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Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

Description: To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg & Blanchard, Jeremy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)

Description: The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.
Date: March 17, 2010
Creator: Zimring, Mark & Fuller, Merrian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Loss Monitors in the NSLS Storage Rings

Description: Beam loss monitors (BLM) have been used for more than two decades in the VUV ring at the NSLS. These have proved useful for optimizing injection and operation of the ring. Recently similar monitors have been installed in the X-ray ring and are being used to better understand injection, as well as operation of the ring. These units have been compared with the Bergoz BLMs, which have been mostly useful for understanding operating beam losses.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Kramer,S.L. & Fedurin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench test of a residual gas ionization profile monitor (RGIPM)

Description: An RGIPM has been designed1, constructed and bench tested to verify that all components are functioning properly and that the desired resolution of about 50 {micro}m rms can be achieved. This paper will describe major considerations that went into the bench test and some results.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Sellyey, W. C. (William C.); Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas) & Senior, R. (Ralph)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A General Analysis of Thin Wire Pickups for High Frequency Beam Position Monitors

Description: In many particle accelerators, a large number of high frequency beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to track and correct the orbit of the beam. Therefore, simple, sensitive, low cost pickup designs for such BPMs are of widespread interest. In this paper, a general analysis of arbitrarily terminated thin wire stripline or
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Barry, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of base and PAG on deprotection blur in EUV photoresists and some thoughts on shot noise

Description: A contact-hole deprotection blur metric has been used to monitor the deprotection blur of an experimental open platform resist (EH27) as the weight percent of base and photo acid generator (PAG) were varied. A 6x increase in base weight percent is shown to reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 52 nm to 39 nm without changing deprotection blur. Corresponding isolated line-edge-roughness is reduced from 6.9 nm to 4.1 nm. A 2x increase in PAG weight percent is shown to improve 1:1 line-space patterning from 47 nm to 40 nm without changing deprotection blur or isolated LER. A discussion of improved patterning performance as related to shot noise and deprotection blur concludes with a speculation that the spatial distribution of PAG molecules has been playing some role, perhaps a dominant one, in determining the uniformity of photo generated acids in the resists that have been studied.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Hassanein, Elsayed; Brainard, Robert; Gallatin, Gregg et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

Description: This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.
Date: September 27, 2000
Creator: MCCAIN, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines

Description: The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.
Date: January 4, 2000
Creator: Escher, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock Initiation of New and Aged PBX 9501 Measured with Embedded Electromagnetic Particle Velocity Gauges

Description: We have used an embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauge technique to measure the shock initiation behavior in PBX 9501 explosive. Up to twelve separate particle velocity wave profile measurements have been made at different depths in a single experiment. These detail the growth from an input shock to a detonation. In addition, another gauge element called a ''shock tracker'' has been used to monitor the progress of the shock front as a function of time and position as it moves through the explosive sample. This provides data similar to that obtained in a traditional explosively driven wedge test and is used to determine the position and time that the wave attains detonation. Run distance-to-detonation vs. input pressure (Pop-plot) data and particle velocity wave profile data have been obtained on new PBX 9501 pressed to densities of 1.826, 1.830, and 1.837 g/cm{sup 3}. In addition, the same measurements were performed on aged material recovered from dismantled W76 and W78 weapons. The input pressure range covered was 3.0 to 5.2 GPa. All results to date show shock sensitivity to be a function only of the initial density and not of age. PBX 9501 shock initiates the same after 17 years in stockpile as it does on the day it is pressed. Particle velocity wave profiles show mixed heterogeneous initiation (growth in the front) and homogeneous initiation (growth behind the front).
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Hill, L. G.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Alcon, R. R. & Sheffield, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors

Description: Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors (CAMs) were tested against the performance criteria of the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 761-6, ``Equipment for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Gaseous Effluents, Part 6: Specific Requirements for Transuranic Aerosol Effluent Monitors``, and against ANSI N42.17B, ``Performance Specification Health Physics Instrumentation--Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation``. The performance criteria require the CAM`s response to a radioactive source to remain within a tolerance while the CAM is exposed to an external influence such as temperature, electromagnetic fields, or ionizing radiations. The CAMs complied within specified tolerances with a majority of the performance specifications. The most significant problems with CAM performance were noted during exposures to external nonionizing radiation fields (radio frequency fields). At numerous frequencies, the CAMs did not respond to radioactive material in the filter holder. At other frequencies and in some orientations, the CAMs overresponded by orders of magnitude. In addition to sensitivity to external nonionizing radiation fields, the CAMs exhibited sensitivity to electrostatic discharges.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Johnson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: It is well known that beam position monitors (BPM) utilizing signals from pickup electrodes (PUE) provide good resolution and relative accuracy. The absolute accuracy (i.e. position of the orbit in the vacuum chamber) is not very good due to the various reasons. To overcome the limitation it was suggested to use magnetic centers of quadrupoles for the calibration of the BPM [1]. The proposed method provides accuracy better then 200 microns for centering of the beam position monitors using modulation of the whole quadrupole family.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: PINAYEV, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

Description: Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan & Goldman, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coalescing at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector

Description: For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10{sup 11} particles per bunch into the Main Injector. To prepare for this by studying the effects of higher intensity bunches in the Main Injector it is necessary to perform coalescing at 8 GeV. The results of a series of experiments and simulations of 8 GeV coalescing are presented. To increase the coalescing efficiency adiabatic reduction of the 53 MHz RF is required. This results in {approx}70% coalescing efficiency of 5 initial bunches. Data using wall current monitors has been taken to compare previous work and new simulations for 53 MHz RF reduction, bunch rotations and coalescing, good agreement between experiment and simulation was found. By increasing the number of bunches to 7 and compressing the bunch energy spread a scheme generating approximately 3 10{sup 11} particles in a bunch has been achieved. These bunches will then be used in further investigations.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Chase, B.; Dye, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Booster-to-AGS Multiwires and an Evolution of the Application Profile Display

Description: Follow up on BtA multiwire beam measurements taken during the 2008 polarized proton run has led to a number of better understandings (for the author) associated with the beam instrumentation involved. This history will be reviewed--some 'beam-based' results noted--and the present state of the application for these monitors described. The BtA multiwire system seems to be fundamentally an excellent diagnostic for allowing us to get the BtA line well under control in a defendable way. When beam is available in BtA, carrying out some systematic measurements with the system can get us there.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Ahrens,L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lab-Based Measurement of Remediation Techniques for Radiation Portal Monitors (Initial Report)

Description: Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD) are known to be sensitive to the natural environmental radioactive background. There are several techniques used to mitigate the effects of background on the monitors, but since the installation environments can vary significantly from one another the need for a standardized, systematic, study of remediation techniques was proposed and carried out. This study is not meant to serve as the absolute last word on the subject. The data collected are, however, intelligible and useful. Some compromises were made, each of which will be described in detail. The hope of this initial report is to familiarize the SLD science teams with ORNL's effort to model the effect of various remediation techniques on simple, static backgrounds. This study provides a good start toward benchmarking the model, and each additional increment of data will serve to make the model more robust. The scope of this initial study is limited to a few basic cases. Its purpose is to prove the utility of lab-based study of remediation techniques and serve as a standard data set for future use. This importance of this first step of standardization will become obvious when science teams are working in parallel on issues of remediation; having a common starting point will do away with one category of difference, thereby making easier the task of determining the sources of disagreement. Further measurements will augment this data set, allowing for further constraint of the universe of possible situations. As will be discussed in the 'Going Forward' section, more data will be included in the final report of this work. Of particular interest will be the data taken with the official TSA lead collimators, which will provide more direct results for comparison with installation data.
Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: Livesay, Jake; Guzzardo, Tyler & Lousteau, Angela L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

Description: Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Chuang, Steven S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bunch profiles in RHIC from CNI polarimeter target scans.

Description: During the RHIC run-4 polarized proton operation, the intensity and polarization profiles were measured by scanning the Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) polarimeter targets across the beam. The scans reported here were all performed on flattop at beam momenta {approx}100 GeV/c, and all but one was a vertical scan, since several of the vertical polarimeter targets had broken by the time of the measurements. This note summarizes some analyses of these profiles. Wall current monitor data are compared to these results for one beam and fill.
Date: June 3, 2005
Creator: Spinka, H. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A least squares method for CVT calibration in a RLC capacitor discharge circuit.

Description: In many applications, the ability to monitor the output of a capacitive discharge circuit is imperative to ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the unit. This monitoring is commonly accomplished with the use of a Current Viewing Transformer (CVT). In order to calibrate the CVT, the circuit is assembled with a Current Viewing Transformer (CVR) in addition to the CVT and the peak outputs compared. However, difficulties encountered with the use of CVRs make it desirable to eliminate the use of the CVR from the calibration process. This report describes a method for determining the calibration factor between the current throughput and the CVT voltage output in a capacitive discharge unit from the CVT ringdown data and values of initial voltage and capacitance of the circuit. Previous linear RLC fitting work for determining R, L, and C is adapted to return values of R, L, and the calibration factor, k. Separate solutions for underdamped and overdamped cases are presented and implemented on real circuit data using MathCad software with positive results. This technique may also offer a unique approach to self calibration of current measuring devices.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Yao, Stephen E.; Dickey, Fred McCartney & Pecak, Sara North
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department