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Specification for Sandwich Panels B and C Layer MDT Supports D0 Upgrade Forward Muon Tracking System

Description: The panels will be used to fabricate B and C layer MDT octant supports. The octant support arrangements can be seen on the accompanying figures, Fig 1 and Fig 2. Currently we are considering buying 60 inch wide rectangular panels and cutting and splicing them-to-the octant shape. Proposals for octant panels cut to size and panels of different width will be considered.
Date: May 21, 1999
Creator: Levand, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Samus Toroid Installation Fixture

Description: The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.
Date: June 27, 1990
Creator: Stredde, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ABS plastic RPCs

Description: After investigating a number of materials, we discovered that an ABS plastic doped with a conducting polymer performs well as the resistive electrode in a narrow gap RPC (resistive plate chamber). Operating in the streamer mode, we find efficiencies of 90-96% with low noise and low strip multiplicities. We have also studied a variety of operating gases and found that a mixture containing SF{sub 6}, a non-ozone depleting gas, argon and isobutane gives good streamer mode performance, even with isobutane concentrations of 20% or less.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Ables, E.; Bionta, R.; Olson, H.; Ott, L.; Parker, E.; Wright, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHENIX REPORTS

Description: This report contains individual progress reports for the months of December 1997 through May 1998 on the Phenix program at Hytec. Topics include the Phenix muon detector chamber flow analysis; the Phenix Muon detector deformation and motion/tolerance study of Stations 1, 2, and 3; finite element mount/electron shield structural analysis; South Station 3 muon detector deformation analysis; and Station 1 muon detector panel assembly and fabrication sequences.
Date: December 10, 1998
Creator: TIMOTHY C. THOMPSON - HYTEC, INC.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of N{sub 2} contamination in L3 forward/backward muon chambers

Description: Since the presence of a small amount of air is unavoidable in large drift chamber detectors, we present a study of the effect of {ital N}{sub 2} contamination on the electron drift velocity in a working Forward/Backward Muon Chamber placed in the MIT cyclotron magnet. The nominal gas mixture, Ar:CO{sub 2}:iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} (86:10:4), was varied by including as much as 1% N{sub 2}. Results at B=0 and 0.5T are shown.
Date: May 11, 1994
Creator: Becker, U.; Nahn, S.C.; Rodin, J.P. & Smith, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some tests of avalanche photodiodes produced by Advanced Photonix, Inc.

Description: The goal of the measurements presented here is to check some parameters of the high gain avalanche photodiodes (APD`s) produced by Advanced Photonix, Inc. Samples with 16 mm and 5 mm diameter sensitive areas were tested. The tests were performed at FNAL. The new photomultiplier testing facility were used for gain measurements, linearity, and nonuniformity studies. The setup consists of laser with shifted wavelength of 440 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate and a pulse duration of 15 nsec. The laser light was transported to the APD by 1 mm diameter clear fiber. An amount of laser light was adjusted by rotating wheels of fixed light attenuation. The dynamic range of the APD, an amplifier (AMP) and an ADC was about 1000. To get the nonuniformity data the APD was mounted on a moveable stage under management and control of computer. The positioning of the fiber along sensitive surface of the APD was better than 100 microns.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Foster, G.W.; Ronzhin, A. & Rusack, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CDF Run 2 muon system

Description: The CDF muon detection system for Run 2 of the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Muon stubs are detected for |{eta}| < 1.5, and are matched to tracks in the central drift chamber at trigger level 1 for |{eta}| < 1.25. Detectors in the |{eta}| < 1 central region, built for previous runs, have been enhanced to survive the higher rate environment and closer bunch spacing (3.5 {micro}sec to 396 nsec) of Run 2. Azimuthal gaps in the central region have been filled in. New detectors have been added to extend the coverage from |{eta}| < 1 to |{eta}| < 1.5, consisting of four layers of drift chambers covered with matching scintillators for triggering. The Level 1 Extremely Fast Tracker supplies matching tracks with measured p{sub T} for the muon trigger. The system has been in operation for over 18 months. Operating experience and reconstructed data are presented.
Date: February 5, 2004
Creator: Ginsburg, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Novel Technique for the Production of Large Area Z-coordinate Readout Planes for the BaBar Muon System

Description: The BABAR detector, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a general purpose detector for the study of e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. BABAR's muon detection system consists of two parts: a hexagonal barrel region and two planar endcap regions each containing 18 layers of iron ({approx} 3.6{lambda}), with resistive plate chambers within the inter-iron gaps. These chambers have suffered deterioration in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by limited streamer tube chambers in the barrel. Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules oriented parallel to the beamline providing the azimuthal coordinate ({Phi}) and a single ''Z-plane'' with strips oriented perpendicular the streamer tubes providing the coordinate (Z) along the beamline. The large area Z-planes (up to 12 m{sup 2}) are 1 mm thick and contain 96 strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches on the streamer tube wires. This paper reports on the novel construction technique of the Z-planes.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Convery, M.R.; Kim, P.C.; /SLAC; Paar, H.P.; /UC, San Diego; Rogers, C.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Astrophysics Motivation behind the Pierre Auger Southern Observatory Enhancements

Description: The Pierre Auger Collaboration intends to extend the energy range of its southern observatory in Argentina for high quality data from 0.1 to 3 EeV. The extensions, described in accompanying papers, include three additional fluorescence telescopes with a more elevated field of view (HEAT) and a nested surface array with 750 and 433 m spacing respectively and additional muon detection capabilities (AMIGA). The enhancement of the detector will allow measurement of cosmic rays, using the same techniques, from below the second knee up to the highest energies observed. The evolution of the spectrum through the second knee and ankle, and corresponding predicted changes in composition, are crucial to the understanding of the end of Galactic confinement and the effects of propagation on the lower energy portion of the extragalactic flux. The latter is strongly related to the cosmological distribution of sources and to the composition of the injected spectrum. We discuss the science motivation behind these enhancements as well as the impact of combined HEAT and AMIGA information on the assessment of shower simulations and reconstruction techniques.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Medina-Tanco, Gustavo & Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

Description: Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detectingelectromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (mostnotably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energymuon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solidangles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCubecombination, with its 1 km$^2$ muon detection area can study muons farfrom the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss ($dE/dx$),and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution ofproduction heights, the transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectrum of high$p_T$ muons can be determined. The production of the semuons iscalculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be usedto probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Klein, Spencer R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of copper-printed mylar bonded to G10 panels

Description: Measurements were made of the position of Cu strip patterns on 100 micro thick mylar sheets bonded to G10, in order to study printing of precision cathode strip patterns on thin mylar and then bonding themylar to G10 sheets. Purpose is to explore cheaper, simpler methods for fabricating precision cathodes for cathode strip chambers for the GEM Detector muon system and other high energy physics detector systems at RHIC and CERN.
Date: November 11, 1993
Creator: Wuest, C.R.; Milner, C. & Mitselmakher, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

Description: In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth`s surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10{sup {minus}2}/cm{sup 2}-sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm{sup 2}. The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF{sub 6} cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Kane, W.R. & Vanier, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from the CACTI experiment: Air-Cerenkov and particle measurements of PeV air showers at Los Alamos

Description: An array of six wide angle Cerenkov detectors was constructed amongst the scintillator and muon detectors of the CYGNUS II array at Los Alamos National Laboratory to investigate cosmic ray composition in the PeV region through measurements of the shape of Cerenkov lateral distributions. Data were collected during clear, moonless nights over three observing periods in 1995. Estimates of depths of shower maxima determined from the recorded Cerenkov lateral distributions align well with existing results at higher energies and suggest a mixed to heavy composition in the PeV region with no significant variation observed around the knee. The accuracy of composition determination is limited by uncertainties in the expected levels of depth of maximum predicted using different Monte-Carlo shower simulation models.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Paling, S.; Hillas, A.M. & Berley, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon systems

Description: The designs of both the GEM and SDC muon systems an the technological choices are reviewed. In particular, the chamber options for the detectors are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Bensinger, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem

Description: The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.
Date: May 19, 1995
Creator: Yamamoto, R. M.; Bowers, J. M. & Harvey, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of a conceptual prototype of the total internal reflection Cherenkov imaging detector (DIRC) with cosmic muons

Description: The DIRC is a totally internally reflecting Cherenkov imaging detector proposed for particle identification at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} B factories. First test results from a conceptual prototype using cosmic muons are reported. The photo-electron yield and the single Cherenkov photon resolution at various track dip angles and positions along the radiator bar have been measured. The results are consistent with estimates and Monte-Carlo simulations.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Aston, D.; Kawahara, H.; McShurley, D.; Muller, D.; Oxoby, G.; Hearty, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An engineering design study of the transfer bridge for the SSC SDC detector

Description: The transfer bridge is a major structural installation component for the large detector proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). The transfer bridge is the structural device that allows for installation of the Muon Forward Toroid (MFT) and calorimeter components into the Muon Barrel Toroid (MBT). This paper summarizes the design and construction of the SDC transfer bridge.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Western, J. L.; Tulk, G. W. & Dittert, L. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

Description: The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of {approx}1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 {plus_minus} 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well ...
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Kotcher, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detector development and test facility. [Annual] technical report, [August 1, 1992--July 31, 1993]

Description: Following the ideas presented in the proposal to the DoE, we have begun to acquire the equipment needed to design, develop, construct, and test the electronic and mechanical features of detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments. A guiding principle for the effort is to achieve integrated electronic and mechanical designs which meet the demanding specifications of the modern hadron collider environment yet minimize costs. This requires state of the art simulation of signal processing as well as detailed calculations of heat transfer and finite element analysis of structural integrity.
Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Reeder, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some options for the muon collider capture and decay solenoids

Description: This report discusses some of the problems associated with using solenoid magnets to capture the secondary particles that are created when an intense beam of 8 to 10 GeV protons interacts with the target at the center of the capture region. Hybrid capture solenoids with inductions of 28 T and a 22T are described. The first 14 to 15 T of the solenoid induction will be generated by a superconducting magnet. The remainder of the field will be generated by a Bitter type of water cooled solenoid. The capture solenoids include a transition section from the high field solenoid to a 7 T decay channel where pions and kaons that come off of the target decay into muons. A short 7 T solenoidal decay channel between the capture solenoid system and the phase rotation system is described. A concept for separation of negative and positive pions and kaons is briefly discussed.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Green, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of high energy phenomena using muons. Final report

Description: This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract DE-FG02-91ER40641.A000 during the period from 1992 to 1995, and is the final report for this award. The group had three main efforts. The first was the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, the authors were members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. The group consisted of four faculty members, three research associates, and undergraduate and graduate students. The D0 experiment at Fermilab is one of two (the other is CDF) general purpose experiments operating at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Starting in the Fall of 1992, the first data collection occurred at D0. Physics publications are tabulated in the Appendix, with the discovery of the top quark in 1995 being the most prominent. Members of the NIU group worked on a variety of physics topics: Hedin on B-physics and the top-quark search, Fortner on Drell-Yan and other QCD topics, Green on di-Boson production, and Markeloff on excited-quark states. Hedin was also co-coordinator of the B-physics group during this period. The primary emphasis of the NIU D0 group was the muon system. NIU had particular responsibilities for data acquisition; chamber calibration; the Level-2 trigger; and the reconstruction. Hedin also was coordinator of muon software and had the responsibility for muon identification. Work on these items is summarized in a series of D0 Notes listed in the Appendix. Willis, Sirotenko, Hedin and Fortener were also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. NIU was a key participant in the calculation of low-energy neutron and photon backgrounds in the SDC experiment, and in designing shielding for the proposed muon system.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D-Zero muon readout electronics design

Description: The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M. & Vaniev, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[PHENIX reports]. Final report

Description: The various tasks outlined in the Statement of Work for the PHENIX Program have been accomplished. Reports were generated which cover the work done. This report is a compilation of the following reports: Progress Report for May 1998; Progress Report for April 1998; PHENIX FEA Mount/Electron Shield Structural Analysis report; Progress Report for February 1998; Progress Report for March 1998; and Progress Report for December 1997 and January 1998.
Date: December 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 40 GByte/s read-out system for GEM

Description: The preliminary design of the read-out system for the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The system reads all digitized data from the detector data sources at a Level 1 trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. A total read-out bandwidth of 40 GBytes/s is available. Data are stored in buffers that are accessible for further event filtering by an on-line, processor farm. Data are transported to the farm only as they are needed by the higher-level trigger algorithms, leading to a reduced bandwidth requirement in the Data Acquisition System.
Date: April 1994
Creator: Bowden, M.; Carrel, J.; Dorenbosch, J. & Kapoor, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department