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Microelectronics research & development: background paper

Description: This background paper describes the current state of research and development in microelectronics by examining the range of R&D efforts and the sources of Federal and private support for R&D. It also presents potential policy concerns that stem from existing arrangements for direct Federal support and from changes underway in microelectronics R&D.
Date: March 1986
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

Description: The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI) & Myers, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical assessment of Navitar Zoom 6000 optic and Sony HDC-X310 camera for MEMS presentations and training.

Description: This report evaluates a newly-available, high-definition, video camera coupled with a zoom optical system for microscopic imaging of micro-electro-mechanical systems. We did this work to support configuration of three document-camera-like stations as part of an installation in a new Microsystems building at Sandia National Laboratories. The video display walls to be installed as part of these three presentation and training stations are of extraordinary resolution and quality. The new availability of a reasonably-priced, cinema-quality, high-definition video camera offers the prospect of filling these displays with full-motion imaging of Sandia's microscopic products at a quality substantially beyond the quality of typical video microscopes. Simple and robust operation of the microscope stations will allow the extraordinary-quality imaging to contribute to Sandia's day-to-day research and training operations. This report illustrates the disappointing image quality from a camera/lens system comprised of a Sony HDC-X310 high-definition video camera coupled to a Navitar Zoom 6000 lens. We determined that this Sony camera is capable of substantially more image quality than the Navitar optic can deliver. We identified an optical doubler lens from Navitar as the component of their optical system that accounts for a substantial part of the image quality problem. While work continues to incrementally improve performance of the Navitar system, we are also evaluating optical systems from other vendors to couple to this Sony camera.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Diegert, Carl F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

Description: In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.
Date: March 4, 1999
Creator: Christenson, T.R. & Feddema, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Miniaturization Technologies

Description: This report analyzes various technologies that may be important for future advances in miniaturization. Current research in the United States and other nations is pushing the limits of miniaturization to the point that structures only hundreds of atoms thick will be commonly manufactured. Researchers studying atomic and molecular interactions are continuing to push the frontiers, creating knowledge needed to continue progress in miniaturization. Scientists and engineers are creating microscopic mechanical structures and biological sensors that will have novel and diverse applications.
Date: November 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the Feasibility of Fabricating Micron-Scale Components Using Microcontact Printing LDRD Final Report

Description: Many microfabrication techniques are being developed for applications in microelectronics, microsensors, and micro-optics. Since the advent of microcomponents, designers have been forced to modify their designs to include limitations of current technology, such as the inability to make three-dimensional structures and the need for piece-part assembly. Many groups have successfully transferred a wide variety of patterns to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional substrates using microcontact printing. Microcontact printing is a technique in which a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is patterned onto a substrate by transfer printing. The patterned layer can act as an etch resist or a foundation upon which to build new types of microstructures. We created a gold pattern with features as small as 1.2 {micro}m using microcontact printing and subsequent processing. This approach looks promising for constructing single-level structures such as microelectrode arrays and sensors. It can be a viable technique for creating three-dimensional structures such as microcoils and microsprings if the right equipment is available to achieve proper alignment, and if a means is available to connect the final parts to other components in subsequent assembly operations. Microcontact printing provides a wide variety of new opportunities in the fabrication of microcomponents, and increases the options of designers.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: MYERS, RAMONA L.; RITCHEY, M. BARRY; STOKES, ROBERT N.; CASIAS, ADRIAN L.; ADAMS, DAVID P.; OLIVER, ANDREW D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development work on a new package design for the next generation microelectronics. Final report

Description: AlliedSignal and Micro-Mode Products joined under a DOE CRADA to develop a new package for next-generation electronics devices. Requirements included low cost of manufacture, ability to satisfy thermal expansion requirements, ability to satisfy thermal dissipation requirements, acceptable digital and microwave performance, and hermeticity. Four processes were tested; vacuum deposition of paralene, epoxy powder coating, transfer molding, and manual encapsulation. Transfer molding and manual potting improved the hermeticity but produced microcracking and reduced heat transfer ability following encapsulation. Additional study on manufacturing and encapsulating of the package is needed.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Adams, B.E. & DeMarco, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

Description: Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Influence of Coating Structure on Micromachine Stiction

Description: We have clearly shown that the film morphology dictates the anti-stiction properties of FDTS coatings. Release stiction is not observed when ideal monolayer films are present but can be extensive when thicker aggregate structures are present. This finding is significant because it indicates that agglomerate formation during processing is a major source of irreproducible behavior when FDTS coatings are used to release micromachined parts. The results could also help explain why coatings that are aged at high. humidity start to stick to each other. (AFM results show that humid environments promote the formation of aggregates from monolayer films.) The reason why aggregate structures promote stiction is currently unknown. However, it appears that aggregates interfere with the ability of FDTS to form dense, well-ordered coatings under microstructures, leading to surfaces that are sufficiently hydrophilic to allow for release stiction via an attractive Laplace force during drying.
Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Kushmerick, J. G.; Hankins, M. G.; De Boer, M. P.; Clews, P. J.; Carpick, R. W. & Bunker, B. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of Critical Features of Polysilicon MEMS

Description: The behavior of MEMS devices is limited by the strength of critical features such as thin ligaments, oxide cuts joining layers, pin joints and hinges. Devices fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory have been successfully tested to investigate these features. A series of measurements were performed on samples with gage lengths of 15 to 1000 microns, using conventional and tungsten coated samples as well as samples that include the critical features of standard components in the test section. Specimens have a freely moving pin joint on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die to allow rotation to reduce effects of bending. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. Load is calculated by resolving the measured lateral and normal forces into the applied tensile force and frictional losses. The specimen cross section and gage length dimensions were verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM. Multiple tests can be programmed at one time and performed without operator assistance allowing the collection of significant populations of data.
Date: December 2, 1999
Creator: LAVAN,DAVID A. & BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining Two-Port S-Parameters from a One-Port Measurement Using a Novel Impedance-State Test Chip

Description: A novel custom high-speed test chip and data reduction technique that allows for the accurate determination of the two-port S-parameters of a passive network from a set of one-port measurements is presented. A typical application for this technique is high-speed integrated circuit package characterization where one-port is of a microelectronic size scale and inside the package. The test chip is designed to operate up to 20 GHz.
Date: March 4, 1999
Creator: Hietala, V.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatially Resolved Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy in Microelectronics Processing Plasmas

Description: Plasma processing of microelectronic materials is strongly dependent on the generation and control of neutral radial and ion species generated in a plasma. For example, process uniformity across a #er is drken by a combination of plasma charged particle and neutral uniformity. Due to extensive rexarch and engineering the current generation of commercial plasma reactors can generate very radially uniform ion distributions, usually better than ~ 2 perwnt as determined by ion saturation measurements. Due in part to the difficulty associated with determining the neutral radial distributions, control of the neutral radical uniformity is less well developed. This abstract will review our recent measurements of the spatial distribution of severaI important atomic and molecukw species in inductively coupled plasmas through C12 / BCIJ / Ar containing gas mixtures. Measured species include the ground state Cl and BC1 densities as well as the metastable argon density. The fbeus of this review will be on the experimental techniques and results. In addition to assisting in the development of a fbndarnental understanding of the important pkunna physics, these measurements have been used to benchmark multi dimensional plasma discharge codes.
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Hebner, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic self-assembly.

Description: This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan & Stewart, Constantine A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep X-Ray Lithography Based Fabrication of Rare-Earth Based Permanent Magnets and their Applications to Microactuators

Description: Precision high aspect-ratio micro molds constructed by deep x-ray lithography have been used to batch fabricate accurately shaped bonded rare-earth based permanent magnets with features as small as 5 microns and thicknesses up to 500 microns. Maximum energy products of up to 8 MGOe have been achieved with a 20%/vol. epoxy bonded melt-spun isotropic Nd2Fe14b powder composite. Using individually processed sub- millimeter permanent sections multipole rotors have been assembled. Despite the fact that these permanent magnet structures are small, their magnetic field producing capability remains the same as at any scale. Combining permanent magnet structures with soft magnetic materials and micro-coils makes possible new and more efficient magnetic microdevices.
Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Christenson, T.R.; Garino, T.J. & Venturini, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated optical MEMS using through-wafer vias and bump-bonding.

Description: This LDRD began as a three year program to integrate through-wafer vias, micro-mirrors and control electronics with high-voltage capability to yield a 64 by 64 array of individually controllable micro-mirrors on 125 or 250 micron pitch with piston, tip and tilt movement. The effort was a mix of R&D and application. Care was taken to create SUMMiT{trademark} (Sandia's ultraplanar, multilevel MEMS technology) compatible via and mirror processes, and the ultimate goal was to mate this MEMS fabrication product to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics substrate. Significant progress was made on the via and mirror fabrication and design, the attach process development as well as the electronics high voltage (30 volt) and control designs. After approximately 22 months, the program was ready to proceed with fabrication and integration of the electronics, final mirror array, and through wafer vias to create a high resolution OMEMS array with individual mirror electronic control. At this point, however, mission alignment and budget constraints reduced the last year program funding and redirected the program to help support the through-silicon via work in the Hyper-Temporal Sensors (HTS) Grand Challenge (GC) LDRD. Several months of investigation and discussion with the HTS team resulted in a revised plan for the remaining 10 months of the program. We planned to build a capability in finer-pitched via fabrication on thinned substrates along with metallization schemes and bonding techniques for very large arrays of high density interconnects (up to 2000 x 2000 vias). Through this program, Sandia was able to build capability in several different conductive through wafer via processes using internal and external resources, MEMS mirror design and fabrication, various bonding techniques for arrayed substrates, and arrayed electronics control design with high voltage capability.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: McCormick, Frederick Bossert & Frederick, Scott K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Si-based RF MEMS components.

Description: Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D. & Dyck, Christopher William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

Description: This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Gerard, Morgan Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport.

Description: Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal transport properties at room temperature. In addition, the defect density was observed to play a major ...
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Sinha, Sanjiv (Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA) & Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department