burton, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Localized wave generation with a standard underwater array

Description: Recent work at the Navy Underwater Weapons Center Keyport test facility showed that existing Navy field equipment could generate Localized Waves. Results of angular scans show a narrowed beam pattern and lowered side lobes relative to standard beams. Results of axial range scans show evidence or an extended near field. Frequency analysis shows that the main beam is a decade wide while the surviving grating lobes are narrow band width, high frequency.
Date: February 17, 1998
Creator: Lewis, D.K.; Chambers, D.H.; Mullin, C.S. & Ziolkowski, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the Radiological Survey of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa

Description: At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an indoor radiological survey of property at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP), Middletown, Iowa in June 2000. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive residuals resulting from previous Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) activities were present inside selected Line 1 buildings at the IAAAP and conduct sampling in those areas of previous AEC operations that utilized radioactive components at some point during the manufacturing process, in order to evaluate any possible immediate health hazards and to collect sufficient information to determine the next type of survey. The AEC occupied portions of IAAAP from 1947 to 1975 to assemble nuclear weapons. The surveyed areas were identified through interviews with current and former IAAAP employees who had worked at the plant during AEC's tenure, and from AEC records.
Date: July 17, 2001
Creator: Murray, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Director`s series on proliferation

Description: This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.
Date: November 17, 1995
Creator: Bailey, K.C. & Price, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

60 kilograms high explosive containment with multi-diagnostic capability

Description: In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60 kilogram (kg) firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high explosives, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste.
Date: September 17, 1998
Creator: Simmons, L. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

Description: This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed the potential importance of structural defects.
Date: December 17, 2005
Creator: Park, Hye-Young
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of confinement and temperature on the shock sensitivity of solid explosives

Description: The effects of heavy steel confinement on the shock sensitivity of pressed solid high explosives heated to temperatures close to thermal explosion conditions were quantitatively measured. Cylindrical flyer plates accelerated by a 101 mm diameter gas gun impacted preheated explosive charges containing multiple embedded manganin pressure gauges. The high explosive compositions tested were LX-04-01 (85 wt.% HMX and 15 wt.% Viton A) heated to 170 ° C and LX-17 (92.5 wt.% TATB and 7.5 wt.% Kel-F) heated to 250 ° C. Ignition and Growth reactive flow models for heated, heavily confined LX-04-01 and LX-17 were formulated based on the measured pressure histories. LX-17 at 250 ° C is considerably less shock sensitive when confined by steel than when confined by aluminum or unconfined. LX-04-01 at 170 ° C is only slightly less shock sensitive when confined by steel than when it is unconfined. The confinement effect is smaller in LX-04-01, because HMX particle growth i s much less than that of TATB.
Date: August 17, 1998
Creator: Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M & Urtiew, Garcia, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives

Description: We have improved our ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. We have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. We show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.
Date: August 17, 1998
Creator: Couch, R.; McCallen, R. C.; Nichols, A. L., III; Otero, I. & Sharp, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of unknown materials with prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

Description: To assay the degradation of high explosives (HE) by a material-loss mechanism, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA), using a miniature neutron accelerator developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is proposed. Whereas the PGAA signatures from carbon and nitrogen in the chemical matrices are relatively low, fast neutrons may be used due to the higher cross sections for interaction. By using the upgraded PGAA database developed by the Isotope Projects Group at LBNL in collaboration with new PGAA data obtained at the Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry in Budapest, Hungary, it should be possible to observe and potentially to quantify a macroscopic loss of mass in HE.
Date: September 17, 2002
Creator: English, Gerald & Firestone, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

Description: This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final MTI Data Report: Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center

Description: During the period from February 2001 to August 2002, paved-surface (tarmac) temperatures were collected at the Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center. This effort was led by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with the assistance of base personnel, as part of SRTC's ground truth mission for the U.S. Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite.
Date: March 17, 2003
Creator: Parker, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

Description: The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.
Date: February 17, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Civilian Personnel: Intelligence Personnel System Incorporates Safeguards, but Opportunities Exist for Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 2001, Government Accountability Office (GAO) has designated strategic human capital management as a high-risk area because of the federal government's long-standing lack of a consistent approach to such management. In 2007, the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I)) began developing a human capital system--called the Defense Civilian Intelligence Personnel System (DCIPS)--to manage Department of Defense (DOD) civilian intelligence personnel. In response to a congressional request, GAO examined the extent to which DOD has (1) incorporated internal safeguards into DCIPS and monitored the implementation of these safeguards and (2) developed mechanisms to identify employee perceptions about DCIPS. GAO analyzed guidance, interviewed appropriate officials, and conducted discussion groups with employees at select DOD components. At the end of GAO's review, legislation was enacted that impacts, among other things, how DCIPS employees will be paid."
Date: December 17, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs to Take More Action to Address Unrealistic Initial Cost Estimates of Space Systems

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Estimated costs for the Department of Defense's (DOD) major space acquisition programs have increased by about $12.2 billion from initial estimates for fiscal years 2006 through 2011. Cost growth for ongoing Air Force programs above initial estimates accounts for a substantial portion of this 44 percent increase. In light of the role that optimistic estimating is believed to have played in exacerbating space acquisition cost growth, you requested that we examine (1) in what areas space system acquisition cost estimates have been unrealistic and (2) what incentives and pressures have contributed to the quality and usefulness of cost estimates for space system acquisitions."
Date: November 17, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD's High-Risk Areas: Progress Made Implementing Supply Chain Management Recommendations, but Full Extent of Improvement Unknown

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have focused attention on the Department of Defense's (DOD) supply chain management. The supply chain can be critical to determining outcomes on the battlefield, and the investment of resources in DOD's supply chain is substantial. In 2005, with the encouragement of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), DOD prepared an improvement plan to address some of the systemic weaknesses in supply chain management. GAO was asked to monitor implementation of the plan and DOD's progress toward improving supply chain management. GAO reviewed (1) the integration of supply chain management with broader defense business transformation and strategic logistics planning efforts; and (2) the extent DOD is able to demonstrate progress. In addition, GAO developed a baseline of prior supply chain management recommendations. GAO surveyed supply chain-related reports issued since October 2001, identified common themes, and determined the status of the recommendations."
Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Assessment of DOD's 2004 Report on the Need for a Base Realignment and Closure Round

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Defense Base Realignment and Closure Act of 1990, as amended, required the Department of Defense (DOD) to address several base realignment and closure (BRAC) issues in 2004 for the 2005 BRAC round to proceed. The requirements included reporting on a 20-year force structure plan, an inventory of military installations, and separately adopting selection criteria for the upcoming round. The legislation also required DOD to certify whether an additional BRAC round was needed, and, if so, that annual net savings would be realized not later than fiscal year 2011. If the certifications were provided, GAO was required to evaluate DOD's submissions and report to Congress. DOD reported on March 23, 2004, and provided the certifications. In this report GAO evaluates (1) DOD's responsiveness to legislative requirements; (2) the force structure plan, infrastructure inventory, and selection criteria; (3) other key issues included in DOD's report; and (4) DOD's certification regarding the need for an additional BRAC round."
Date: May 17, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department