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2010 MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 6-11, 2010, TILTON, NH

Description: The Gordon Research Conference on Multiphoton Processes will be held for the 15th time in 2010. The meeting continues to evolve as it embraces both the rapid technological and intellectual growth in the field as well as the multi-disciplinary expertise of the participants. This time the sessions will focus on: (1) Ultrafast coherent control; (2) Free-electron laser experiments and theory; (3) Generation of harmonics and attosecond pulses; (4) Ultrafast imaging; (5) Applications of very high intensity laser fields; (6) Strong-field processes in molecules and solids; (7) Attosecond science; and (8) Controlling light. The scientific program will blur traditional disciplinary boundaries as the presenters and discussion leaders involve chemists, physicists, and optical engineers, representing both experiment and theory. The broad range of expertise and different perspectives of attendees should provide a stimulating and unique environment for solving problems and developing new ideas in this rapidly evolving field.
Date: June 11, 2010
Creator: Gaarde, Mette
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2006 Multiphoton Processes Gordon Conference - June 11-16

Description: The first Gordon Research Conference on Multiphoton Processes, was held in 1982. The meeting continues to evolve as it embraces both the rapid technological and intellectual growth in the field as well as the multi-disciplinary expertise of the participants. Current areas of interest include: (1) Ionization/Dissociation of Atoms and Molecules in Intense Laser Fields; (2) Frequency Domain Multi-Photon and Multiple-Resonance Spectroscopies of Molecules; (3) Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy; (4) Ultrafast Pump-Probe Spectroscopy; (5) Coherent Strong-Field Manipulation of Atoms and Molecules; (6) High-Harmonic Generation; (7) Attosecond Pulse Generation and Measurement; and (8) Super-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions. In developing the program, the conference organizers will strive to blur traditional disciplinary boundaries, involving chemists, physicists, and optical engineers, representing both experiment and theory, as presenters and discussion leaders. The broad range of expertise and different perspectives of attendees should provide a stimulating and unique environment for solving problems and developing new ideas in this rapidly evolving field.
Date: June 11, 2006
Creator: Jones, Robert Rivers
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

Description: The authors solve Dirac`s equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Yu, An & Takahashi, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiphoton processes for atoms in intense electromagnetic fields

Description: Lasers from table-top to giant ICF facilities that produce intense electromagnetic fields (10{sup 14}-10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}) have become important tools in probing the intricate nature of matter-radiation interactions. At such intensities, the laser field equals or exceeds that which binds electrons to an atom or molecule, and a new realm of physics opens in which perturbation theory may no longer suffice. We are developing several sophisticated techniques for treating atoms in such a regime, concentrating on two-photon X-ray absorption in intermediate-weight atoms and on laser-assisted electron-atom collisions. We perform most calculations in a time-independent frame in which field-free scattering formalisms can be invoked. We also investigate time-dependent methods in order to study transient effects. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Collins, L.A.; Abdallah, J. & Csanak, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross sections for ionization and excitation in the two-photon transitions of CO B-X(0,0)

Description: High-resolution spectroscopy of CO B-X is being performed to measure cross sections for the processes of two-photon absorption and ionization that underlie two methods often used for sensitive detection of CO in flames, namely, two-photon LIF and 2+1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via B(v=0). The use of multiphoton excitation is, for even LIF diagnostics, a practical necessity since the allowed one-photon transitions from CO X(v=0) begin at 152 nm. Two 230-nm photons, however, promotes transitions within B{l_arrow}X(0,0); detection in LIF then proceeds by collecting blue to green fluorescence in the Angstrom bands (B{r_arrow}A). In 2+1 REMPI, the ions (or electrons) are monitored as produced by a third ionizing photon at 230 nm that connects B(v=0) to the continuum. The signals acquired with either technique depend on the two-photon excitation rate and also on the ionization rate - a gain in REMPI signal from increased ionization is a loss to LIF in the manner of quenching. The authors have found no direct measurement of the ionization cross section of CO-B in the literature, in that all reported cross sections are extracted from measured trends of REMPI or fluorescence signals versus laser. A rate-equation analysis of a multi-level system was the usual model, with cross sections for intensity, two-photon absorption and ionization varied for best match with the measured trends. Further, only one such study, that of Looney et al., has offered a cross section for the photo-ionization of CO-B at 230 nm.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Di Rosa, M.D. & Farrow, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron dynamics in the strong field limit of photoionization

Description: High precision photoelectron energy and angular distributions in helium and neon atoms for a broad intensity range reflect the change in the continuum dynamics that occurs as the ionization process evolves into the pure tunneling regime. Elastic rescattering of the laser-driven free electron from its parent ion core leaves a distinct signature on the spectra, providing a direct quantitative test of the various theories of strong field multiphoton ionization. We show that it takes a relatively complete semi-classical rescattering model to accurately reproduce the observed photoelectron distributions. However, the calculated inelastic rescattering rate fails to reproduce the measured nonsequential double ionization yields.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Sheehy, B.; Walker, B.; Lafon, R. & Widmer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules and molecular fragments. Annual technical report, March 1991--February 1992

Description: Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) utilizes pulsed laser radiation to prepare a molecule in an excited state via absorption of one or more photons and to subsequently ionize that state before it can decay. The overall objective of this effort is to carry out theoretical studies of these REMPI processes in molecules and molecular fragments which are designed to provide a robust analysis and prediction of key spectral features of interest in several experimental studies and applications of this technique. A specific and very important objective of the effort is to predict the vibrational and rotational ion distributions which result from REMPI of representative molecules and to understand the underlying mechanisms that give use to these ion distributions. The author highlights progress made during this period.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiphoton ionization of ions, neutrals, and clusters. Progress report

Description: Scientific results are summarized from a three year research program on multiphoton ionization in aromatic molecules, clusters, and their ions. As originally proposed, the studies elucidated a new cluster ionization mechanism, characterized properties of long range intermolecular interactions, and investigated electronic transitions of aromatic cations cooled in a supersonic beam. The studies indicate that the new cluster ionization mechanism is highly efficient and dominates conventional 1 + 1 resonant ionization. In the case of the dimer of the large aromatic molecule fluorene, the results suggest that excimer formation competes with a direct ionization process. Highly selective excitonic spectra have been identified for several cluster species.
Date: June 28, 1991
Creator: Wessel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion dip spectroscopy of cold molecules and ions. Progress report and renewal proposal

Description: A research program is underway with the objective of developing techniques of high resolution multiphoton spectroscopy for selective, ultrasensitive molecular detection. Methods under study include various forms of ion dip spectroscopy and new methods of ion fragmentation spectroscopy. The studies are providing a new understanding of the fundamental spectroscopy and photophysics of large molecular ions. Dimer and cluster ions of polynuclear aromatics and related species are also being investigated, with potential detection applications.
Date: August 13, 1987
Creator: Wessel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiphoton ionization of ions, neutrals, and clusters. Final report

Description: A multiyear research program investigating molecular detection methods based on multiphoton spectroscopy has been completed under DOE sponsorship. A number of new laser-based spectroscopic methods were developed and applied to a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, including monomer and cluster species. The objectives of sensitivities approaching single molecule detection combined with high selectivity were achieved. This report references the status of the field at the beginning of this work and summarizes the significant progress during the period from 1987 onward. Detailed scientific findings from the studies are presented in the published literature referenced throughout this report.
Date: December 28, 1995
Creator: Wessel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular detection using Rydberg, autoionizing, and cluster states. Progress report

Description: The author reports on investigations of multiphoton ionization spectroscopy in pure clusters of aromatic molecules and mixed clusters of an aromatic molecule with a rare gas atom. Conditions needed for efficient production of ion clusters are discussed. Experimental results that establish geometry of naphthalene and benzene clusters are described.
Date: August 15, 1990
Creator: Wessel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance enhanced multiphoton and single-photon ionization of molecules and molecular fragments. Final report, May 1993--April 1997

Description: Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) utilizes pulsed laser radiation to prepare a molecule in an excited state via absorption of one or more photons and to subsequently ionize that level before it decays. A remarkable feature of REMPI is that the very narrow bandwidth of laser radiation makes it possible to select a specific rotational level in the initial (ground) state and to prepare the excited state of interest in a single rotational level. Thus, by suitable choice of the excitation step, it is possible to selectively ionize a species that may be present. The key objective of the effort is to carry out quantitative studies of REMPI of molecules and molecular fragments, as well as of single-photon ionization of these species by coherent VUV radiation, in order to provide a robust description of significant spectral features of interest in related experiments and needed insight into the underlying dynamics of these spectra. A major focus of the effort is joint theoretical and experimental studies of these ion rotational distributions which are being widely studied by the zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) technique. This technique, which is based on the detection of photoelectrons resulting from pulsed-field ionization of very high Rydberg states lying just below an ion threshold, makes it possible to obtain cation distributions with subwavenumber resolution. The unprecedented resolution of this ZEKE technique is opening up entirely new vistas in studies of photoionization dynamics, ion spectroscopy, and state-selected ion-molecule reactions. Emerging applications built on the ultra-high resolution of this technique include its use for accurate determination of thermochemically important ionization energies, for characterization of ion rovibrational level structure of large organic molecules, of elemental clusters, and of weakly bound molecular complexes, for probing reactive fragments, and for pump-probe photoelectron studies of wavepacket dynamics. This surge of experimental activity in ultra-high resolution studies ...
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: McKoy, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The screening of the lamb shift in heavy helium-like ions. Final technical report

Description: The project was undertaken in collaboration with Dr. Neal Snyderman of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) through a project under the directorship of Dr. Kennedy Reed of LLNL. It is a collaboration of the work started at LLNL during the summers of 1994 and 1995, and continued at Spelman College. Spelman students Adrienne Stiff and Joy Harris were supported under this project. The main question under investigation was whether a Sturmian representation of the electron Green function is suitable for numerical calculations of QED effects in high-Z helium-like atoms. The frequency-independent part of the two-photon exchange graphs was calculated with this representation and compared with the results of other recent calculations. Only the Coulomb part of these graphs were calculated under this project.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hylton, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance enhanced multiphoton and single-photon ionization of molecules and molecular fragments. Annual technical report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1995

Description: In resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) pulsed laser radiation is utilized to prepare a molecule in an excited state via absorption of one or more photons and to subsequently ionize that level before it decays. A remarkable feature of REMPI is that the very narrow bandwidth of laser radiation makes is possible to select a specific rotational level in the initial (ground) state and to prepare the excited state of interest in a single rotational level. By suitable choice of the excitation step, it is thus possible to selectively ionize a species of interest present in very minor concentrations without ionizing any other species that may be present. This feature makes REMPI a very powerful tool for ultrasensitive detection of trace or transient species.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: McKoy, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules and molecular fragments. Annual technical report

Description: Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) utilizes pulsed laser radiation to prepare a molecule in an excited state via absorption of one or more photons and to subsequently ionize that state before it can decay. A remarkable feature of REMPI, and one that is very basic to many of its applications and uses, is that the very narrow bandwidth of the {open_quotes}pump{close_quotes} laser makes it possible to select a specific vibrational and rotational level in the initial state and to prepare the excited state of interest in a single vibrational and rotational level. Thus, by suitable choice of the photon pump transition, it is possible to selectively ionize a species of interest without ionizing any other species that might be present. This feature makes REMPI one of the most powerful tools for ultrasensitive detection of species. With REMPI it is also possible to study the photoionization dynamics of a single rotational level of an excited electronic state. Such state-resolved studies can certainly be expected to provide significant insight into the underlying dynamics of molecular photoionization.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-photon ionization and three-photon above-threshold ionization of argon

Description: Studies of nonlinear laser-matter interaction have been so far limited to wavelengths from the near ultraviolet to infrared, because of the low brightness of currently available sources outside this range. However nonlinear processes in the VUV/Soft X-ray domain would initiate multiphoton innershell spectroscopy, XUV nonlinear optics and applications of such processes to metrology. The probability of multiphoton transitions decreases rapidly with the number of photons involved. A typical two-photon bound-free transition has a rate of the order of .1 ps{sup {minus}1} at 10{sup 12} W.cm{sup {minus}2} and scales as the square of the intensity. Such an intensity is therefore required to saturate a two-photon transition with a 100 fs pulse. This is difficult to achieve with the present state-of-the-art techniques for producing intense XUV pulses. To the authors knowledge, only two cases of such transitions have been reported so far. The first one is a two-photon ionization of argon by the third harmonic of a KrF laser. Since the photon energy (15 eV) is just below the ionization energy (15.75 eV) for argon, the transition is quasi-resonant. The second case is a two-photon ionization of helium by the 9th harmonic of a Ti:S laser. In the latter case an autocorrelation measurement of the harmonic pulse has been reported. In the present work, the authors report on two-photon ionization of argon at 133 nm (9.3 eV) from the third harmonic of a frequency doubled Ti:S laser, and a three-photon above-threshold ionization involving two 9.3 eV photons and one 3.1 eV photon.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Bouhal, A.; Hamoniaux, G.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Antonetti, A.; Breger, P.; Agostini, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular detection using Rydberg, autoionizing, and cluster states. Progress report

Description: Continuing investigations of multiphoton ionization processes in naphthalene have established the geometry and spectroscopy of trimer and tetramer cluster states. A new, highly efficient ionization mechanism has been identified in the trimer. It is closely related to autoionization of 2-electron atoms by resonant 2-photon excitation and to exciton fusion in larger clusters.
Date: August 17, 1989
Creator: Wessel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies on UV filaments in air

Description: UV filaments in air have been examined on the basis of the diameter and length of the filament, the generation of new spectral components, and the ionization by multiphoton processes. There have been numerous observations of filaments at 800 nm. The general perception is that, above a critical power, the beam focuses because nonlinear self-lensing overcomes diffraction. The self-focusing proceeds until an opposing higher order nonlinearity forms a stable balance.
Date: January 5, 2000
Creator: Schwarz, J.; Rambo, P.; Diels, J.C.; Luk, T.S.; Bernstein, A.C. & Cameron, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopy at metal cluster surfaces. Annual report, Year 2

Description: The focus of our research program is the study of gas phase metal clusters to evaluate their potential to model fundamental interactions present on metal surfaces. To do this, we characterize the chemical bonding present between the component atoms in metal clusters as well as the bonding exhibited by ``physisorption`` on cluster surfaces. Electronic spectra, vibrational frequencies and bond neutral and ionized clusters with a variety of laser/mass spectrometry techniques. We are particularly interested in bimetallic cluster systems, and how their properties compare to those of corresponding pure metal clusters.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Duncan, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas breakdown limits for inverse Cherenkov laser accelerators

Description: The probability of avalanche, tunneling and multiphoton ionization induced by a CO{sub 2} laser in H{sub 2} gas has been calculated. Laser light screening by a self-induced plasma density gradient is considered as the limiting factor for upscaling a CO{sub 2} laser-driven Inverse Cherenkov Laser Accelerator beyond 650 MeV/m. However, in near-resonance inverse Cherenkov acceleration where a shorter wavelength laser is used at a wavelength near the resonance of the gas (e.g. 248nm in H{sub 2}), the formation of a plasma is not a problem because the plasma density is below the critical density. In that case, the laser beam propagates unaffected through the plasma and the acceleration gradient is not limited by gas breakdown. Gradients > 1 GeV/m are possible.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Liu, Y. & Pogorelsky, I.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES

Description: The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES was held at Tilton School, Tilton, NH. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.
Date: July 5, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of laser excitation, ionization and harmonic conversion in inert gas atoms

Description: Studies of non-perturbative multiphoton processes in atoms in pulsed laser fields employ a single-active-electron (SAE) model which follows the time evolution of each valence electron in the frozen, mean-field of the remaining electrons, the nucleus and the laser field. The photoelectron and photon emission spectra, although related, are not identical. A simple two-step, quasi-classical model explains the differences and gives a more complete understanding of the strong field induced dynamics.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Kulander, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department