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List of AEC radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1972

Description: This ninth edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared, as previously, at the request of the Commission's Division of Applied Technology (formerly the Division of Isotope Development. It is a compilation of radioisotope sales during FY 1972 by Commission facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Nuclear Corporation, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Richland Operations Office, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. The first is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers. Included are the isotopes purchased by each customer and the laboratory supplying each cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. The final section is a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and a breakdown of shipments, quantities, and dollars for each isotope under the domestic, foreign, and project(AEC facilities) categories as well as the total figures for each isotopes. (auth) O H0229641 Translated from Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., Pis'ma Red.; 18: No. 9, The presently existing z-pinch modifications are compared. A proposed model whereby the thermal fraction of the neutron yield is produced (heating by an electron beam) is used to explain the increase of the neutron yield and of its thermal fraction with decreasing length of collective deceleration of the beam in the z-pinch. An experimental setup is proposed for increasing the neutron yield, based on a deuterated target at the chamber anode, preheated with a powerful laser prior to development of the relativistic electron beam in the z-pinch. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1973
Creator: Simmons, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intense neutron source facility using a supersonic jet target

Description: Investigations are underway to determine the concept feasibility and design criteria for an intense-neutron-source facility using a supersonic-jet target. This target consists of an expansion nozzle where deuterium gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities and an interaction region where a tritium-ion beam interacts with the supersonic jet of deuterium producing the neutrons. The present research is concerned with the experimental and theoretical design of the expansion nozzle and interaction region. Results of an initial experimental test without ion-beam heating are discussed. The numerical solutions for the initial-experiment configuration as well as three additional solutions are also presented. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Cline, M.C. & Emigh, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

Description: Potential applications for devices or systems containing $sup 252$Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on $sup 252$Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of $sup 252$Cf devices should increase from $1.5 million in 1975 to $10.8 million in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of $sup 252$Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Permar, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayer monochromators for neutron scattering

Description: In an earlier paper Schoenborn, Caspar, and Kammerer (J. Appl. Cryst. 7, 508-10(1974)) reported the fabrication of thin film monochromators for neutrons. They showed that a multilayer consisting of alternating films of two materials acts as a good monochromator with large and adjustable periodicity and wide bandwidth. The diffraction properties of these multilayers have been studied with the objective of using them as monochromators, filters and polarizers for neutrons. A theoretical understanding of these multilayers has been developed by using the kinematical and dynamical approaches. In order to compare these expressions with the observed properties, the effects of beam divergence and wavelength distribution for the spectrometer have been determined. The influence of some aperiodicity on the diffraction data has also been studied within the framework of kinematical theory. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Saxena, A.M. & Schoenbon, B.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast calibration of large Si(Li) electron detectors from 511.0 to 4564.0 keV using double-escape peaks and Compton edges from $sup 66$Ga

Description: Double-escape peaks and Compton edges from the gamma -rays of 9 5-h / sup 66/Ga were used for the fast, precise calibration of Si(Li) electron detectors. They allow a direct calibration up to 4564.0 keV, and the calibration curve is linear enough that it can probably be extrapolated safely to even higher energies. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Firestone, R.B.; Warner, R.A.; McHarris, W.C. & Kelly, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Available space for a totally implantable cardiac prosthesis. Annual progress report, April 1, 1973--March 31, 1974

Description: Methods were developed for generating an integrated, statistical model of the anatomical structures within the human thorax relevant to radioisotope powered artificial heart implantation. These methods involve measurement and analysis of anatomy in four areas: chest wall, pericardium, vascular connections, and great vessels. A model for the prediction of thorax outline from radiograms was finalized. These models were combined with 100 radiograms to arrive at a size distribution representing the adult male and female populations. (CH)
Date: April 1, 1974
Creator: Nose, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible pion sources for radiotherapy

Description: From second meeting on fundamental and practical aspects of the application of fast neutrons in clinical radiotherapy; The Hague, Netherlands (3 Oct 1973). Recently great interest has been shown in pi-meson irradiation as a possible modality for cancer radiation therapy. In order for this short-lived particle to be more than an idle laboratory curiosity, it must be demonstrated that economical pion sources can be built, which satisfy the necessary flux requirements for therapy within reasonable space and cost limitations. Protons have a much higher probability for producing pions per unit target mass than do electrons, so if there were no other consideration it is clear that proton accelerators would be superior to electron accelerators as pion sources. Unfortunately, proton accelerators are considerably more difficult to build than electron accelerators, requiring more precise control, more rf power, and probably more length than their counterparts. At 500-MeV the advantage of protons over electrons for production is about a factor of 50, that is, for the same total yield of pions, an electron accelerator must have 50 times the beam power required of an equivalent proton machine. One possible way around this problem is to design a much more efficient magnetic channel to collect the pions and focus them on the patient being treated. Such a system has been designed that utilizes 60 parallel magnetic spectrometers to focus a total of 1/12 the total pions produced in the pion production target on the patient. This system requires a more sophisticated control system, but is certainly an indicator of a direction to go to reduce source cost. This approach also reduces the beam current requirements on a proton accelerator by a factor of 30 making a 30 microamp accelerator a possibility. A brief description of four accelerator systems that might be suitable for hospital ...
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Knapp, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium ion beam for an intense neutron source, INS

Description: The INS facility has been proposed to provide a neutronic environment similar to that anticipated in a fully operational fusionpower reactor. The neutron generator will produce an intense flux of 14-MeV neutrons> 10/sup 14/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ sec from the collision of two intersecting beams, one of 1.1 A of 270-keV tritium ions and the other of a supersonic jet of deuterium molecules. Using either the pure 14-MeV primary-neutron spectrum or by tailoring the spectrum with appropriate moderators, crucial radiationdamage effects can be explored and better understood. To obtain a multi-ampere tritium-ion beam for the INS, an ion source that can operate continuously with a high ion-current density over a very large plasma ion-extraction area is required. The ion source must be designed to provide a quiescent plasma that is uniform in density over a relatively flat extraction surface. Such extraction will sesure a low beam emittance and manageable beam optics. An annular duoplasmatron is described that is designed to provide long-life reliability (> 2000 hrs), a high gas efficiency (> 20%), and high-quality beam generation (normalized emittance ~ 0.3 cmmrad). The beam transport system, including an accelerating column, bending magnets, and quadrupole focusing magnets, must be designed to transport the tritium ions to a well-defined target area without loss of appreciable power (the beam contains ~ 1/ 3 MW). Because of radioactive hazards in the handling of the tritium, and to minimize the tritium inventory, the vacuum system for the ion source and beam transpont must be capable of recycling the tritium using closed-loop techniques. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Emigh, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimentally determined neutron and gamma-ray spectra from an encapsulated Cm$sub 2$O$sub 3$ power source

Description: The experimentally determined neutron and gamma ray spectra of a Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ spontaneously fissioning source are presented. The neutron spectrum is given for the energy range 30 keV to 10 MeV, while the gamma ray spectrum spans the energy range 205 keV to 12 MeV. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Freestone, R.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary safety analysis report for the PNL Neutron Multiplier Facility

Description: The design, operation, and safety of the Neutron Multiplier Facility (NMF) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratories are discussed. The NMF will provide thermal neutrons for irradiation of two basic types of samples, i.e., environmentai samples and a 4 gram maximum sample of fully enriched uranium. The latter will be used to produce fission products for on-line mass spectrometry. The Neutron Multiplier will produce thermal neutrons by fission multiplication and subsequent moderation of neutrons from a /sup 252/Cf source. The NMF is designed for use of a 100 mg /sup 252/Cf source. The fuel for the neutron multiplier is 93% /sup 235/U enriched uranium. The thermal neutron flux available from the neutron multiplier will be of the order of 10/sup 10/ neutrons/ cm/sup 2/ sec. The NMF will be a subcritical facility. Under normal operating conditions the neutron multiplier will have a k/sub eff/ in the range 0.92 to 0.97 depending on irradiation tube configuration and sample characteristics. The neutron multiplier will be located at the bottom of a 20 foot deep pool of water. Physical barriers will prevent rearrangement of fuel. The nuclear parameters of the neutron multiplier are such that no temperature or water density (voiding or flooding) effects can result in criticality. It is concluded that the NMF can be built and operated without creating an unacceptable rish to either operating personnel or the public. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Hall, R.J. & Rieck, H.G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department