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Evaluation of Ceramic Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers : Summary of Progress to Date

Description: Commercial refractories were tested for up to 500 h in both basic and acidic slags. The slag compositions typify those expected in slagging coal gasifiers. The slag temperatures ranged up to 1600 degrees C. Compositions tested have included silicon carbides, chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels, and alumina and magnesia-based refractories with various amounts of chromia and silica. In some tests, the cold faces were water cooled. With water cooling, the silicon carbides showed virtually no attack after 500 h. In the absence of water cooling, the chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels were the most resistant to slag attack but were subject to thermal-shock cracking. Alumina-chrome refractories performed well in acid slags when water cooled, are probably more stable than silicon carbide in coal-gasification atmospheres, and, in the form of ramming mixes, showed excellent thermal-shock resistances. Plans for future testing are described.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Kennedy, C. R.; Swaroop, R.; Jones, D. J.; Fousek, R. J.; Poeppel, R. B. & Stahl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Industrial Magnetic Heat Pump/Refrigerator Concepts that Utilize Superconducting Magnets

Description: This report provides a preliminary assessment of some magnetic heat pump (MHP)/refrigeration concepts for cryogen liquefaction and other industrial applications. The study was performed by Astronautics Corporation of America for Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy.
Date: June 1989
Creator: Waynert, J. A.; DeGregoria, A. J.; Foster, R. W. & Barclay, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analyze and Rebuild an Apparatus to Gauge Evaporative Cooling Effectiveness of Micro-Porous Barriers.

Description: The sample used for evaporative cooling system is Fabric defender 750 with Shelltite finish. From the experimental data and equations we have diffusion coefficient of 20.9 ± 3.71 x 10-6 m2/s for fabric with one layer with 17%-20% fluctuations from the theory, 27.8 ± 4.5 x 10-6 m2/s for fabric with two layers with 6%-14% fluctuations from the theory and 24.9 ± 4.1 x 10-6 m2/s for fabric with three layers with 13%-16% fluctuations from the theory. Since the thickness of the fabric increases so the mass transport rate decreases so the mass transport resistance should be increases. The intrinsic mass resistances of Fabri-1L, Fabri-2L and Fabri-3L are respectively 104 ± 10.2 s/m, 154 ± 23 s/m and 206 ± 26 s/m from the experiment.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Mohiti Asli, Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries

A robust, coupled approach for atomistic-continuum simulation.

Description: This report is a collection of documents written by the group members of the Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project titled 'A Robust, Coupled Approach to Atomistic-Continuum Simulation'. Presented in this document is the development of a formulation for performing quasistatic, coupled, atomistic-continuum simulation that includes cross terms in the equilibrium equations that arise due to kinematic coupling and corrections used for the calculation of system potential energy to account for continuum elements that overlap regions containing atomic bonds, evaluations of thermo-mechanical continuum quantities calculated within atomistic simulations including measures of stress, temperature and heat flux, calculation used to determine the appropriate spatial and time averaging necessary to enable these atomistically-defined expressions to have the same physical meaning as their continuum counterparts, and a formulation to quantify a continuum 'temperature field', the first step towards constructing a coupled atomistic-continuum approach capable of finite temperature and dynamic analyses.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Aubry, Sylvie; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wagner, Gregory John; Klein, Patrick A.; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report to NASA JSC : thermal abuse performance of MOLI, Panasonic and Sanyo 18650 Li-ion cells.

Description: Thermal property measurements of 18650 cells for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System (AHPS, formerly known as EAPU) have been performed. Cells were measured from three commercial manufacturers: E-One MOLI (12 cells), Panasonic (5 cells) and Sanyo (5 cells). Thermal property measurements of the MOLI 18650 cells included measurements of specific heat, self discharge (microcalorimetry), overcharge response and thermal runaway by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The Panasonic and Sanyo cells were measured only for thermal runaway response in the ARC at increasing states of charge (3.8V, 4.0V, 4.2V, 4.3V).
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Roth, Emanuel Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non destructive testing of test objects.

Description: In order to determine the visibility of various features by different techniques and in different settings, several test objects containing wires have been used as standards. Examples are shown of the use of x-ray and active thermal imaging for the detection of inclusions. The effect of x-ray accelerating voltage and confounding materials on the x-ray images is shown. Calculated transmission functions for selected materials at a range of voltages are given. The effect of confounding materials, finishes, and textures on thermography is shown and on x-radiography is discussed.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Mills, Bernice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Viscosity of Molten Alumina

Description: In the analysis of LMFBR core-containment and heat-removal problems associated with hypothetical core-disruptive accidents, viscosity data on molten ceramics are needed to help analyze the convective heat transfer and flow patterns within liquid pools. An oscillating cup viscometer has been used to measure the viscosity of molten alumina in the temperature range from 2400 to 2750/sup 0/K. The data are represented by the equation: log eta = 11448/T - 8.2734 where the viscosity, eta, is given in Pascal seconds and the temperature, T, is in Kelvins.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Blomquist, R. A.; Fink, J. K. & Leibowitz, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport.

Description: Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal transport properties at room temperature. In addition, the defect density was observed to play a major ...
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Sinha, Sanjiv (Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA) & Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra high temperature ceramics for hypersonic vehicle applications.

Description: HfB{sub 2} and ZrB{sub 2} are of interest for thermal protection materials because of favorable thermal stability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance. We have made dense diboride ceramics with 2 to 20 % SiC by hot pressing at 2000 C and 5000 psi. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows very thin grain boundary phases that suggest liquid phase sintering. Fracture toughness measurements give RT values of 4 to 6 MPam{sup 1/2}. Four-pt flexure strengths measured in air up to 1450 C were as high as 450-500 MPa. Thermal diffusivities were measured to 2000 C for ZrB{sub 2} and HfB{sub 2} ceramics with SiC contents from 2 to 20%. Thermal conductivities were calculated from thermal diffusivities and measured heat capacities. Thermal diffusivities were modeled using different two-phase composite models. These materials exhibit excellent high temperature properties and are attractive for further development for thermal protection systems.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Tandon, Rajan; Dumm, Hans Peter; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E. & Kotula, Paul Gabriel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

Description: The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Luk, Ting Shan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiscale thermal transport.

Description: A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Graham, Samuel, Jr.; Wong, C. C. & Piekos, Edward Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material compatibility and thermal aging of thermoelectric materials.

Description: In order to design a thermoelectric (TE) module suitable for long-term elevated temperature use, the Department 8651 has conducted parametric experiments to study material compatibility and thermal aging of TE materials. In addition, a comprehensive material characterization has been preformed to examine thermal stability of P- and N-based alloys and their interaction with interconnect diffusion barrier(s) and solder. At present, we have completed the 7-days aging experiments for 36 tiles, from ambient to 250 C. The thermal behavior of P- and N-based alloys and their thermal interaction with both Ni and Co diffusion barriers and Au-Sn solder were examined. The preliminary results show the microstructure, texture, alloy composition, and hardness of P-(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} and N-Bi{sub 2}(Te,Se){sub 3} alloys are thermally stable up to 7 days annealing at 250 C. However, metallurgical reactions between the Ni-phosphor barriers and P-type base alloy were evident at temperatures {ge} 175 C. At 250 C, the depth (or distance) of the metallurgical reaction and/or Ni diffusion into P-(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} is approximately 10-15 {micro}m. This thermal instability makes the Ni-phosphor barrier unsuitable for use at temperatures {ge} 175 C. The Co barrier appeared to be thermally stable and compatible with P(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} at all annealing temperatures, with the exception of a minor Co diffusion into Au-Sn solder at {ge} 175 C. The effects of Co diffusion on long-term system reliability and/or the thermal stability of the Co barrier are yet to be determined. Te evaporation and its subsequent reaction with Au-Sn solder and Ni and Co barriers on the ends of the tiles at temperatures {ge} 175 C were evident. The Te loss and its effect on the long-term required stoichiometry of P-(Bi, Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} are yet to be understood. The aging experiments of 90 days and 180 days are ongoing and ...
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Gardea, Andrew D.; Nishimoto, Ryan; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Whalen, Scott A.; Chames, Jeffrey M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

Description: This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D. & Phinney, Leslie Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Users manual for CAFE-3D : a computational fluid dynamics fire code.

Description: The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code has been developed to model all relevant fire physics for predicting the thermal response of massive objects engulfed in large fires. It provides realistic fire thermal boundary conditions for use in design of radioactive material packages and in risk-based transportation studies. The CAFE code can be coupled to commercial finite-element codes such as MSC PATRAN/THERMAL and ANSYS. This coupled system of codes can be used to determine the internal thermal response of finite element models of packages to a range of fire environments. This document is a user manual describing how to use the three-dimensional version of CAFE, as well as a description of CAFE input and output parameters. Since this is a user manual, only a brief theoretical description of the equations and physical models is included.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Khalil, Imane; Lopez, Carlos & Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Alion Science and Technology, Albuquerque, NM)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Moss, Timothy A. & Brosseau, Douglas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department