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Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter-Interceptor Aircraft

Description: "Data and analyses are presented on the relative frequencies of occurrence and severity of icing cloud layers encountered by jet aircraft in the climb and descent phases of flights to high altitudes. Fighter-interceptor aircraft operated by the Air Defense Command (USAF) at bases in the Duluth and Seattle areas collected the data with icing meters installed for a 1-year period. The project was part of an extensive program conducted by the NACA to collect Icing cloud data for evaluating the icing problem relevant to routine operations" (p. 1).
Date: July 1958
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms: September 5, 1946 to September 10, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 31, 32, and 33 of September 5, 1946, September 6, 1946, and September 10, 1946, respectively. These data were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted for the present flights.
Date: 1947
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury Barometers and Manometers

Description: From Abstract: "Sources of error in measuring pressures are described in considerable detail, particularly for portable instruments including scale, temperature , gravity, capillarity, vacuum errors and return gas column. Methods of minimizing those errors and of making the corrections, including extensive tables, are presented."
Date: May 20, 1960
Creator: Brombacher, W. G.; Johnson, D. P. & Cross, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Procedure to Determine the Relative Extent of Reactor Fission Product Releases Under Various Meteorological Conditions

Description: From Abstract and Introduction: "A procedure for the application of these programs and graphs to the review and evaluation of reactor safety problems is presented. The purpose of this work is to present of the subsequent meteorological considerations suitable for review and analysis using a small digital computer."
Date: July 1964
Creator: Lanes, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Icing Properties of Noncyclonic Winter Stratus Clouds

Description: Note presenting measurements of the vertical distribution of liquid water concentration and drop size in winter stratus clouds in the absence of significant cyclonic or frontal activity. The observations indicate that the clouds are formed by turbulent mixing of the lower layers of the atmosphere, resulting in a region of constant specific humidity and adiabatic lapse rates. Calculations based on the observations were used to construct a graph that gives the liquid water concentration in terms of the temperature at the cloud base and the height above the base.
Date: September 1947
Creator: Lewis, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Probability Analysis of the Meteorological Factors Conducive to Aircraft Icing in the United States

Description: Note presenting meteorological icing data obtianed in flight in the United States that is analyzed statistically and used to develop methods for the determination of the various simultaneous combinations of the three basic icing parameters and the probability of exceeding any specified group of values of liquid-water content associated simultaneously with temperature and drop-diameter values. A mathematical basis is also provided for the future statistical analysis of meteorological icing data that can be obtained throughout the world.
Date: July 1952
Creator: Lewis, William & Bergrun, Norman R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on Ice Formation on Aircraft

Description: The physical phenomena involved in the icing of aircraft have been analyzed and measured. Recommendations on warning devices are made as well as the different types of ice and glazing that can occur on airplanes are examined and discussed.
Date: November 1939
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective Gust Structure at Low Altitudes as Determined From the Reactions of an Airplane

Description: "Measurements of gust structure and gust intensity were made in the lower levels of the atmosphere (0 to 3,500 ft.). An Aeronca C-2 airplane was used as the measuring instrument, the gust structure being derived from the recorded motions of the airplane. Data were also obtained on wind velocities and temperatures as functions of altitude for use in attempting to correlate the gust-structure data with various meteorological quantities" (p. 263).
Date: October 19, 1939
Creator: Donely, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Explanation of Spontaneous Freezing of Water Droplets

Description: Note presenting a statistical theory based on the presence of small crystallization nuclei suspended in water developed to explain experimental results showing that, on average, small droplets can be supercooled to lower temperatures than large ones. The average behavior of supercooled droplets is reproduced on the basis of probability theory with an assumed distribution of crystallization nuclei with respect to the temperatures at which the nuclei cause freezing.
Date: December 1950
Creator: Levine, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balloon Flight and Atmospheric Electricity

Description: "The air is known to be charged with electricity (chiefly positive) with reference to the earth, so that its potential increases with the altitude and the difference in potential between two points in the same vertical line, divided by the distance between them, gives a value called the "potential gradient," which may vary greatly with the altitude, the nature of the ground and the atmospheric conditions" (p. 1).
Date: July 1924
Creator: Herrera, Emilio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

Description: A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.
Date: May 1946
Creator: Harrison, L. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Investigation to Determine the Relative Magnitude of Vertical and Horizontal Gusts in the Atmosphere

Description: Report presenting an investigation to obtain data on the vertical and horizontal gusts in the atmosphere by reworking accelerometers and airspeed records from past investigations of vertical gusts. The results indicate that the vertical and horizontal gusts are of about equal intensity in the atmosphere.
Date: July 1940
Creator: Donely, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Flight Investigation of the Meteorological Conditions Conducive to the Formation of Ice on Airplanes

Description: Note presenting data from flight measurements of the meteorological factors related to the intensity of icing conditions. The physical factors that establish the distribution of liquid water in clouds of various types are discussed and the results of the analysis are used to formulate certain rules for the forecasting of icing intensity. Discussion of the results includes the problem of forecasting icing conditions and the problem of defining the physical characteristics of icing conditions for the purpose of the design of ice-protection equipment.
Date: August 1947
Creator: Lewis, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Principles Governing the Establishment of Meteorological Stations Along Air Routes

Description: The organization of a meteorological service for an air route involves the solution of two distinct problems: distribution and grouping of meteorological stations and communications. Experience gained in the establishment of two lines, Paris-Warsaw and Constantinople-Bucharest enables us to establish certain principles, which may be of interest to note here.
Date: March 1922
Creator: Aujames, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Formation of Ice on Airplanes

Description: "The present report examines the problem of ice formation from the point of view of the pilot and the meteorologist. Their experiences prove the ice deposit to be first and foremost a navigational problem and only secondarily a question of de-icing devices. With correct utilization of the meteorological information by the flyer, ice hazard can in many cases be minimized or avoided. Ice formation and the different types of ice deposits are listed and discussed" (p. 1).
Date: February 1936
Creator: Noth, H. & Polte, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Summary of Meteorological Conditions Associated With Aircraft Icing and a Proposed Method of Selecting Design Criterions for Ice-Protection Equipment

Description: Note presenting data from various sources on the observed values of meteorological variables, liquid-water content, mean-effective droplet size, and temperature, which are pertinent to aircraft icing. A method is proposed for the selection of design criterions for ice-protection equipment. The data are divided into two broad cloud types, stratiform and cumuliform clouds, because the icing conditions are very different for the two types.
Date: November 1951
Creator: Hacker, Paul T. & Dorsch, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of accelerations, gust velocities, and airspeeds from operations of a twin-engine transport airplane on a transcontinental route from 1950 to 1952

Description: Report presenting time-history data obtained from one type of twin-engine transport airplane during two years of operations on a transcontinental route, which is analyzed in order to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gust accelerations, gust velocities, and associated airspeeds and altitudes. The gusts were found to be in good agreement with those previously reported for another type of twin-engine transport airplane.
Date: February 1955
Creator: Coleman, Thomas L. & Walker, Walter G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of water droplets on a cylinder in an incompressible flow field and evaluation of rotating multicylinder method for measurement of droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content in clouds

Description: Report presenting an evaluation of the rotating multicylinder method for the measurement of droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content in clouds, which showed that small uncertainties in the basic data eliminate the distinction between cloud droplet-size distributions and are a source of large errors in the determination of droplet size. Matching curves for obtaining droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content from flight data were computed from the results of the droplet-trajectory configurations.
Date: March 1953
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Mergler, Harry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Camera for Photographing Cloud Droplets in Natural Suspension in the Atmosphere

Description: "A camera designed for use in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis laboratory to photograph cloud droplets in their natural suspension in the atmosphere. A magnification of 32 times is employed to distinguish for measurement purposes all sizes of droplets greater than 5 microns in diameter. Photographs can be taken at flight speeds up to 150 miles per hour at 5-second intervals, A field area of 0.025 square inch is photographed on 7-inch-width roll film accommodating 40 exposures on an 18-foot length" (p. 1).
Date: June 29, 1951
Creator: McCullough, Stuart & Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simplified instrument for recording and indicating frequency and intensity of icing conditions encountered in flight

Description: "An instrument for recording and indicating the frequency and intensity of aircraft icing conditions encountered in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis Laboratory to obtain statistical icing data over world-wide air routes during routine airline operations. The operation of the instrument is based on the creation of a differential pressure between an ice-free total-pressure system and a total-pressure system in which small total-pressure holes vented to static pressure are allowed to plug with ice accretion. The simplicity of this operating principle permits automatic operation, and provides relative freedom from maintenance and operating problems" (p. 1).
Date: July 3, 1951
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.; McCullough, Stuart & Lewis, Ralph D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

Description: "A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F" (p. 1).
Date: March 6, 1951
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department