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Raman spectroscopic studies in supercritical water

Description: Reaction studies have been carried out on the destruction of nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonium, nitrates, and species containing aromatic nitro functionality. The destruction of ammonium ion in near-critical and supercritical water using Raman spectroscopy is the subject of this presentation. Reaction rates were determined from Raman spectra and from measurements of system pressure. Concentrations of key species in the reactor effluent were determined via off-line assay. The effects of temperature, pressure, and concomitants on reaction rate were determined. The reaction half-life is below ten seconds at 400 C with better than 95% conversion. Oxides of nitrogen were not generated in detectable quantities. The studied system is a model for the destruction of ammonium in municipal wastes.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Bowman, L. E. & Fulton, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of different levels of simulation to solid waste management systems

Description: Simulation techniques can be effectively applied to solid waste management systems, as an aid to understanding and analyzing existing systems or as part of the planning and design of new systems. Analysis of these systems using simulations can proceed at various levels of detail, depending on particular needs of the analysis (i.e., the questions for which answers are sought). This paper discusses the major system dimension variables for simulation of solid waste management systems, and how they can be related to each other to plan or understand a solid waste management system. Examples of the simulations at different levels of detail are included. In addition, the selection of appropriate simulation tools is addressed.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Holter, G. M.; Shaver, S. R.; Armacost, L. L. & Ross, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling: You are the solution. Final report

Description: Americans produce nearly 150 million tons of residential and commercial solid waste each year, or slightly less than 1,400 lb for each one of us. This document contains various items related to public education: exhibit text, vocabulary, collection sites, classroom and individual activities, puzzles, classroom simulations.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

Description: The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Managing America`s solid waste

Description: This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.
Date: March 2, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume 3: Appendix A--Mass Burn Technologies

Description: This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.
Date: October 1992
Creator: SRI International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring opportunities for working together in the Pacific Northwest to solve solid waste problems

Description: Industry, state and local government, university, and US Department of Energy national laboratory representatives gathered in September 1993 to discuss ways to reduce environmental impacts of municipal and industrial waste. First day focused on industry and local government perspectives regarding problems they are facing relative to managing solid waste, minimizing waste generation during production of goods and services, and utilizing secondary materials in production. Included in discussions were technologies currently employed in the marketplace and future technology development and/or needed policy changes. Second day focused on approaches that various industry and governmental sectors are taking to develop solutions. Strategies for establishing a regional partnership were discussed.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Stapp, D. C. & Khawaja, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

Description: This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Jones, C. M.; Hartman, R. M.; Kort, D. & Rapues, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

White goods recycling in the United States: Economic and technical issues in recovering, reclaiming, and reusing nonmetallic materials

Description: Obsolete white goods (appliances such as refrigerators, freezers, washers, dryers, ranges, dishwashers, water heaters, dehumidifiers, and air conditioners) contain significant quantities of recyclable materials, but because of economic and environmental concerns, only limited quantities of these scrap materials are currently being recycled. Appliances are manufactured from a mix of materials, such as metals, polymers, foam, and fiberglass; metals represent more than 75% of the total weight. Appliance recycling is driven primarily by the value of the steel in the appliances. Over the last 15 years, however, the use of polymers in appliance manufacturing has increased substantially at the expense of metals. The shift in the materials composition of appliances may threaten the economics of the use of obsolete appliances as a source for scrap metals. To increase the recycling of white goods, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable technologies must be developed to separate, recover, reclaim, and reuse polymers from discarded appliances. Argonne National Laboratory is currently conducting research, with industry support, to develop cost-effective processes and methods for recovering and reclaiming acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene and High-density polystyrene from discarded appliances. This collaborative research focuses on developing a combination of mechanical/physical and chemical separation methods for recovering and reusing these high-value plastics. In addition, cost-effective methods for improving the performance characteristics of the recovered plastics are being investigated with the goal of recycling these plastics to their original application. In this paper, we examine the technical and economic issues that affect the recycling of white goods and present results of Argonne`s white goods recycling research and development activities.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J. & Daniels, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Annual report FY 1993

Description: Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93.
Date: November 1993
Creator: Goland, A. N. & Kaplan, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

Description: In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Gaines, L. L. & Stodolsky, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mandated recycling rates: Impacts on energy consumption and municipal waste volume

Description: In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite its comprehensive solid waste legislation the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging, materials and newsprint. In this paper, we compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts associated with alternative methods of disposition to determine, the optimal method for each material. Alternative paths for material disposition include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfilling. The recovery rates considered during RCRA reauthorization are summarized. Combustion was specifically excluded by Congress to meet recovery goals. This exclusion is probably based on the idea that combustion is a form of disposal and therefore wastes resources and has negative environmental effects. Our paper does not make that assumption. A report by Gaines and Stodolsky, from which this paper is derived, offers a more complete discussion of energy and S impacts.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Gaines, L. L. & Stodolsky, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

Description: Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Reaven, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The reduction of packaging waste

Description: Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Raney, E. A.; Hogan, J. J.; McCollom, M. L. & Meyer, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

Description: The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Muller, D. & Norville, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional solid waste management study

Description: In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.
Date: September 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

Description: While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Seeberger, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program plan, and request for reprogramming first year funds. Status report

Description: In June of 1992, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded assistance Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, The first year of the program is primarily a planning year. We have aggressively pursued input into the EHAP program to begin to understand where our efforts fit within other efforts underway nationally. We have also begun some direct activities at MUSC to begin the program. Part of this report is devoted to informing DOE of what we have accomplished so far this year. In our efforts to plan, we have identified several changes in emphasis for the program. These changes affect the original plan in terms of projected milestones and budget allocations. Part of this report describes these changes and describes the proposed changes to the budget. We are not requesting additional funds for this year. Simply, we are requesting some change in allocations to budget categories. Therefore, our report to DOE is a combination status report, program plan, and request for reallocation of budget.
Date: February 10, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling and composting demonstration projects for the Memphis region

Description: This report documents the development and implementation of the project entitled ``Recycling and Composting Demonstration Projects for the Memphis Region.`` The project was funded by the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives. This Project was implemented by the staff of the Special Programs Section of the Memphis and Shelby County Division of Planning and Development. The project began November 1, 1990, and was completed December 31, 1991. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of a variety of solid waste disposal alternatives.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Muller, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

Description: The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

Description: The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.
Date: January 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling: You are the solution

Description: Americans produce nearly 150 million tons of residential and commercial solid waste each year, or slightly less than 1,400 lb for each one of us. This document contains various items related to public education: exhibit text, vocabulary, collection sites, classroom and individual activities, puzzles, classroom simulations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

Description: This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Little, R. E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P. & Shapiro, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department