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Current studies on integrating environmental monitoring at ORNL

Description: S>Recent development work on solid-state environmental monitoring at ORNL includes studies on the sensitivity and other relevant properties of various detectors, with an emphasis on little known materials such as newly developed TL and TSEE phosphors; extensive stability tests under laboratory and field conditions; intercomparison of the methods used in different laboratories; and attempts to determine average environmental dose-rates over very long ( approximately 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 4/y) periods of time. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Becker, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid diffusion method for physicochemical characterization of metal ligands in soils and sediments

Description: A diffusion method is described that allows preliminary characterization of metals in soils and sediments while minimizing the potential for alteration of metal form. In addition, examples of the application of the method to model compounds of Pu in the soil are given. (ERB)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E. & Pelroy, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactions of the NAEG information support project with other projects

Description: In the past year the Information Support Project to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group has interacted with many other research projects on the transuranics and other radionuclides. Group interactions through symposiums, workshops, and responding to search requests have proven to be mutually beneficial. The NAEG Information Support Project will draw on the information resources of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to produce a bibliography of the radionuclides (other than the transuranics) of interest to the Nevada Test Site. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Pfuderer, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for predicting the redistribution of particulate contaminants from soil surfaces

Description: A computerized model was developed to describe the redistribution of wind eroding soil-contaminant mixtures. Potentially mobile particulate contaminants can, in the first approximation, be assumed to be indistinquishable from the wind eroding soil in which they are distributed. A grid network characterizes important soil and surface conditions, and mass conserving control volumes are constructed on each cell. Material is transported through the vertical and top surfaces of a control volume by a modified Bagnold-Chepil horizontal flux formulation and modified Gillette vertical flux formulation, respectively. The vertical emissions, considered as puffs from area sources, create at regular time intervals a contaminant cloud which is proportional to the suspendable ground concentration. These puffs diffuse downwind under time- dependent wind velocity and atmospheric stability conditions, maintaining during the time interval a three-dimensional Gaussian distribution of concentration with cloud volume. Material from each puff is deposited in downward cells, leading to the possibility of many different flights from these new sources. The usefulness of this predictive tool is demonstrated by calculations involving mixtures of particulate $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ in highly erodible soils under dust storm conditions. Time-dependent surface concentration and breathing zone exposure isopleths, evolving from a small contaminated area, show the potential hazard from wind eroding toxic materials. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1975
Creator: Travis, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring and characterization of radionuclide transport in the hydrogeologic system

Description: The groundwater monitoring program provides information and data on groundwater quality required to evaluate the impact of waste disposal practices on the Hanford Reservation. The program includes: collection and analysis of groundwater samples on a routine basis; data processing, analysis and reporting; design, construction and maintenance of well sampling structures; and design and implementation of supporting research studies. Within the overall framework of the Groundwater Monitoring Program, the 300 Area and Wye Burial Ground Characterization Program was initiated to evaluate transport of radionuclides in the partially saturated zone above the water table and to provide site characterization at solid waste burial locations on the Reservation. Methods for collecting and analyzing program data include geophysical exploration by ground penetrating radar, refraction and reflection acoustics, magnetics, and metal detection; stratigraphic investigations by drilling and sample collection techniques; evaluation of transport phenomena by in situ psychrometric and gamma- neutron techniques; laboratory characterization of fluid and vapor transport- controlling mechanisms; and evaluation of biological radionuclide transport by organisms inhabiting contaminated areas. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Phillips, S J & Raymond, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical distributions as applied to environmental surveillance data

Description: Application of normal, log normal, and Weibull distributions to environmental surveillance data was investigated for approximately 300 nuclide- medium-year-location combinations. Corresponding W test calculations were made to determine the probability of a particular data set falling within the distribution of interest. Conclusions are drawn as to the fit of any data group to the various distributions. The significance of fitting statistical distributions to the data is discussed. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1975
Creator: Speer, D.R. & Waite, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Annual progress report, January 1, 1973--December 31, 1973

Description: Progress is reponted in studies of the effects of high-energy radiation, particularly gamma rays, on nonmetallic solids. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to identify paramagnetic species produced, study their molecular and electronic structures, and follow their reactions and decay. Fundamental processes in the radiation chemistry of solid organic and inorganic compounds were studied by ESR. A wide variety of materials were examined to identify the more stable paramagnetic products and search for general principles governing radiation damage. Structure and bonding in radicals were deduced from the ESR parameters. Specific studies have been submitted for publication or have already been published. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Rogers, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some ecological attributes and plutonium contents of perennial vegetation in Area 13

Description: Progress is reported on work conducted at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group, Office of Effects Evaluation, USAEC Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas. Nevada. Included are data on some ecological attributes of the vegetation within thc fenced portion of the Project 57 fallout pattern in Area 13. Also included are some preliminary data on the / sup 239/-240/Pu and /sup 241/Am in samples of vegetation collected in conjunction with the soil sampling program. Prominent shrub and grass species in the fallout pattern of Area 13 include Artemisia spinescens, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex confertifolia, Eurotia lanata, Grayia spinosa, Kochia americana, Lycium andersonii, and Oryzopsis hymenoides. Individual or co-dominant species distinguished local association pattarns of varied size within the fenced study area. Vegetation cover estimates in sample study plots ranged from 12.8 to 25.3 percent. Shrub densities ranged from 11.2 x 10/sup 3/ to 17.9 x 10/sup 3/ plants per hectare, and the standing shrub biomass ranged from 1592 to 4255 kilograms per hectare (0.7 to 1.9 tons per acre). Preliminary results showed rather uniform distributions of /sup 239-240/Pu and /sup 241/Am among indiividual samples of the same plant species collected within an intensive study plot. However, there was considerable variation in the contamination levels between different species, presumably from superficial entrapment of resuspended particulate material. Concentrations in Eurotia lanata were three to five times higher than in other species sampled from the same study site. The /sup 239-240/ Pu and /sup 241/Am generally tended to decrease in samples of vegetation collected at increasing distances from ground zero, but there were poor correlations between vegetation and soil /sup 239-240/Pu concertrations in isopleth strat within the fenced grazing area. Results showed inconsistencies in the Pu/Am ratios for vegettion and soil. Lower ratios found in vegetation samples indicate ...
Date: November 1, 1973
Creator: Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Gilbert, R.O.; Bamberg, S.A.; Childress, J.D.; Kinnear, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department