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Low cost MCFC anodes

Description: This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Erickson, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Survey on Electrode Aging in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

Description: To evaluate potential electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells, we reviewed the literature pertaining to these cells and interviewed investigators working in fuel cell technology. In this critical survey, the effect of three electrode aging processes - corrosion or oxidation, sintering, and poisoning - on these potential fuel-cell electrodes is presented. It is concluded that anodes of stabilized nickel and cathodes of lithium-doped NiO are the most promising electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells, but that further research and development of these electrodes are needed. In particular, the effect of contaminants such as H2S and HCl on the nickel anode must be investigated, and methods to improve the physical strength and to increase the conductivity of NiO cathodes must be explored. Recommendations are given on areas of applied electrode research that should accelerate the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Kinoshita, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High power density molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: Our results to date indicate that the specific power of the MCFC can be increased from 1200 W/m{sup 2} to above 2000W/m{sup 2} through the use of advanced components such as the double doped LiFeO{sub 2} cathode and pressurized operation. Its volumetric power density can also be increased by an additional 60% by multiple manifolding. Therefore, MCFCs with two to three times the power density of the current generation of MCFCs are possible.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bloom, I.; Johnson, S. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Roche, M. F.; Krumpelt, M. & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endurance testing With Li/Na electrolyte

Description: Test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17, 000 hr with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hr at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system- defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J. & Sishtla, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-segregating electrolytes for molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: Current MCFCs use a Li/K carbonate mixture; the segregation increases the K concentration near the cathode, leading to increase cathode solubility and performance decline. ANL is developing molten carbonates that have minimal segregation; the approach is using Li-Na carbonates. In screening tests, fully developed potential distributions were obtained for 4 Li/Na compositions, and performance data were used to compare these.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Kaun, T. & Lanagan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCFC product development test. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: This is the fourth annual report covering progress made under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC21-92MC29237, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test. The project is for the design, construction, and testing of a 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant in the City of Santa Clara, California, and the period covered in this fourth annual report is October, 1995 to September, 1996. The report is divided into sections which describe the progress in various program activities. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule. Section 3 presents a summary by Task of the progress achieved in this fourth year of the program.
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCFC component development at ANL.

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathode and electrolyte components for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Working in support of the MCFC developers, the goal of this effort is to extend the life of the MCFC cell and to improve its performance.
Date: September 15, 1998
Creator: Bloom, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supporting R&D of industrial fuel cell developers.

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is supporting the industrial developers of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results suggest that a lithium concentration level of 65-75 mol% in the LiNa electrolyte will improve cell performance. They have made inroads in understanding the interfacial resistance of bipolar plate materials, and they have reduced the air electrode overpotential in OSFCs by adding dopants.
Date: September 11, 1998
Creator: Krumpelt, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERC commercialization activities

Description: The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Maru, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pitting corrosion of aluminized seals in molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: The objective of this research is to gain a better understanding of the corrosion of the aluminized type 316 stainless steel employed in the seal areas of the molten carbonate fuel cell. The seals are formed between the aluminized Type 316 SS surface and the electrolyte (generally a mixture of molten alkali carbonates and lithium aluminate).
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M. F. & Bloom, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding of carbonate fuel cell resistance issues for performance improvement

Description: The overall objective of the current Task 6 under Contract AC21-90MC27168 is to develop understanding as well as quantification of cell ohmic resistance in carbonate fuel cell. The important resistance-contributing interfaces and elements are being investigated in high-temperature out-of-cell resistance experiments, using an AC-impedance technique. Ohmic resistance loss in a state-of-the-art carbonate fuel cell contributes about 65 mV loss at BOL (beginning-of-life). It may increase to about as much as 145 mV after 40,000 hours. Its reduction will offer further improvement in fuel cell power plant efficiency. The important resistance contributing elements/interfaces are illustrated in Figure 1. The majority of the ohmic loss attributed to electrolyte matrix (ionic) and cathode-side hardware (electronic). The ohmic loss due to anode-side hardware can generally be neglected because the anode-side hardware is surface protected resulting in very little surface oxide formation. The ohmic resistance of the electrodes is also negligible. The matrix ionic resistance is influenced by many factors: electrolyte conductivity, matrix porosity, tortuosity, electrolyte fill level and matrix thickness. At present, matrix contributes to > 300 m{Omega}cm{sup 2} (>70% of the total cell ohmic resistance) and is the major resistance contributor.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Yuh, C. Y.; Farooque, M. & Johnsen, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiply manifolded molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: This study consists of research and development activities related to the concept of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with multiple manifolds. Objective is to develop an MCFC having a higher power density and a longer life than other MCFC designs. The higher power density will result from thinner gas flow channels; the extended life will result from reduced temperature gradients. Simplification of the gas flow channels and current collectors may also significantly reduce cost for the multiply manifolded MCFC.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M. F.; Geyer, H. K. & Johnson, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1983

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A. & Arons, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Description: SS 304 was encapsulated with thin layers of Co-Ni by an electroless deposition process. The corrosion behavior of SS304 and Co-Ni-SS304 was investigated in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere with electrochemical and surface characterization tools. Surface modification of SS304 reduced the dissolution of chromium and nickel into the molten carbonate melt. Composition of the corrosion scale formed in case of Co-Ni-SS304 is different from SS304 and shows the presence of Co and Ni oxides while the latter shows the presence of lithium ferrite. Polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction and conductivity of corrosion values for the corrosion scales were obtained using impedance analysis and current-potential plots. The results indicated lower polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction in the case of Co-Ni-SS304 when compared to SS304. Also, the conductivity of the corrosion scales was considerably higher in case of Co-Ni-SS304 than the SS304. This study shows that modifying the current collector surface with Co-Ni coatings leads to the formation of oxide scales with improved barrier properties and electronic conductivity.
Date: March 31, 2001
Creator: White, Dr. Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

Description: A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The primary objective of this project is to establish, by 1998, the commercial readiness of MW-class molten carbonate fuel cell power plants for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Tasks include system design and analysis, manufacturing, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. molten carbonate fuel-cell development and commercialization effort

Description: The authors discuss the status of molten carbonate fuel-cell (MCFC) development in the US, including the role of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in commercializing MCFC power-plant products for use by gas utility and electric power industries. The authors describe major fundamental stack research issues, as well as MCFC power-plant network and system issues, that need to be resolved before MCFC technology can be commercialized. A significant initiative in MCFC research is the spatial configuration of MCFC stacks into networks in a fuel-cell power plant.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr. & Mayfield, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

Description: The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.
Date: January 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost

Description: Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Allen, J. & Doyon, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department