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A Partial Equilibrium Theory for Drops and Capillary Liquids

Description: The two-century old theory of Young and Laplace retains apowerful influence on surface and interface studies because itquantitatively predicts the height of rise of capillary liquids from thecontact angles of drops. But the classical theory does not acknowledgethat equilibrium requires separate minimization of partial free energiesof one-component liquids bonded to immiscible solids. We generalize atheorem of Gibbs and Curie to obtain a partial equilibrium (PE) theorythat does so and that also predicts the height of capillary rise fromcontact angles of drops. Published observations and our own measurementsof contact angles of water bonded to glass and Teflon surfaces supportthe conclusion of PE theory that contact angles of meniscuses and ofdrops are different dependent variables. PE theory provides thermodynamicand kinetic guidance to nanoscale processes that the classical theoryobscures, as illustrated by examples in our concludingsection.
Date: October 26, 2006
Creator: Searcy, Alan W.; Beruto, Dario T. & Barberis, Fabrizio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

Description: This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Karns, Alfred J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data

Description: Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M. & Harkay, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generic Optimization Program User Manual Version 3.0.0

Description: GenOpt is an optimization program for the minimization of a cost function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems where the cost function is computationally expensive and its derivatives are not available or may not even exist. GenOpt can be coupled to any simulation program that reads its input from text files and writes its output to text files. The independent variables can be continuous variables (possibly with lower and upper bounds), discrete variables, or both, continuous and discrete variables. Constraints on dependent variables can be implemented using penalty or barrier functions. GenOpt uses parallel computing to evaluate the simulations. GenOpt has a library with local and global multi-dimensional and one-dimensional optimization algorithms, and algorithms for doing parametric runs. An algorithm interface allows adding new minimization algorithms without knowing the details of the program structure. GenOpt is written in Java so that it is platform independent. The platform independence and the general interface make GenOpt applicable to a wide range of optimization problems. GenOpt has not been designed for linear programming problems, quadratic programming problems, and problems where the gradient of the cost function is available. For such problems, as well as for other problems, special tailored software exists that is more efficient.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Algorithm for Rapid Tomography of Gas Concentrations

Description: We present a new computed tomography method, the low third derivative (LTD) method, that is particularly suited for reconstructing the spatial distribution of gas concentrations from path-integral data for a small number of optical paths. The method finds a spatial distribution of gas concentrations that (1) has path integrals that agree with measured path integrals, and (2) has a low third spatial derivative in each direction, at every point. The trade-off between (1) and (2) is controlled by an adjustable parameter, which can be set based on analysis of the path-integral data. The method produces a set of linear equations, which can be solved with a single matrix multiplication if the constraint that all concentrations must be positive is ignored; the method is therefore extremely rapid. Analysis of experimental data from thousands of concentration distributions shows that the method works nearly as well as Smooth Basis Function Minimization (the best method previously available), yet is 100 times faster.
Date: June 27, 2000
Creator: Price, P.N.; Fischer, M.L.; Gadgil, A.J. & Sextro, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A truncated Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for the calibration of highly parameterized nonlinear models

Description: We propose a modification to the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm for a more robust and more efficient calibration of highly parameterized, strongly nonlinear models of multiphase flow through porous media. The new method combines the advantages of truncated singular value decomposition with those of the classical Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, thus enabling a more robust solution of underdetermined inverse problems with complex relations between the parameters to be estimated and the observable state variables used for calibration. The truncation limit separating the solution space from the calibration null space is re-evaluated during the iterative calibration process. In between these re-evaluations, fewer forward simulations are required, compared to the standard approach, to calculate the approximate sensitivity matrix. Truncated singular values are used to calculate the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter updates, ensuring that safe small steps along the steepest-descent direction are taken for highly correlated parameters of low sensitivity, whereas efficient quasi-Gauss-Newton steps are taken for independent parameters with high impact. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated for a synthetic data set representing infiltration into a partially saturated, heterogeneous soil, where hydrogeological, petrophysical, and geostatistical parameters are estimated based on the joint inversion of hydrological and geophysical data.
Date: October 15, 2010
Creator: Finsterle, S. & Kowalsky, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

Description: This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.
Date: September 23, 1996
Creator: Kirkendall, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEEL Radioactive Liquid Waste Reduction Program

Description: Reduction of radioactive liquid waste, much of which is Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed, is a high priority at the Idaho National Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Major strides in the past five years have lead to significant decreases in generation and subsequent reduction in the overall cost of treatment of these wastes. In 1992, the INTEC, which is part of the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), began a program to reduce the generation of radioactive liquid waste (both hazardous and non-hazardous). As part of this program, a Waste Minimization Plan was developed that detailed the various contributing waste streams, and identified methods to eliminate or reduce these waste streams. Reduction goals, which will reduce expected waste generation by 43%, were set for five years as part of this plan. The approval of the plan led to a Waste Minimization Incentive being put in place between the Department of Energy � Idaho Office (DOE-ID) and the INEEL operating contractor, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This incentive is worth $5 million dollars from FY-98 through FY-02 if the waste reduction goals are met. In addition, a second plan was prepared to show a path forward to either totally eliminate all radioactive liquid waste generation at INTEC by 2005 or find alternative waste treatment paths. Historically, this waste has been sent to an evaporator system with the bottoms sent to the INTEC Tank Farm. However, this Tank Farm is not RCRA permitted for mixed wastes and a Notice of Non-compliance Consent Order gives dates of 2003 and 2012 for removal of this waste from these tanks. Therefore, alternative treatments are needed for the waste streams. This plan investigated waste elimination opportunities as well as treatment alternatives. The alternatives, and the criteria for ranking these alternatives, were identified ...
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Millet, C. B.; Tripp, J. L.; Archibald, K. E.; Lauerhauss, L.; Argyle, M. D. & Demmer, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary 2016 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan

Description: This report identifies any new or existing industrial categories selected for effluent guidelines rule making and provides a schedule for such rule making. It also discusses the results of EPA's annual review of effluent limitations guidelines and pre-treatment standards.
Date: June 2016
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

Description: This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Gerard, Morgan Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

Description: This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.
Date: February 21, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001

Description: This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.
Date: January 30, 2011
Creator: Haworth, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total EnergyMinimization

Description: The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used forcomputing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particlewave functions associated with a many-electronatomistic system, is viewedin this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Shamtotal energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogatefunctions. We point out the similarity and difference between the totalenergy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail whenthe minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS totalenergy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict theupdate of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of anapproximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agreeswith that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new.However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region basedSCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slowconvergence.We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrainedminimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in \cite dcm. The keyingredients of theDCM algorithm involve projecting the total energyfunction into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking theminimizerof the total energy function within each subspace. Theminimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, notonly provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functiondecreases but also gives an optimal "step-length" that yields asufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided todemonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient thanSCF.
Date: May 30, 2006
Creator: Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C. & Wang, Lin-wang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for electronics prototype laboratory.

Description: This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/California Electronics Prototype Laboratory (EPL) in May 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Electronics Prototype Laboratory personnel in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with the EPL to implement the recommendations.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Gerard, Morgan Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

Description: This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.
Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

Description: A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO{sub 4} and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO{sub 4} suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10{sup -9} S cm{sup -1}). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures (<800 C) required to make LiFePO{sub 4}, however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density.
Date: July 13, 2007
Creator: Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James & Lau, Grace
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct focusing error correction with ring-wide TBT beam position data

Description: Turn-By-Turn (TBT) betatron oscillation data is a very powerful tool in studying machine optics. Hundreds and thousands of turns of free oscillations are taken in just few tens of milliseconds. With beam covering all positions and angles at every location TBT data can be used to diagnose focusing errors almost instantly. This paper describes a new approach that observes focusing error collectively over all available TBT data to find the optimized quadrupole strength, one location at a time. Example will be shown and other issues will be discussed. The procedure presented clearly has helped to reduce overall deviations significantly, with relative ease. Sextupoles, being a permanent feature of the ring, will need to be incorporated into the model. While cumulative effect from all sextupoles around the ring may be negligible on turn-to-turn basis it is not so in this transfer line analysis. It should be noted that this procedure is not limited to looking for quadrupole errors. By modifying the target of minimization it could in principle be used to look for skew quadrupole errors and sextupole errors as well.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Yang, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of beam loss mechanism in the Project X linac

Description: Minimization of the beam losses in a multi-MW H{sup -} linac such as ProjectX to a level below 1 W/m is a challenging task. The impact of different mechanism of beam stripping, including stripping in electric and magnetic fields, residual gas, blackbody radiation and intra-beam stripping, is analyzed. Other sources of beam losses are misalignements of beamline elements and errors in RF fields and phases. We present in this paper requirements for dynamic errors and correction schemes to keep beam losses under control.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Carneiro, J.-P.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Solyak, N. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF AN ANCIENT SUPERNOVA USING LIGHT ECHOES IN THE LMC

Description: We report the successful identification of the type of the supernova responsible for the supernova remnant SNR 0509-675 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using Gemini spectra of surrounding light echoes. The ability to classify outbursts associated with centuries-old remnants provides a new window into several aspects of supernova research and is likely to be successful in providing new constraints on additional LMC supernovae as well as their historical counterparts in the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG). The combined spectrum of echo light from SNR 0509-675 shows broad emission and absorption lines consistent with a supernova (SN) spectrum. We create a spectral library consisting of 26 SNe Ia and 6 SN Ib/c that are time-integrated, dust-scattered by LMC dust, and reddened by the LMC and MWG. We fit these SN templates to the observed light echo spectrum using {chi}{sup 2} minimization as well as correlation techniques, and we find that overluminous 91T-like SNe Ia with {Delta}m{sub 15} < 0.9 match the observed spectrum best.
Date: February 7, 2008
Creator: Rest, A.; Matheson, T.; Blondin, S.; Bergmann, M.; Welch, D. L.; Suntzeff, N. B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for building 878, manufacturing science and technology, organization 14100.

Description: This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Klossner, Kristin Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2014 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan

Description: Report delineating the performance of Health and Human Services (HHS) in response to President Obama's Executive Orders that commit Departments of the Federal Government to address the threats of climate change. Well defined goals and strategies promote sustainability and address ways to mitigate the impact of climate change on human health and well-being.
Date: July 17, 2014
Creator: Holland, E. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steepest Descent

Description: The steepest descent method has a rich history and is one of the simplest and best known methods for minimizing a function. While the method is not commonly used in practice due to its slow convergence rate, understanding the convergence properties of this method can lead to a better understanding of many of the more sophisticated optimization methods. Here, we give a short introduction and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Some recent results on modified versions of the steepest descent method are also discussed.
Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Meza, Juan C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2015 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan

Description: A report updating the progress made by The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in the implementation of established health-related climate sustainability goals and strategies. Each objective and strategy is thoroughly discussed and the report also includes appendices that highlight successful examples of sustainability by individual HHS employees..
Date: August 4, 2015
Creator: Kozak, Ted
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department