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EVALUATING MC AND A EFFECTIVENESS TO VERIFY THE PRESENCE OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS

Description: Traditional materials accounting is focused exclusively on the material balance area (MBA), and involves periodically closing a material balance based on accountability measurements conducted during a physical inventory. In contrast, the physical inventory for Los Alamos National Laboratory's near-real-time accounting system is established around processes and looks more like an item inventory. That is, the intent is not to measure material for accounting purposes, since materials have already been measured in the normal course of daily operations. A given unit process operates many times over the course of a material balance period. The product of a given unit process may move for processing within another unit process in the same MBA or may be transferred out of the MBA. Since few materials are unmeasured the physical inventory for a near-real-time process area looks more like an item inventory. Thus, the intent of the physical inventory is to locate the materials on the books and verify information about the materials contained in the books. Closing a materials balance for such an area is a matter of summing all the individual mass balances for the batches processed by all unit processes in the MBA. Additionally, performance parameters are established to measure the program's effectiveness. Program effectiveness for verifying the presence of nuclear material is required to be equal to or greater than a prescribed performance level, process measurements must be within established precision and accuracy values, physical inventory results meet or exceed performance requirements, and inventory differences are less than a target/goal quantity. This approach exceeds DOE established accounting and physical inventory program requirements. Hence, LANL is committed to this approach and to seeking opportunities for further improvement through integrated technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of this evaluation process.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: DAWSON, P. G.; MORZINSKI, J. A & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating MC&A effectiveness to verify the presence of nuclear materials

Description: Traditional materials accounting is focused exclusively on the material balance area (MBA), and involves periodically closing a material balance based on accountability measurements conducted during a physical inventory. In contrast, the physical inventory for Los Alamos National Laboratory's near-real-time accounting system is established around processes and looks more like an item inventory. That is, the intent is not to measure material for accounting purposes, since materials have already been measured in the normal course of daily operations. A given unit process operates many times over the course of a material balance period. The product of a given unit process may move for processing within another unit process in the same MBA or may be transferred out of the MBA. Since few materials are unmeasured the physical inventory for a near-real-time process area looks more like an item inventory. Thus, the intent of the physical inventory is to locate the materials on the books and verify information about the materials contained in the books. Closing a materials balance for such an area is a matter of summing all the individual mass balances for the batches processed by all unit processes in the MBA. Additionally, performance parameters are established to measure the program's effectiveness. Program effectiveness for verifying the presence of nuclear material is required to be equal to or greater than a prescribed performance level, process measurements must be within established precision and accuracy values, physical inventory results meet or exceed performance requirements, and inventory differences are less than a target/goal quantity. This approach exceeds DOE established accounting and physical inventory program requirements. Hence, LANL is committed to this approach and to seeking opportunities for further improvement through integrated technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of this evaluation process.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Dawson, P. G. (Pamela G.); Morzinski, J. A. (Jerome A.); Ostenak, Carl A.; Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Jewell, D. (Don) & Williams, J. D. (Joel D.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.
Date: December 5, 2008
Creator: Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B. & Stevens, Don J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LANL material control indicator analysis program

Description: The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Several methods have been put in place to deter and or detect losses of SNM. These include inventory, material control physical barriers and the use of material control indicators (MCI). This paper will discuss the multi-tier LANL review mechanism for detecting and isolating missing SNM by the use of Material Control Indicators. Los Alamos MCI include daily analysis and review of item adjustments, weekly review of item adjustments, monthly analysis and review of inventory differences by Process Status and by Material Balance Areas, and quarterly analysis and review of Propagation of Variance. This paper, by providing an introduction to a site-specific application of MCI's, assists safeguards professionals in understanding the importance of an MCI Program in detecting accumulation for subsequent diversion/theft of special nuclear material.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Roybal, G. S. (Gilbert S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MC&A in a Radiochemical Plant

Description: MC&A in reprocessing plant in the United States is based on solution measurements of the dissolved fuel assemblies, periodic inventories, and solution measurement of product and waste streams.
Date: October 30, 1998
Creator: Crawford, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Authentication of reprocessing plant safeguards data through correlation analysis

Description: This report investigates the feasibility and benefits of two new approaches to the analysis of safeguards data from reprocessing plants. Both approaches involve some level of plant modeling. All models involve some form of mass balance, either applied in the usual way that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at discrete times or applied by accounting for pipe flow rates that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at continuous times. In the first case, material balances are computed after each tank-to-tank transfer. In the second case, material balances can be computed at any desired time. The two approaches can be described as follows. The first approach considers the application of a new multivariate sequential test. The test statistic is a scalar, but the monitored residual is a vector. The second approach considers the application of recent nonlinear time series methods for the purpose of empirically building a model for the expected magnitude of a material balance or other scalar variable. Although the report restricts attention to monitoring scalar time series, the methodology can be extended to vector time series.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Burr, T.L.; Wangen, L.E. & Mullen, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of tank volume measurement equipment at the Mayak Production Association

Description: One goal of the program to improve nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) in Russian facilities is to computerize material accounting techniques for bulk materials. Such materials include liquid solutions at radiochemical plants: dissolver, intermediate product, and waste. Material accounting techniques for tank volume measurements (TVM`s) are needed to determine the nuclear material content of these solutions (chemical and isotopic analysis are also required). The content is required to close the material balance in a radiochemical plant. Computerization of these techniques can provide unattended measurements of material flows, improved precision and accuracy, reduced operator effort, and lower radiation exposure of operators--with equipment that is predominantly remote from high radiation areas. This paper describes the technical activities that contributed to the successful integration of the BNL-developed TVM system into the Mayak facility conducted under the US-Russian Cooperative MPC and A Program.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Darenskikh, O.; Suda, S.C.; Valente, J.U. & Zuhoski, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: a mathematical model for liquid flow transients in a rotary dissolver

Description: A model describing the liquid outlet response to perturbations in the flow to a compartmented rotary dissolver has been developed. The model incorporates stagewise differential material balances coupled with the general equation for flow over a weir to calculate acid concentrations and liquid volumes in each stage. Data were taken from step-change flow experiments conducted on a 0.5-t/d rotary dissolver. The predicted response of the model was in good agreement with the data from the dissolver experiments. All constants in the model were obtained by independent tests. The model appears to be applicable over a wide range of dissolver operating conditions; however, temperature fluctuations and the presence of solids were not addressed.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Lewis, B. E. & Weber, F. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Licensed fuel facility status report. Inventory difference data, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

Description: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is committed to an annual publication of licensed fuel cycle facility inventory difference data, following Agency review of the information and completion of any related investigations. Information in this report includes inventory difference results for active fuel fabrication facilities possessing more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material. 1 tab.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Pham, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production test 234-4, production of plutonium (IV) fluoride by direct hydrofluorination of plutonium (III) oxalate. Final report

Description: A new method for the production of plutonium (IV) fluoride, which is used for the production of metallic plutonium, is described. The method bypasses the oxidation of plutonium(III) oxalate to plutonium(IV) oxide. A production test was executed with favorable yields; the decision to replace the prior method was recommended. This report is from the Hanford Works 234-5 building, March 30, 1951.
Date: March 30, 1951
Creator: Quinn, F.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material balance flowsheet Redox Production plant

Description: The attached material balance flowsheet for the proposed Redox Production plant is based on the two chemical flowsheets submitted by R.B. Richards of the Technical Division in HW 13,320 (INDC-3130) and HW 13,452 (INDC 3176). Production rates for the plant have been assumed as 2.5 short tone U per day (including a maximum of 0.75 short tons of U from stored Bi PO{sub 4} waste) and 19 kg. Pu per month (633 gms/day) as established by the Redox Committee. The flowsheets for preparation of solvent extraction feed from Bi PO{sub 4} waste, as well as the waste treatment systems will be covered in a future document.
Date: June 6, 1949
Creator: Tomlinson, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

Description: The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y. & Beitel, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

Description: The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference.
Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: KLEM, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

Description: LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Armstrong, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous Material Balance Reconciliation for a Modern Plutonium Processing Facility

Description: This paper describes a safeguards approach that can be deployed at any modern plutonium processing facility to increase the level of safeguards assurance and significantly reduce the impact of safeguards on process operations. One of the most perplexing problems facing the designers of plutonium processing facilities is the constraint placed upon the limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The current DOE manual constrains the LEID for Category I and II material balance areas to 2 per cent of active inventory up to a Category II quantity of the material being processed. For 239Pu a Category II quantity is two kilograms. Due to the large material throughput anticipated for some of the modern plutonium facilities, the required LEID cannot be achieved reliably during a nominal two month inventory period, even by using state-of-the-science non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. The most cost-effective and least disruptive solution appears to be increasing the frequency of material balance closure and thus reducing the throughput being measured during each inventory period. Current inventory accounting practices and systems can already provide the book inventory values at any point in time. However, closing the material balance with measured values has typically required the process to be cleaned out, and in-process materials packaged and measured. This process requires one to two weeks of facility down time every two months for each inventory, thus significantly reducing productivity. To provide a solution to this problem, a non-traditional approach is proposed that will include using in-line instruments to provide measurement of the process materials on a near real-time basis. A new software component will be developed that will operate with the standard LANMAS application to provide the running material balance reconciliation, including the calculation of the inventory difference and variance propagation. The combined measurement system and software implementation will make it ...
Date: July 2, 2004
Creator: CLARK, THOMAS G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of a performance-based MC&A assessment program

Description: Department of Energy Order 5633.3, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, requires each facility possessing nuclear material (NM) to {open_quotes}establish a program to assess its control and accountability systems and procedures, and to assure the integrity and quality of these systems.{close_quotes} This paper describes the formation of a performance-based assessment group within Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) in response to this requirement. The Assessment Group was formed to evaluate both compliance to requirements and system performance capability as determined by performance testing. Evaluations address the five functional areas of MC&A: administration, containment, accounting, measurement, and inventory programs. The assessments performed by this group are used to substantiate the degree of MC&A compliance with requirements and to determine system capability to protect NM in accordance with graded safeguards. Assessment reports provide documented evidence of the integrity and quality of the systems comprising the MC&A program at WSRC.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Johnson, H. D. & Wolf, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative evaluation of the RETIMAC system

Description: One means of raising the degree of protection afforded strategic special nuclear materials against theft and diversion is the installation of Real Time Material Control (RETIMAC) systems. The ability of RETIMAC to detect any covert attempt to steal special nuclear materials in a time frame that is adequate to contain subcritical quantities of special nuclear material within the boundaries of the material protection system and to maintain current knowledge of the quantity and location of all strategic special nuclear material was tested. A commercial-scale mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant was chosen for the study. (LK)
Date: June 10, 1975
Creator: Bain, E.E.; Fisher, R.H.; Gozani, T.; Harris, L. Jr.; Kendrick, H.; Kull, L.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The LANL Physical Inventory Program

Description: The LANL physical inventory program (statistically based) provides assurance that the inventory is represented to the defined confidence levels. In addition, it establishes a benchmark to prove that the inventory is accurately stated. The LANL's Physical Inventory Program for nuclear materials requires the performance of periodic physical inventories and special inventories of nuclear material. The Inventory Program also requires the reconciliation of inventory measurements with previously established nuclear material accountability values. This inventory program applies to all material balance areas (MBAs) and is designed in accordance with DOE order 474.1, 'Nuclear Material Control and Accountability'. The program uses a graded approach for performing physical inventories with primary emphasis placed on Categories I and II quantities of special nuclear material. This paper describes the essential elements of the LANL Physical Inventory Program. In addition, the inter-dependency of the Inventory Program with respect to other LANL MC&A Programs is discussed. This paper, by outlining the elements and approach of a site-specific physical inventory program assists safeguards practitioners in the design of related physical inventory programs.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Pompeo, J. A. (John A.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downgrade of the Savannah River Sites FB-Line

Description: This paper will discuss the Safeguards & Security (S&S) activities that resulted in the downgrade of the Savannah River Site's FB-Line (FBL) from a Category I Material Balance Area (MBA) in a Material Access Area (MAA) to a Category IV MBA in a Property Protection Area (PPA). The Safeguards activities included measurement of final product items, transferal of nuclear material to other Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities, discard of excess nuclear material items, and final measurements of holdup material. The Security activities included relocation and destruction of classified documents and repositories, decertification of a classified computer, access control changes, updates to planning documents, deactivation and removal of security systems, Human Reliability Program (HRP) removals, and information security training for personnel that will remain in the FBL PPA.
Date: July 5, 2005
Creator: SADOWSKI, ED; YOURCHAK, RANDY; MARJI, PRETZELLO; MIXON, BONNIE & LYNN, ROBBIE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

Description: The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.
Date: May 11, 2000
Creator: KLEM, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

Description: DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Funk, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the Fuel Conditioning Facility electronic in-cell mass balances

Description: An approach to error estimation and measurement control in the analysis of the balance measurements of mass standards on the in-cell electronic mass balances of the Fuel Conditioning Facility is presented. In light of measurement data from one year of operation, the algorithms proposed are evaluated. The need to take into account the effects of facility operations on the estimates of measurement uncertainty is demonstrated. In the case of a newly installed balance, where no historical data exists, an ad hoc procedure of adding a term which takes into account the operational variability is proposed. This procedure allows a sufficiently long operation so as to collect data for the estimate of the contribution of operational effects to the uncertainty estimate. An algorithm for systematically taking into account historical data is developed and demonstrated for two balances over two calibration periods. The algorithm, both asymptotically and in the two samples cases, has the necessary desirable properties for estimating the uncertainty in the measurements of the balances.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Orechwa, Y. & Bucher, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trial operation of material protection, control, and accountability systems at two active nuclear material handling sites within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

Description: This paper discusses Russian Federal Nuclear Center (RFNC)-VNIIEF activities in the area of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) procedures enhancement. The goal of such activities is the development of an automated systems for MPC and A at two of the active VNIIEF research sites: a research (reactor) site and a nuclear material production facility. The activities for MPC and A system enhancement at both sites are performed in the framework of a VNIIEF-Los Alamos National Laboratory contract with participation from Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and PANTEX Plant in accordance with Russian programs supported by MinAtom. The American specialists took part in searching for possible improvement of technical solutions, ordering equipment, and delivering and testing the equipment that was provided by the Americans.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Skripka, G.; Vatulin, V. & Yuferev, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department