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MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

Description: This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.
Date: July 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

Description: This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.
Date: July 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy imploding liner experiment HEL-1: Experimental results

Description: Magnetically driven imploding liner systems can be used as a source of shock energy for materials equation of state studies, implosion driven magnetized plasma fusion experiments, and other similar applications. The imploding liner is a cylinder of conducting material through which a current is passed in the longitudinal direction. Interaction of the current with its own magnetic field causes the liner to implode. Sources of electrical energy for imploding liner systems are capacitor banks or explosive pulse power systems seeded by capacitor banks. In August, 1996, a high energy liner experiment (HEL-1) was conducted at the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute (VNIIEF) in Sarov, Russia. A 5 tier 1 meter diameter explosive disk generator provided electrical energy to drive a 48 cm outside diameter, 4 mm thick, aluminum alloy liner having a mass of about 11kg onto an 11 cm diameter diagnostic package. The purpose of the experiment was to measure performance of the explosive pulse power generator and the heavy imploding liner. Electrical performance diagnostics included inductive (B-dot) probes, Faraday Rotation current measurement, Rogowski total current measurement, and voltage probes. Flux loss and conductor motion diagnostics included current-joint voltage measurements and motion sensing contact pins. Optical and electrical impact pins, inductive (B-dot) probes, manganin pressure probes, and continuously recording resistance probes in the Central Measuring Unit (CMU) and Piezo and manganin pressure probes, optical beam breakers, and inductive probes located in the glide planes were used as liner symmetry and velocity diagnostics. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that a peak current of more than 100 MA was attained and the liner velocity was between 6.7 km/sec and 7.5 km/sec. Liner kinetic energy was between 22 MJ and 35 MJ. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Clark, D.A.; Anderson, B.G. & Ekdahl, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of disk generator performance for base-load power plant systems applications

Description: Disk generators for use in base-load MHD power plants are examined for both open-cycle and closed-cycle operating modes. The OCD cases are compared with PSPEC results for a linear channel; enthalpy extractions up to 23% with 71% isentropic efficiency are achievable with generator inlet conditions similar to those used in PSPEC, thus confirming that the disk configuration is a viable alternative for base-load power generation. The evaluation of closed-cycle disks includes use of a simplified cycle model. High system efficiencies over a wide range of power levels are obtained for effective Hall coefficients in the range 2.3 to 4.9. Cases with higher turbulence (implying ..beta../sub eff/ less than or equal to 2.4) yield high system efficiencies at power levels of 100 to 500 MW/sub e/. All these CCD cases compare favorably with linear channels reported in the GE ECAS study, yielding higher isentropic efficiences for a given enthalpy extraction. Power densities in the range 70 to 170 MW/m/sup 3/ appear feasible, leading to very compact generator configurations.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Teare, J.D.; Loubsky, W.J.; Lytle, J.K. & Louis, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the MHD performance demonstration experiment, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

Description: The Arnold Engineering Development Center (ALDC) has been under contract since December 1973 to modify existing equipment and to design, fabricate, and install new hardware to perform an MHD Performance Demonstration Experiment. The objective of the experiment is to demonstrate that a generator simulating a commercial-sized device can convert 16 to 18 percent of the available thermal energy into electrical power. This report described fabrication, installation, and testing of hardware for this experiment during the period from October 1, 1977, to September 30, 1978. In the past year, fabrication of the high performance generator channel was completed, and satisfactorily pressure and electrically checked. The coils and approximately 95 percent of the coil force containment structure were installed on the 6 Tesla magnet. Fabrication of the outer insulation panels for the magnet was completed. The magnet is to be cryogenically cooled with liquid nitrogen. During the past year, analytical studies to provide guidance in performing the cooldown were completed and are presented. The preliminary design of the cooling manifold system to provide the required control in accordance with the results of the analytical studies was also completed and is reported. Additional testing of the burner system with the diagnostic section installed was conducted and the results for seeded and unseeded operation are included.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Schmidt, H J; Starr, R F; Lineberry, J T; Whitehead, G L & Seiber, B L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980

Description: The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to a significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Bloom, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980

Description: Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF), formerly the Research and Development Laboratory, are reported. CFFF Bid Package construction is now virtually complete. The remaining construction effort is being conducted by UTSI. On the quench system, another Task 1 effort, the cyclone was erected on schedule. On Tasks 2 through 6, vitiation heater and nozzle fabrication were completed, an investigation of a fish kill (in no way attributable to CFFF operations) in Woods Reservoir was conducted, major preparation for ambient air quality monitoring was made, a broadband data acquisition system for enabling broadband data to be correlated with all general performance data was selected, a Coriolis effect coal flow meter was installed at the CFFF. On Task 7, an analytical model of the coal flow combustor configuration was prepared, MHD generator testing which, in part, involved continued materials evaluation and the heat transfer characteristics of capped and uncapped electrodes was conducted, agglomerator utilization was studied, and development of a laser velocimeter system was nearly completed.
Date: July 31, 1980
Creator: Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C. & Baucum, W. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

Description: Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF) are described. On Task 1, the first phase of the downstream quench system was completed. On Task 2, all three combustor sections were completed, hydrotested, ASME code stamped, and delivered to UTSI. The nozzle was also delivered. Fabrication of support stands and cooling water manifolds for the combustor and vitiation heater were completed, heat transfer and thermal stress analysis, along with design development, were conducted on the generator and radiant furnace and secondary combustor installation progressed as planned. Under Task 3 an Elemental Analyzer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer/Graphite Furnace were received and installed, sites were prepared for two air monitoring stations, phytoplankton analysis began, and foliage and soil sampling was conducted using all study plots. Some 288 soil samples were combined to make 72 samples which were analyzed. Also, approval was granted to dispose of MHD flyash and slag at the Franklin County landfill. Task 4 effort consisted of completing all component test plans, and establishing the capability of displaying experimental data in graphical format. Under Task 7, a preliminary testing program for critical monitoring of the local current and voltage non-uniformities in the generator electrodes was outlined, electrode metal wear characteristics were documented, boron nitride/refrasil composite interelectrode sealing was improved, and several refractories for downstream MHD applications were evaluated with promising results.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C. & Brosnan, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cold flow modeling of pulverized coal combustors for magnetohydrodynamic channel applications

Description: This report describes an experimental program and techniques for studying the internal aerodynamics of pulverized coal combustors of the type used in magnetohydrodynamic test trains at The University of Tennessee Space Institute. The combustors are modeled with small scale, cold flow models that permit both flow visualization and velocity field surveys to be performed. Water was selected as the working fluid so that the model flow fields had the same Reynolds number as the actual reactive combustors, and also to facilitate flow visualization. The systems used for flow visualization and velocity field surveying are described in detail. The velocity field survey equipment is based on a vector-velocity, laser doppler velocimeter coupled to a controllable field scanning device and a microprocessor for on-line data reduction. Results are presented that were obtained from a laser velocimeter study of recirculating flows in a combustor model. The results show that, even for exceedingly simple geometrical arrangements of oxidant injector configurations, complex three dimensional highly turbulent flow fields exist in the combustor. A brief discussion of the impact of the results on fuel injector positioning is presented.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Schulz, R.J.; Giel, T.V.; Ghosh, A. & Morris, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical investigation of recirculation in the UTSI MHD combustor

Description: Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the gross structure of flow in cylindrical combustors. The combustor configurations studied are variations of a working design used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to burn pulverized coal at temperatures in excess of 3000K for generation of a plasma feeding a magnetohydrodynamic channel. The numerical studies were conducted for an isothermal fluid; the main objective of the calculations was to study the effect of the oxidant injection pattern on the gross structure of recirculating flows within the combustor. The calculations illustrate the basic features of the flow in combustors of this type and suggest implications for the injection of coal and oxidizer in this type of combustor.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Schulz, R.J.; Lee, J.J. & Giel, T.V. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

Description: The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C. & Brosnan, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly/annual technical progress report, October-December 1979

Description: In this Fourth Quarterly/Annual Report submitted under DOE contracts EX-76-C-01-1760 and DE-AC02-79ET10815, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, and development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Work on the CFFF progressed with only minor problems. Total construction activity for all site work presently awarded is nearly 98% complete. Water analysis shows that Woods Reservoir baseline conditions are within EPA or Tennessee drinking water standards. For the primary combustor, the vitiation heater and primary combustor fabrication drawings were completed and the nozzle design was completed. The drum module for the radiant slagging furnace was awarded. On the MHD Power Generator, development continued in several areas of advanced analysis including development of time-dependent models for use with the one-dimensional code. For seed regeneration, the tentative determination is that the Tomlinson Tampella is the most economically viable method. With regard to capped electrode erosion, investigations have shown that the major degradation of the cladding still present is at the leading edge of the capped anode. To alleviate this, plans are to hot work the noble metal in the bending operation. In resolving another problem, a system employing the modified line-reversal method has been assembled and successfully tested to measure absolute plasma temperatures.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Dicks, J. B.; Chapman, J. N. & Crawford, L. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

Description: This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.
Date: February 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

Description: The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.
Date: March 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of nonequilibrium particle temperature considerations on seeded coal combustion plasma properties

Description: This past quarter ending 12/30/91, the linear MHD channel simulation model has not only been completely specified but also fully modified to incorporate considerations for nonequilibrium particle temperatures. Testing of the modified model with the initial values from the first submodel (Richter's combustion zone model) and evaluation of the non-equilibrium particle temperature effect on the overall MHD performance is being held up. Reasons for the holdup is the lack of adequate response from Dr. Richter on questions about his nonequilibrium particle temperature model. These questions relate to our insistence to know precisely how the model works and also some review of the source code to ascertain that it is synchronization with our overall analytical development. We have decided to generate initial generator inlet particle parameter values by modifying the CEC code to provide particle parameter values.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Oni, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of nonequilibrium particle temperature considerations on seeded coal combustion plasma properties

Description: The first of the three tasks of this research activity is to develop a model that represents steady, nonequilibrium energy interactions between post-combustion entrained particles and carrier gases, under typical coal-fired MHD operating conditions. The second task is to use the developed model to evaluate, for both the MHD linear channel and disk configurations. the impact of nonequilibrium particle temperatures on predicted gasdynamic and electrical property values that depend, at times critically, on plasma temperatures, and on which the overall MHD system performance depends. The third task is to evaluate the relative impact of gas-particle temperature differences on generator slag phenomena and consequently on MHD channel performance.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Oni, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

Description: An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A. & Bouillard, J.X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leakage resistance and current inferred from CDIF operating data

Description: Axial leakage current is difficult to measure directly. Spacial and temporal variations tend to cloud the interpretation of local measurements such as the current or voltage between any two neighboring electrodes. Also the measurement process itself tends to affect the result in an unpredictable manner. Therefore it is desireable to seek an indirect method that is based upon averages over a distance equivalent to one duct diameter or more, does not perturb the system, and is based upon data already collected. An indirect method is described here together with the results obtained when it is applied to nearly all CDIF runs. When correlated, the data suggest that leak current is primarily a function of Hall parameter and Faraday current while only weakly dependent upon axial field. Possible reasons for this discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Rosa, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department