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The Nature of Things

Description: The Nature of Things is a collection of stories and a preface that examine character motivation. The author is concerned with unexpected reactions and surprising outcomes. The stories are independent of each other and involve a wide range of characters.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Byno, Ashley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Parental Goal Projections and Parental Pressure on the Development of Children's and Adolescents' Goal Orientations in Sport

Description: The present investigation evaluated sport-related motivational climates by assessing personal and perceived parental goal orientations and perceived parental pressure in children and adolescents. Data were collected from 202 middle-class, racially diverse students, including 43 male and 50 female children aged 12 or below (M age = 10.6) and 51 male and 58 female adolescents aged 13 or above (M age = 14.7), who had participated in a variety of organized sports, and were enrolled in elementary, middle, and high schools of the Dallas (TX) Independent School District. Measures included personal and parental projected versions (mother's and father's) of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Sport Parental Pressure Scale (mother's and father's versions), and a background assessment.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Weigand, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation

Description: The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Prentice, Ray (Grant Ray)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of a Theoretical System of Thought Motivity

Description: The purpose of the study was to develop a theory and model for motivity of consciousness which would constitute a system of thought motivity. The major premises of currently prominent theories of motivation, including psychoanalysis, learning theory, self-actualization theory, and topological psychology, were surveyed. Related materials in the area of psychic research and energy systems related to mental function were surveyed. The primary activities and processes called thought motivity were identified along with some of the major forces on the individual. From the identified forces and processes a theory of thought motivity was developed. A conceptual model for motivity of consciousness based upon the theory was designed. The theory and the model considered together constituted the system of thought motivity. Brain processes and biological actions of the human organism were proposed to have a functional, interdependent relationship. Thought was considered to be a functional of brain processes. It was postulated that a certain minimal level of biological actions were continuous in the living organism; therefore, thought was continuous. It was postulated that at any given point in time and space a universe of events would exist which was capable of producing outcomes in the brain. Of that universe of events a field of events was likely to produce outcomes in the brain. Of those events likely to produce outcomes in the brain a region of events would produce outcomes. The net relationship between the universe of events, the field of events, and the region of events was one of decreasing quantity of stimuli. The universe of events was postulated to include stimuli which affected the brain through sensory organs and other receptors. Events which produced outcomes in the brain and were not received through sensory organs were proposed to operate through para-sensory receptors in the brain. As a functional of ...
Date: December 1973
Creator: Cotten, Larry Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants of Effort and Associated Cardiovascular Response to a Behavioral Restraint Challenge

Description: This study directly tested implications of motivation intensity theory on effort to restrain against a behavioral urge or impulse (i.e. restraint intensity). Two factors were manipulated—magnitude of an urge and the importance of successfully resisting it—with cardiovascular (CV) responses related to active coping measured. Male and female undergraduate students were presented with a mildly- or strongly evocative film clip with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement, and performance assessment. As expected, systolic blood pressure responses assessed during the performance period were proportional to the evocativeness of the clip when importance was high, but low regardless of evocativeness when importance was low. These findings support a new conceptual analysis concerned with the determinants and CV correlates of restraint intensity. Implications of the study and associations with current self-regulatory literature are discussed.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Agtarap, Stephanie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Certain Conative Factors of Intellectually Gifted Children to Academic Success

Description: The problem of this study was to ascertain the relationship of certain conative factors of intellectually gifted students to academic success» It involved & comparative analysis of the relationship of those conative factors of intellectually gifted students who were nominated for a program of advanced study in the seventh grade of Junior high school and of intellectually gifted students who were not nominated, this study further involved a comparative analysis of those conative factors as they related to students who were successful in an advanced study program in the seventh grade of junior high school and those students who were less successful.
Date: August 1964
Creator: Stanley, William H., 1921-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impacts of Blogging Motivation and Flow on Blogging Behavior

Description: With the development of free and easy-to-use software programs, blogging has helped turn Web consumers into Web content providers. Blogging provides distinctive insight into comprehending e-consumer behavior explicitly with respect to social networking and information searching behaviors while facilitating a state of flow. The objectives of this study are to identify determinant dimensions of blogging motivations and flow, and to investigate the hypothesized relationships of the motivational blogging behavior. Analyzing data (n = 432) from a southwestern university, results reveal the critical dimensions of motivations, behaviors, and flow in blogging. Upon extending Hoffman and Novak's (1996) flow model, 14 out of 26 hypotheses were confirmed regarding the significant impacts of blogging motivations and flow on blogging behaviors. The findings revealed that the desire for information, enjoyment, and loyalty are the primary drivers for experiential blogging behavior. Specifically, information-seeking is the decisive motivation to urge experiential and e-shopping behavior concurrently. This study shows that indulgence and telepresence in flow might play pivotal mediating roles to promote the goal-oriented e-shopping behavior resulting enjoyment and loyalty-seeking motivations.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Park, Boram
Partner: UNT Libraries

Needs and Membership in Terrorist Organizations

Description: One key to reducing terrorism may be to understand why individuals join terror groups, and to find ways to meet their needs through alternatives to discourage membership in terrorist organizations. The study introduces the hierarchy of needs framework to capture all previous pieces of explanations on why individuals join terror groups under one big umbrella, in order to see the big picture. It does not do a meta-analysis, but rather tests the framework. This study is designed to find out what perceived needs commonly motivate individuals to join terror groups in general and specific terror groups in particular. The research uses Turkey's terrorism experience as a case study which is supported with data from real terrorist in Turkey. Findings of the descriptive analyses show that majority joined a terror group due to social and affiliative needs. The remaining analyses (bivariate, cross-tabulation and binary logistic regression) show that confitents who perceived esteem and recognition were more likely to become members of other/leftist terror groups, and that rightist terror group members in Turkey tend to have higher education. Education mainly affects a confitent's perception of two needs: social and affiliation and self-actualization. Other demographic variables (age group, region of birth, marital status) die not yield any significant relation with membership in terror groups.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Ekici, Siddik
Partner: UNT Libraries

Dual Factor Socially Desirable Responding and Contrasts in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Motivation

Description: A follow-up was done to Leak and Fish's (1989) study of intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals using Paulhus' (1984) Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, a two factor scale of socially desirable responding measuring self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impression management (IM). 275 introduction to psychology students were group tested and categorized by gender and by religious orientation with Allport and Ross's (1967) fourfold Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). Differences between the four types were hypothesized on the religious relevance of the SDE and IM scale items. A difference score was also computed by contrasting two instructional sets on the BIDR as a measure of variation across situations. Measures of private and public self-consciousness, social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and self esteem were included.
Date: December 1994
Creator: McKay, Brock L. (Brock Lindsay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation into Motivations of Instructors Teaching Business and Technical Internet-Based Courses at Two-Year Colleges

Description: This research was conducted to determine why two-year community college instructors teach over the Internet. By understanding why these instructors teach over the Internet, colleges can recruit more instructors to teach using the Web thus allowing colleges to offer more Internet courses. They can also use the information to keep the instructors who are currently teaching over the Internet satisfied, and motivate them to continue to teach. To gather this information, a questionnaire was created and evaluated for reliability and validity during a pilot study. It was then sent to those instructors who taught over the Internet, and had their e-mails available on their campus Website. A 30.5% response rate (N=100) was achieved. The survey was divided into two sections, a demographics section and a Likert scale dealing with motivation. The Likert scale had six choices ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree and 31 statements. The demographic data were reported and summarized. The Likert items were examined using factor analysis techniques, and a number of components were discovered. Eight components, made up of the 31 variables from the Likert scale were found using the factor analysis. The eight components in order are labeled: Technical and Computer Challenges, School Promotion, Student Preferences, Personal Benefits, Receiving Computerized Assistance, Growth and Knowledge, Textbook Company Assistance, and Pay.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Swartwout, Nansi. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Consumer Shopping Motivations on Online Auction Behaviors: An Investigation of Searching, Bidding, Purchasing, and Selling

Description: The purposes of the study were to: 1) identify the underlying dimensions of consumer shopping motivations and attitudes toward online auction behaviors; 2) examine the relationships between shopping motivations and online auction behaviors; and 3) examine the relationships between shopping attitudes and online auction behaviors. Students (N = 341) enrolled at the University of North Texas completed self-administered questionnaires measuring shopping motivations, attitudes, online auction behaviors, and demographic characteristics. Using multiple regression analyses to test the hypothesized relationships, shopping motivations and shopping attitudes were significantly related to online auction behaviors. Understanding the relationships is beneficial for companies that seek to retain customers and increase their sales through online auction.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Jeon, Sua
Partner: UNT Libraries

Readiness for change as a predictor of treatment effectiveness: An application of the transtheoretical model.

Description: Clinical research suggests that adolescent offenders often do not view their criminal behaviors as problematic and, therefore, are not motivated for treatment. Although customarily defined as a static characteristic, the transtheoretical model (TTM) proposes treatment amenability is dynamic and can be achieved through tailored interventions that motivate individuals for treatment. The current study examines the predictive validity of TTM measures for adolescent offenders at a maximum security correctional facility. In particular, the Stages of Change Scale (SOCS) and Decisional Balance for Adolescent Offenders (DBS-AO) were compared with a more traditional assessment tool utilized in evaluating treatment amenability of juvenile offenders (i.e., Risk-Sophistication-Treatment Inventory; RSTI). One hundred adolescent offenders from the Gainesville State School completed two waves of data collection with a 3-month time interval. Information was collected on offenders' treatment progress between waves. Consistent with TTM research, predictors of treatment progress included low scores on the Cons scale on the DBS-AO and on the Precontemplation scale on the SOCS. Participants in the most advanced levels of treatment also scored high on the Sophistication-Maturity scale on the RSTI and the Impression Management scale on the Paulhus Deception Scale.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Jordan, Mandy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Towards Resistance Detection in Health Behavior Change Dialogue Systems

Description: One of the challenges fairly common in motivational interviewing is patient resistance to health behavior change. Hence, automated dialog systems aimed at counseling patients need to be capable of detecting resistance and appropriately altering dialog. This thesis focusses primarily on the development of such a system for automatic identification of patient resistance to behavioral change. This enables the dialogue system to direct the discourse towards a more agreeable ground and helping the patient overcome the obstacles in his or her way to change. This thesis also proposes a dialogue system framework for health behavior change via natural language analysis and generation. The proposed framework facilitates automated motivational interviewing from clinical psychology and involves three broad stages: rapport building and health topic identification, assessment of the patient’s opinion about making a change, and developing a plan. Using this framework patients can be encouraged to reflect on the options available and choose the best for a healthier life.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Sarma, Bandita
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

Description: The present study examined Garland's cognitive mediation theory of goal setting in a three-minute basketball shooting task. The effects of different goal conditions were also investigated along with achievement motivation and self-motivation as mediating constructs of performance. Subjects (N=150) were males and females, assigned to one of five goal conditions: "do your best", easy, moderate, hard, and improbable. Results indicated no performance differences between the different goal conditions, with subjects in the "do your best" condition performing as well as subjects in the other goal conditions. Results also yielded partial support for Garland's cognitive mediation theory with task goals influencing performance through its influence on performance expectancy. Furthermore, a negative correlation between achievement motivation and performance was found for females in the improbable goal condition and a positive correlation was found between self-motivation and performance for females in the easy goal condition.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Bagnall, Jamie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Evaluation Theory Applied to Nonhuman Subjects

Description: The Cognitive Evaluation Theory explains the outcomes of studies employing Deci's paradigm, but only when used post hoc. A basic assumption is that extrinsic rewards always increase intrinsic motivation for nonhuman subjects. Deci's paradigm was modified for use with 22 rats to test this assumption. Running in an exercise wheel was the intrinsically motivated activity studied. ANCOVA revealed that external rewards increased intrinsic interest on the first day following the cessation of reinforcement (F = 8.32), but on two subsequent days and again a week later, no significant differences between the reward and control groups were evident (F = .29; F = .33; F = 3.70). The assumption was not supported. It was demonstrated that repeated posttest measures are necessary to avoid basing conclusions upon one point along the extinction continuum.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Hafer, Donald G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relations Between Perceived Parent, Coach, and Peer Created Motivational Climates, Goal Orientations, and Mental Toughness in High School Varsity Athletes

Description: Determining the factors that contribute to mental toughness development in athletes has become a focus for researchers as coaches, athletes, and others extol its influence on performance success. In this study we examined a model of mental toughness development based on achievement goal theory, assessing the relations between motivational climates, goal orientations, and mental toughness. Five hundred ninety-nine varsity athletes, representing 13 different sports from six different high schools in a southwestern United States school district, participated in the study. Athletes completed self-report measures assessing parent, peer, and coach motivational climates, goal orientations, and their mental toughness. Initially, I examined the measurement model and found it fit the data well both in the exploratory (SRMR = .06; CFI = .94) and confirmatory (SRMR = .06; CFI = .95) samples. Second, the structural model was examined and found to fit the data well in both the exploratory (SRMR = .08; CFI = .93) and confirmatory samples (SRMR = .07, CFI = .95). Parent task-involving climate, (β = .55; p < .05) and coach task-involving climate (β = .32; p < .05), but not peer task-involving climate (β = .05), were associated with task goal orientation (R2 = .57). Ego goal orientation (R2 = .32) was explained by peer ego-involving climate (β = .15; p < .05), parent ego-involving climate (β = .39; p < .05), and coach ego-involving climate (β = .16; p < .05). Finally, only task goal orientation (β = .75; p < .05) was related to the athletes’ mental toughness (R2 = .56); the ego goal orientation pathway was not significant (β = .04). These results speak to the potential positive influence of parents and coaches on athletes’ mental toughness through their endorsement of task-involving messages and pursuits leading to the development of a task goal orientation.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Beck, Nicholas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of Interrater Agreement Between the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS), Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), and Analog Assessment Outcomes

Description: An analysis of interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments was compared with experimental functional analysis outcomes for correspondence. Experiment 1 evaluated the agreement of multiple respondents on the function of problem behavior for 22 individuals across 42 target behaviors using the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF). Results showed agreement on the primary maintaining consequence for 4 or 5 of the 5 respondents in 52% (22/42) of the individual's target behaviors with the MAS and 57% (24/42) with the QABF. Experiment 2 examined whether correspondence occurred between the anecdotal assessment results and experimental functional analysis (EFA) results for 7 individuals selected from Experiment 1. Correspondence between the QABF assessment and the EFA was found for 6 of 7 participants, and 4 of the 7 showed correspondence between the EFA and the MAS. This study showed that the QABF had higher correspondence with analog assessments than the MAS thus, supporting the previous findings of Paclawskyj et al. (2001).
Date: May 2010
Creator: Smith, Carla Michelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Racial Differences in Female Achievement Motivation and Motivation to Work

Description: In the present project racial differences in female achievement motivation and motivation to work were examined, and related this information to the theory that African American females, when compared to White females, are less likely to marry someone equal to themselves in the areas of education, employment, and earning potential because of an assumed shortage of suitable African-American males. It was hypothesized that African-American females would score higher on assessments of achievement motivation and motivation to work, and rate lower the likelihood of meeting and marrying a partner equal in education level, employment level, and earning potential than would White females. Data analysis supported all hypotheses. The results were discussed in the context of the female achievement motivation literature as well as the literature concerning female motivation to work.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bruner, Yolanda Kaye
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of a Spiritual Calling to Motivation, Locus of Control, Burnout and Longevity in Teaching

Description: In this study, six research questions were addressed: (1) Does a teacher who has a spiritual calling have a different motivation (self, interaction, task) to his/her work than a teacher who does not have a spiritual calling? (2) Does a teacher who feels a spiritual calling have a different locus of control (internal, external) than a teacher who does not have a spiritual calling? (3) Does a teacher who has a spiritual calling have a different degree of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) than a teacher who does not have a spiritual calling? (4) Does a teacher who has a spiritual calling have a different sense of voluntary commitment in the longevity of his/her work experience than a teacher who does not have a spiritual calling? (5) Is there a different concentration of teachers who have a spiritual calling in public or parochial schools? (6) Does the public or religious school affiliation make a difference in research questions #1 through #4? A Teacher Motivation Inventory was compiled using The Orientation Inventory by Bass, Rotter's Internal/External Locus of Control, Maslach Burnout Inventory by Maslach, Jackson, and Schwab, a Researcher-made Spiritual Calling Inventory, and longevity questions. Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons test and Chi-square Test of Independence were used. This study was conducted in the spring of 1994 in public, Baptist, Catholic, Lutheran and Jewish elementary schools. Teachers who scored in the upper third on the Spiritual Calling Inventory were categorized as having a spiritual calling to teaching. Teachers who had a spiritual calling had a significantly more internal locus of control, were less likely to depersonalize students, had greater personal accomplishment and were more likely to choose teaching again than those not having a spiritual calling. A spiritual calling had a significant relationship to some very meaningful, attractive qualities in ...
Date: December 1994
Creator: Zimmer, Katrina R. Nottingham (Katrina Rene Nottingham)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organizational Identity, Health Identity, and Motivation: a Symbolic Interactionist Approach to the Understanding of Heath Behaviors in Work Settings

Description: Identity is an important determinant of behavior. This paper proposed an identity model as one way of understanding those factors related to the perceived probability or willingness of a worker to participate in health promotion programming at the worksite. Part of a larger study on employee wellness, this study took place in the municipal complex of a small city in the southeastern United States. A stratified cross sectional sample of 150 employees was selected utilizing a systematic random sampling methodology. Structured interviews were conducted with 129 participants resulting in a response rate of 92% after adjusting for those people no longer employed by the city. In order to test the identity model developed by this author, descriptive analysis, simple multiple regression analysis and path analysis were utilized. The dependent variable, perceived willingness to participate in health promotion programming, was examined in relationship to commitment to one's health identity, commitment to one's organizational identity, tendency to comply with health initiatives, and the forms of supervisory power utilized to enact employee compliance. The descriptive analysis revealed that subjective health status is moderately and positively associated with commitment to one's health identity, that individuals can be strongly committed to a negative/destructive health identity, and that both the family and physician play important roles as health advice givers. The path analysis revealed that commitment to one's organizational identity, commitment to one's health identity, and tendency to comply with health initiatives are significantly and positively associated with willingness to participate in health promotion programming, accounting for 25% of the variance in the dependent variable. In contrast, the forms of supervisory power were not shown to be related to the dependent variable. In conclusion, the identity model appears to be a useful tool for the understanding of health attitudes and behaviors within a work setting.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Weber, Linda R. (Linda Roberta)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Levels of resourcefulness and motivation as they relate to sales force success: An examination of correlates using the hope theory.

Description: This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between individual salesperson's levels of goal-directed cognition and motivation and their professional success as determined by the percentage of sales goals achieved. Salespersons represented two companies with national sales forces: one from the financial services industry and one from the apparel manufacturing industry. Both groups of salespeople were responsible for complex selling tasks. The skill sets for these professionals included high levels of communication skills, extensive product knowledge, and competitive market knowledge. Survey research, both paper and pencil and online, was conducted using the Hope Scale developed by C. R. Snyder and associates (1991). Hope is defined as a two-dimensional construct of goal-directed thinking: resourcefulness, thoughtful planning to overcome obstacles to goals, and motivation, cognition to sustain momentum toward goal achievement. Theoretically, upon assessing salespersons' Hope scores, organizations would be better prepared to assist those with low Hope Scale Scores (HSS) in one of the two areas. Those with low resourcefulness scores could be trained in cognitive techniques to overcome obstacles to goal achievement. Those with low motivational scores would be identified for further analysis, from a developmental perspective, to better determine what personally initiates and sustains motivation to attain their goals (Snyder, 1991). This study affirmed two of three parts of the hope theory with regard to salespeople. High Hope scores showed significant correlations with high goal achievement, as did one of the subset scores, motivation. The resourcefulness subset score did not correlate significantly with high goal achievement, and also produced low reliability scores.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Pool, Patricia W.
Partner: UNT Libraries