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National Health Service Corps: Background, Funding, and Programs

Description: This report discusses the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) a federal program which offers loan repayment and scholarships to physicians and other health professionals who agree to work at an approved clinic in a under-served area for at least two years. The report summarizes the National Health Service Corps's (NHSC) recruitment and retention programs, and the NHSC's funding trends from FY2010 through FY2017.
Date: April 18, 2017
Creator: Reyes-Akinbileje, Bernice
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Learning in Emergency Physicians' Process of Changing Practice Behavior

Description: The sequence of events leading to the implementation of a change in emergency physicians' practice and the learning activities and processes undertaken are examined and described in this study. A qualitative case study design was utilized and semi-structured interviews were employed as the primary means of data collection. Thirty emergency physicians were interviewed in face-to-face or telephone interviews. One change that required learning was selected per physician for an in-depth interview. The following factors were examined: motivation to change a practice behavior, time to implementation of changes, source of awareness, barriers to change, use of learning resources, stages in the change process, and method of learning.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Garcia, Rebecca, 1953-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Study 16: The Costs and Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines the costs and effectiveness of nurse practitioners and other types of physician extenders.
Date: July 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preventing Absenteeism and Promoting Resilience Among Health Care Workers In Biological Emergencies

Description: The ability to ensure adequate numbers of medical staff represents a crucial part of the medical response to any disaster. However, healthcare worker absenteeism during disasters, especially in the event of an attack of biological terrorism or an epidemic such as pandemic influenza, is a serious concern. Though a significant rate of absenteeism is often included as a baseline assumption in emergency planning, published reports on strategies to minimize absenteeism are comparatively few. This report documents interviews with managers and emergency response planners at hospitals and public health agencies and reviews existing survey data on healthcare worker absenteeism and studies of disasters to glean lessons about the needs of healthcare workers during those disasters. Based on this research, expected rates of absenteeism and individual determinants of absenteeism are presented along with recommendations of steps that hospitals, emergency medical services departments, public health organizations, and government agencies can take to meet the needs of healthcare workers and minimize absenteeism during a biological event.
Date: May 8, 2009
Creator: Lesperance, Ann M. & Miller, James S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Response: Civil Liability of Volunteer Health Professionals

Description: This report discusses the patchwork of federal and state laws that operate to protect volunteers, which can include volunteer health professionals (VHPs), and those laws that trigger liability protection only for VHPs — with a focus on some of the midwestern states in addition to the Gulf region.
Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

Description: This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R. & THOMLINSON,W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Legal Reforms on Medical Malpractice Costs

Description: This report discusses the indirect cost of medical malpractice, commonly referred to as “defensive medicine,” that may add to overall health care costs. The cost of defensive medicine remains unknown and is subject to much speculation because there are no sound empirical data.
Date: September 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIV in the Health Care Workplace

Description: This background paper examines evidence of the risk of HIV transmission in the health care workplace and discusses the policy implications of CDC guidelines and congressional actions in response to this risk.
Date: November 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A human factors engineering approach to biomedical decision making: A new role for automatic target recognizer technologies

Description: This report identifies the key features noted as requirements in the diagnostic decision-making process of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) cardiac imaging. The report discusses the critical issues that create the basic system framework for design of an automatic target recognizer (ATR) algorithm prototype to support diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Candidate feature discovery algorithms that may form the basis of future work include Adaptive Resonance Theory and Bayesian Decision Network. A framework for the practitioner-Human-System-Interface would include baseline patient history and demographic data; reference cardiac imagery history; and current overlay imagery to provide complementary information (i.e., coronary angiography, echocardiography, and SPECT images). The goal is to design a prototype that would represent a fused present and historical {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} functional, structural, and physiologic cardiac patient model. This framework decision-assisting platform would be available to practitioner and student alike, with no {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} consequences.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Sobel, A. L.; Stalker, K. T. & Yee, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Protection for Safe Handling of Californium 252 Sources

Description: Californium-252 may be used extensively as a new source of neutrons in the next few years. Because of the high emission rate from spontaneous fission, californium can be fabricated into useful sources that are physically small - one of its major attractions. The first sources were fabricated in the configuration of radium therapy needles. Because the users of these sources may be radiologists and medical personnel unfamiliar with neutron hazards, some of the characteristics of Californium 252 sources are reviewed from a health physics viewpoint in this paper.
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Wright, C.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Home and Family Life for Female Managers in Health Care Food Service

Description: This research study evaluated the impact specific work-related factors have on home and family life for female managers in the health care food service industry. A random sample of 333 (33%) of the population was chosen to participate in this study. Each participant was a member of the American Dietetic Association's Management in Health Care Systems dietetic practice group. The work aspects with the most negative impact were number of hours worked per week, work schedule, and job security. Two variables found to significantly predict the overall impact of work on home and family life were number of hours worked per week (p-value .002) and annual gross income (p-value .002).
Date: August 1996
Creator: Odera, Vivian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

Description: A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S. & Serig, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

Description: A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S. & Serig, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

Description: This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.
Date: May 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Supply and Demand of Physician Assistants in the United States: A Trend Analysis

Description: The supply of non-physician clinicians (NPCs), such as physician assistant (PAs), could significantly influence demand requirements in medical workforce projections. This study predicts supply of and demand for PAs from 2006 to 2020. The PA supply model utilized the number of certified PAs, the educational capacity (at 10% and 25% expansion) with assumed attrition rates, and retirement assumptions. Gross domestic product (GDP) chained in 2000 dollar and US population were utilized in a transfer function trend analyses with the number of PAs as the dependent variable for the PA demand model. Historical analyses revealed strong correlations between GDP and US population with the number of PAs. The number of currently certified PAs represents approximately 75% of the projected demand. At 10% growth, the supply and demand equilibrium for PAs will be reached in 2012. A 25% increase in new entrants causes equilibrium to be met one year earlier. Robust application trends in PA education enrollment (2.2 applicants per seat for PAs is the same as for allopathic medical school applicants) support predicted increases. However, other implications for the PA educational institutions include recruitment and retention of qualified faculty, clinical site maintenance and diversity of matriculates. Further research on factors affecting the supply and demand for PAs is needed in the areas of retirement age rates, gender, and lifestyle influences. Specialization trends and visit intensity levels are potential variables.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Orcutt, Venetia L.
Partner: UNT Libraries