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Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

Description: A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.
Date: July 30, 2008
Creator: Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N. & Tracy, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) Coupling and its Critical Dependence on EBW Collisional Loss in High-β, H-mode ST Plasmas

Description: High-β spherical tokamak (ST) plasma conditions cut off propagation of electron cyclotron (EC) waves used for heating and current drive in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has no density cutoff and is strongly absorbed and emitted at the EC harmonics, allowing EBWs to be used for heating and current drive in STs. However, this application requires efficient EBW coupling in the high-β, H-mode ST plasma regime. EBW emission (EBE) diagnostics and modelling have been employed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study oblique EBW to O-mode (B–X–O) coupling and propagation in H-mode plasmas. Efficient EBW coupling was measured before the L–H transition, but rapidly decayed thereafter. EBE simulations show that EBW collisional damping prior to mode conversion (MC) in the plasma scrape off reduces the coupling efficiency during the H-mode phase when the electron temperature is less than 30 eV inside the MC layer. Lithium evaporation during H-mode plasmas was successfully used to reduce this EBW collisional damping by reducing the electron density and increase the electron temperature in the plasma scrape off. Lithium conditioning increased the measured B–X–O coupling efficiency from less than 10% to 60%, consistent with EBE simulations.
Date: February 3, 2010
Creator: Diem, S. J.; Caughman, J. B.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Conversion of Thermal Electron Bernstein Waves to the Extraordinary Electromagnetic Mode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

Description: A four-fold increase in the conversion of thermal electron-Bernstein waves (EBW) to the extraordinary mode (X-mode) was measured when the density scale length (L subscript ''n'') was progressively shortened by a local Boron nitride limiter in the scrape-off of an ohmically heated National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasma [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng, et al., Proceedings 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135]. The maximum conversion efficiency approached 50% when L subscript ''n'' was reduced to 0.7 cm, in agreement with theoretical predictions that used locally measured L subscript ''n''. Calculations indicate that it is possible to establish L subscript ''n'' < 0.3 cm with a local limiter, a value predicted to attain approximately 100% EBW conversion to the X-mode in support of proposed EBW heating and current drive scenarios.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Wilson, J.R.; Wilgen, J.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient Coupling of Thermal Electron Bernstein Waves to the Ordinary Electromagnetic Mode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

Description: Efficient coupling of thermal electron Bernstein waves (EBW) to ordinary mode (Omode) electromagnetic radiation has been measured in plasmas heated by energetic neutral beams and high harmonic fast waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng, et al., Proceedings 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol.3, p. 1135]. The EBW to electromagnetic mode coupling efficiency was measured to be 0.8 {+-} 0.2, compared to a numerical EBW modeling prediction of 0.65. The observation of efficient EBW coupling to O-mode, in relatively good agreement with numerical modeling, is a necessary prerequisite for implementing a proposed high power EBW current drive system on NSTX.
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Carter, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.; Wilgen, J.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-mode wavepath depth imaging for the SEG/EAGE salt model

Description: Elastic depth imaging of both P-wave and S-wave prestack seismic reflection data is formulated as a degraded form of Kirchhoff migration known as Wavepath Migration (WM). Applications to the SEG/EAGE salt model show that the method is sufficiently versatile anti relaitively inexpensive. It handles S-wave data with at least the same accuracy as Pwave data when local mode conversions are removed. WM also provides an understanding of multi-mode illumination.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Druzhinin, A. (Alexander); House, L. S. (Leigh S.) & Pajchel, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of Compact Multi-Megawatt Mode Converter

Description: Experience gained during recent operation of high power 11.424 GHz rf sources for accelerators led to new, more strict requirements on system components. One of the basic components of such a system is a mode converter that transforms the rectangular waveguide mode into the TE{sub 01} mode in circular waveguide. With such a converter, it is possible to minimize the use of WR90 rectangular waveguide which was shown to be a weak part of the previous system at power levels higher than 100 MW and pulse lengths on the order of a microsecond. We used several methods to design a mode converter with extremely low parasitic mode conversion and compact size. These methods employ HFSS[4] and include multi-parameter searches, concurrent optimization with a mode-matching code Cascade[2], cascading of resulting S-matrices, and tolerance analysis using perturbation techniques. This report describes the design methods and presents results.
Date: March 21, 2006
Creator: Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Escaping radio emission from pulsars: Possible role of velocity shear

Description: It is demonstrated that the velocity shear, intrinsic to the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} plasma present in the pulsar magnetosphere, can efficiently convert the nonescaping longitudinal Langmuir waves (produced by some kind of a beam or stream instability) into propagating (escaping) electromagnetic waves. It is suggested that this shear induced transformation may be the basic mechanism needed for the eventual generation of the observed pulsar radio emission.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Mahajan, S.M.; Machabeli, G.Z. & Rogava, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Signatures of mode conversion and kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause

Description: It has been suggested that resonant mode conversion of compressional MHD waves into kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause can explain the abrupt transition in wave polarization from compressional to transverse commonly observed during magnetopause crossings. The authors analyze magnetic field data for magnetopause crossings as a function of magnetic shear angle (defined as the angle between the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere) and compare with the theory of resonant mode conversion. The data suggest that amplification in the transverse magnetic field component at the magnetopause is not significant up to a threshold magnetic shear angle. Above the threshold angle significant amplification results, but with weak dependence on magnetic shear angle. Waves with higher frequency are less amplified and have a higher threshold angle. These observations are qualitatively consistent with theoretical results obtained from the kinetic-fluid wave equations.
Date: July 21, 2000
Creator: Johnson, Jay R. & Cheng, C. Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Aperiodic Waveguide Mode Converters

Description: Previous studies by Haq, Webb and others have demonstrated the design of aperiodic waveguide structures to act as filters and mode converters. These aperiodic structures have been shown to yield high efficiency mode conversion or filtering in lengths considerably shorter than structures using gradual transitions and periodic perturbations. The design method developed by Haq and others has used mode-matching models for the irregular, stepped waveguides coupled with computer optimization to achieve the design goal using a Matlab optimization routine. Similar designs are described here, using a mode matching code written in Fortran and with optimization accomplished with the downhill simplex method with simulated annealing using an algorithm from the book Numerical Recipes in Fortran. Where Haq et al. looked mainly for waveguide shapes with relatively wide cavities, we have sought lower profile designs. It is found that lower profiles can meet the design goals and result in a structure with lower Q. In any case, there appear to be very many possible configurations for a given mode conversion goal, to the point that it is unlikely to find the same design twice. Tolerance analysis was carried out for the designs to show edge sensitivity and Monte Carlo degradation rate. The mode matching code and mode conversion designs were validated by comparison with FDTD solutions for the discontinuous waveguides.
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Burke, G J; White, D A & Thompson, C A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on PEP-II Magnet Power Conversion System?

Description: The various power systems for supplying the PEP-II DCmagnets rely exclusively on switch mode conversion, utilizing a varietyof means depending on the requirements. All of the larger power supplies,ranging from 10 to 200 kW, are powered from DC sources utilizingrectified 480 V AC. Choppers can be used for the series connectedstrings, but for smaller groups and individual magnets, inverters drivinghigh-frequency transformers with secondary rectifiers comprise the bestapproach. All of the various systems use a "building block" approach ofmultiple standard-size units connected in series or parallel to mostcost-effectively deal with a great range of voltage and currentrequirements. Utilization of existing infrastructure from PEP-I has beena cost-effective determinant. Equipment is being purchased eitheroff-the-shelf, through performance specification, or by hardware purchasebased on design-through-prototype. The corrector magnet power system,utilizing inexpensive, off-the-shelf four-quadrant switching motorcontrollers, has already proven very reliable: 120 of the total of 900units have been running on the injection system for four months with nofailures.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bellomo, P.; Genova, L.; Jackson, T. & Shimer, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Te (R,t) Measurements using Electron Bernstein Wave Thermal Emission on NSTX

Description: The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) routinely studies overdense plasmas with ne of (1–5) X 1019 m-3 and total magnetic field of <0.6 T, so that the first several electron cyclotron harmonics are overdense. The electrostatic electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in overdense plasmas, exhibits strong absorption, and is thermally emitted at electron cyclotron harmonics. These properties allow thermal EBW emission to be used for local Te measurement. A significant upgrade to the previous NSTX EBW emission diagnostic to measure thermal EBW emission via the oblique B-X-O mode conversion process has been completed. The new EBW diagnostic consists of two remotely steerable, quad-ridged horn antennas, each of which is coupled to a dual channel radiometer. Fundamental (8–18 GHz) and second and third harmonic (18–40 GHz) thermal EBW emission and polarization measurements can be obtained simultaneously.
Date: June 9, 2006
Creator: Diem, S J; Efthimion, P C; LeBlanc, B P; Carter, M; Caughman, J; Wilgen, J B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of plasma edge in the direct launch Ion Bernstein Wave experiment in TFTR

Description: Two types of direct IBW launching, EPW {R_arrow} IBW and CESICW {R_arrow} IBW are investigated using two numerical codes, Full Hot Plasma Ray-Tracing Code and SEMAL Full Wave Slab Code, for the TFTR direct launch IBW experimental parameters. The measured density profiles (by microwave reflectometry) in TFTR appear to be satisfactory for IBW launching while the observed stored energy rise compared to the expected value (ray tracing + TRANSP) indicates only up to 50% of launched power is reaching the plasma core. Possible causes of IBW inefficiency are also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Ono, M.; Cesario, R. & Bush, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Mode Conversion of Thermally Emitted Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW)to Extraordinary Mode

Description: In the CDX-U spherical torus, approximately 100% conversion of thermal EBWs to X-mode has been observed by controlling the electron density scale length (Ln) in the conversion region with a local limiter outside the last closed flux surface. The radiation temperature profile agrees with Thomson scattering electron temperature data. Results are consistent with theoretical calculations of conversion efficiency using measured Ln. By reciprocity of the conversion process, prospects for efficient coupling in EBW heating and current drive scenarios are strongly supported.
Date: January 28, 2002
Creator: Jones, B.; Efthimion, P.C.; Taylor, G.; Munsat, T.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Majority ion heating near the ion-ion hybrid layer in tokamaks

Description: Efficient direct majority ion heating in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor-grade plasma via absorption of fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is discussed. Majority ion heating results from resonance overlap between the cyclotron layers and the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer in hot, dense plasmas for fast waves launched with high parallel wavenumbers. Analytic and numerical models are used to explore the regime in ITER plasmas.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.C.; Ignat, D.; Majeski, R.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of wave dispersion, mode-conversion, and damping for ECRH with exact relativistic corrections

Description: The complex dispersion functions of Eq. (3) in Ref. 1 have recently been computed accurately and reliably over their entire range of parameters, without recourse to the usual slightly-relativistic approximation, which may have difficulty for oblique incidence. In the future, the local dispersion properties of ECRF waves will be reevaluated for parameters of interest to ECRF conditions in several existing and proposed fusion experiments, with particular emphasis on the damping and mode-conversion of both ordinary and extraordinary waves to electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid and cyclotron frequencies.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Smithe, D.N. & Colestock, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of fast wave in spherical tokamaks

Description: In spherical tokamaks (ST), the magnetic field strength varies over a wide range across the plasma, and at high betas it deviates significantly from the 1/R dependence of conventional tokamaks. This, together with the high density expected in ST, poses challenging problems for RF heating and current drive. In this paper, the authors investigate the various possible applications of fast waves (FW) in ST. The adjoint technique of calculating current drive is implemented in the raytracing code CURRAY. The applicability of high harmonic and subharmonic FW to steady state ST is considered. They find that high harmonic FW tends to be totally absorbed before reaching the core and may be considered a candidate for off axis current drive while the subharmonic FW tends to be absorbed mainly in the core region and may be considered for central current drive. A difficult problem is the maintenance of current at the startup stage. In the bootstrap ramp-up scenario, the current ramp-up is mainly provided by the bootstrap current. Under this condition, the role of rf becomes mainly the sustainment of plasma through electron heating. Using a slab full-wave code SEMAL, the authors find that the ion-ion-hybrid mode conversion scheme is a promising candidate. The effect of possible existence of edge Alfven resonance and high harmonic cyclotron resonance is investigated and regimes of minimization of edge heating identified.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Chiu, S.C.; Chan, V.S.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.; Prater, R. & Politzer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Electron Cyclotron Heating has been proposed for plasma initiation, startup assistance and non-inductive startup on NSTX. One physics goal of NSTX will be to establish entirely non-inductive plasma operation by utilizing ECH to provide a sufficient start-up plasma to support further current drive from other heating systems. Scaling of previous ECH-only startup experiments on CDX-U and DIII-D indicate that 400 kW of ECH should be capable of driving 42 kA of pressure driven current on NSTX and possibly higher levels after optimizing the process. Due to the low NSTX magnetic field, over-dense plasmas exist during most of the discharge so conventional ECH operation is limited to the low density startup phase. To extend the useful operating range for ECH, a scheme involving mode conversion to the electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) from either O r X mode launch is being investigated for bulk heating and current drive applications at higher density. Microwave equipment, including 18 GHz klystrons and 28 GHz gyrotrons are available at ORNL and appear ideal for use on NSTX. Preliminary pre-ionization and start-up system configurations are presented here along with discussions on various operation modes.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Bigelow, T.S.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Peng, M. & Wilson, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mode Conversion Heating Scenarios for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

Description: Radio-frequency heating scenarios for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (NCSX) are considered. The focus here is on mode conversion from the fast to the slow ion Bernstein wave as either an electron or ''bulk'' ion heating technique, using a high-field side launch to directly access the ion-ion hybrid layer. Modeling for the planned parameters of NCSX [R(subscript ave) {approximately} 1.4 m, a(subscript ave) {approximately} 0.4 m, B(subscript T)(0) {approximately} 1.2-2 T, n(subscript e)(0) {approximately} 2-5 x 10(superscript19) m(superscript -3), T(subscript e)(0) {approximately} T(subscript i)(0) {approximately} 1-2 keV] for mode conversion in D-H and D-3He plasmas is presented. Possible types of high-field side antennas are also briefly discussed.
Date: May 18, 2001
Creator: Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R. & and Zarnstorff, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Finite Density Fluctuations and of the Upper Hybrid Resonance on O-X Correlation Reflectometry

Description: The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1-D reflectometer model taking into account the influence of finite density fluctuation levels and the upper hybrid resonance. It is found that a high level of O-X correlation can only be achieved for sufficiently small density fluctuation levels (typically much less than 1%) or very low magnetic field strengths. The influence of the upper hybrid resonance on the O-X correlation was found to also degrade the correlation between the O and X mode signals for very low magnetic field strengths or for very short density scale lengths. The extrapolation of these results to reactor-scale parameters indicates that the magnetic field strength can reliably be measured in the core plasma provided the density fluctuation level is typically much less than 1%.
Date: February 10, 2001
Creator: Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R. & Valeo, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron Power Deposition Measurements During Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency Heating on C-Mod

Description: A 19-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) grating polychromator has been added to the existing ECE diagnostics on C-Mod, which include a 9-channel polychromator, heterodyne radiometer and Michelson interferometer. The new instrument can significantly improve the radial resolution of electron power deposition measurements in ICRF experiments on C-Mod. The improved resolution is important for resolving electron power deposition in off-axis mode conversion heating regimes where the mode conversion region can be narrow. The first data from this new instrument were acquired last year during 80 MHz hydrogen minority D-H mode conversion experiments where the H/(H+D) ratio was varied from 0.02 to 0.30 and the toroidal field was varied from 5.1 to 5.7 T. Although complicated by the presence of large sawteeth, some electron power deposition results were obtained from a break-in-slope method. These results, together with results from data acquired during the current C-Mod experimental campaign, will be presented and compared to predicted radial deposition profiles from the TORIC, 2-D full wave RF code, and the METS95, 1-D integral wave RF code.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Schilling, G.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R. & al, et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continued development of modeling tools and theory for rf heating. Final report

Description: The work performed during the grant has been reported long before this date, specifically in: (1) the grant`s annual performance report for 1991, MRC/WDC-R-277; (2) the published AIP Conference Proceedings {number_sign}244, Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Charleston, SC 1991, ``Evaluation of Wave Dispersion, Mode-Conversion, and Damping for ECRH with Exact Relativistic Corrections,`` by D.N. Smithe and P.L. Colestock; and (3) an unpublished paper entitled ``Temperature Anisotropy and Rotation Upgrades to the ICRF Modules in SNAP and TRANSP``, presented at the 1992 ICRF Modeling and Theory Workshop, at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This final report contains copies of number (1). The specifics of the grant`s final months` activities, which to the authors recollection have never been reported to the DOE, are as follows. The original grant, which was to terminate August 15, 1991, was extended without additional funds to October 31, 1992. The primary reason for the extension was to permit attendance at the 1992 ICRF Modeling and Theory Workshop at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), which was finally held August 17--18, 1992, after having been rescheduled several times during the summer of 1992. The body of this report contains copies of the 1991 annual report, which gives detailed discussion of the work accomplished.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Smithe, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic Damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

Description: The damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in JET plasmas is investigated by using a reduced kinetic model. Typically no significant damping is found to occur near the center of the plasma due to mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. In contrast, continuum damping from resonance near the plasma edge may be significant, and when it is, it gives rise to damping rates that are compatible with the experimental observations.
Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Fu, G.Y.; Berk, H.L. & Pletzer, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion

Description: The process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear mode conversion) has traditionally been analyzed with a spatially one-dimensional slab model, for which the rays propagate in a two-dimensional phase space. However, it has recently been shown [E.R. Tracy and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130402 (2003)] that multidimensional rays have a helical structure for conversion in two or more spatial dimensions (if their dispersion matrix is generic). In that case, a one-dimensional model is inadequate; a correct analysis requires two spatial dimensions and, thus, four-dimensional phase space. In this paper we show that a cold plasma model will exhibit ray helicity in conversion regions where the density and magnetic field gradients are significantly non-parallel. For illustration, we examine a model of the poloidal plane of a deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma, and identify such a region. In this region, characterized by a six-sector topology, rays in the sector for incident and reflected magnetosonic waves exhibit significant helicity. We introduce a ''symmetric-wedge'' model, to develop a detailed analytic and numerical study of helical rays in this sector.
Date: September 14, 2004
Creator: Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R. & Brizard, Alain J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced loss of fusion products during mode conversion heating in TFTR

Description: Ion Bernstein waves (IBWS) have been generated by mode conversion of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves in TFTR. The loss rate of fusion products in these discharges can be large, up to 10 times the first orbit loss rate. The losses are observed at the passing/trapped boundary, indicating that passing particles are being moved onto loss orbits either by increase of their v{perpendicular} due to the wave, by outward transport in minor radius, or both. The lost particles appear to be DD fusion produced tritons heated to {approximately}1.5 times their birth energy.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Darrow, D. S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department