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Measurement of {gamma}{sub T} with the {gamma}{sub T} quads on and off

Description: An experimental procedure for measuring {gamma}{sub T} has been developed and tested in two different measurements, with the {gamma}{sub T} quads on and off. The results were compared to MAD calculations. The discrepancy between the measured {gamma}{sub T} and the calculated {gamma}{sub T} is less than 5%.
Date: May 24, 2004
Creator: Xi Yang, James MacLachlan and Charles M. Ankenbrandt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

Description: Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Simmons, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update on the National Center for Gear Metrology

Description: Traceability to national or international standards is clearly required by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 1), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref. 2), and the US equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25-ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 3). In the draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25-ISO 17025; measurements, not just equipment, must be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the US gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, either gear manufacturers must have calibrated artifacts or must establish their own traceability to SI units.
Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Cox, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surveying the monument system at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source accelerator

Description: Particle accelerators with demanding alignment requirements face a need for periodic re-surveying of their reference monument systems. At the ALS, significant foundation settling and the necessary relocation of some floor monuments mean that the entire system of over 100 monuments must be re-surveyed to an accuracy of 100 microns at two year intervals. Last Fall, the monument survey was conducted entirely by the in-house Survey and Alignment crew using a simplified instrument mounting system and an inexpensive commercial software package. Precision levels, plummets, theodolites, and an electronic distance measuring system were used with the innovative ``Monopod`` instrument mounting system in a cost effective approach to this critical task.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Thur, W. & Lauritzen, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DML and Foil Measurements of ETA Beam Radius

Description: Simultaneous measurements of the ETA beam radius have been made with a quartz foil and a diamagnetic loop (DML). While the measurements agreed at some settings they diverged at others. While the DML measures the rms radius of the total beam, the foil measures mainly the core and the divergence can be explained by the presence of a low density halo. Evidence of such a halo from other measurements is presented.
Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Nexsen, W & Weir, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

Description: Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.
Date: December 30, 2004
Creator: Hoff, Tatiana & Growcock, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visualization of micro-scale phase displacement processes in retention and outflow experiments: Non-uniqueness of unsaturated flow properties

Description: Methods to determine unsaturated hydraulic properties can exhibit random and non-unique behavior. The authors assess the causes for these behaviors by visualizing micro-scale phase displacement processes during equilibrium retention and transient outflow experiments. They observe that the drainage process is composed of a fast fingering followed by a slower backfilling. The influence of each these processes is controlled by the size and the speed of the applied boundary step, the initial saturation and its structure and by small-scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these micro-scale processes yields macro-scale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. These results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties.
Date: March 9, 2000
Creator: MORTENSEN,ANNETTE P.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; HOLLENBECK,KARL & JENSEN,KARSTEN H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Making almost commuting matrices commute

Description: Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Hastings, Matthew B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

Description: The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this dissertation describes MOSAIC, a new wavefront metrology that enables complete wavefront recovery from print or aerial image ...
Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why in situ, real-time characterization of thin film growth processes?

Description: Since thin-film growth occurs at the surface, the analytical methods should be highly surface-specific. although subsurface diffusion and chemical processes also affect film properties. Sampling depth and ambient-gas is compatibility are key factors which must be considered when choosing in situ probes of thin-film growth phenomena. In most cases, the sampling depth depends on the mean range of the exit species (ion, photon, or electron) in the sample. The techniques that are discussed in this issue of the MRS Bulletin (1) have been chosen because they may be used for in situ, real-time analysis of film-growth phenomena in vacuum and in the presence of ambient gases resulting either from the deposition process or as a requirement for the production of the desired chemical phase. A second criterion for inclusion is that the instrumentation be sufficiently compact and inexpensive to permit use as a dedicated tool in a thin-film deposition system.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Auciello, O. & Krauss, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department