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Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

Description: Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Bowers, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy conservation in rental housing: landlords' perceptions of problems and solutions

Description: Rental housing owners have had little incentive to invest in energy conservation measures for their buildings. As the cost of energy continues to rise, market incentives increase. This research explores the decision processes and criteria of a purposive sample of landlords in four cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, and San Francisco. The report outlines landlords' reasons for investing or not investing in energy conservation measures, the barriers they perceive to energy conservation, and their perceived solutions to energy problems in rental housing.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Levine, A.; Raab, J.; Astrein, B.; Bernstein, S.; Piernot, C. & Strahs, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discussion series on PURPA related topics

Description: The master metering of electricity was investigated in nine of the Pilot Implementation Projects. These studies showed that master metering increased the level of energy consumption by as much as 40% in some areas and 11% in others. One study of housing units before and after conversion to individual metering showed consumption reductions of 17 and 20%. Two costs of eliminating master metering other than the cost of meters were: the loss of centralized space conditioning and hot water systems and increased building costs. It was found that centralized space heating systems used 10 to 15% less energy than individual systems. In one Project it was estimated that construction costs in high rise buildings could increase by around $3,000 per apartment if master metering was eliminated. Five alternatives to eliminating master metering were examined or considered. Submetering was reviewed but the lack of reliable and economical submeters prevented its testing. Another alternative was to bill master metered customers on multiple block rates. This was used in one Project and it eliminated the cost advantage of master metering. Although alternatives to the elimination of master metering were examined most commission actions were directed at its elimination. Most commissions exempted specific uses such as centralized hot water and central heating and cooling systems. Typically the ban on master metering was for new construction.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Sturgeon, J I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy savings attributable to switching from master metering to individual metering of electricity

Description: This technical memo reviews and analyzes the published literature on electricity consumption by tenants in residential buildings with individual meters, compared with electricity consumption in residential buildings with master meters. An important finding is that energy savings of individual over master metering are strongly correlated with the price of electricity.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Nelson, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a demonstration program for retrofit of ECRR measures on existing dwelling units. [Renter-occupied]

Description: Policy measures which could be part of a Federal program to encourage energy conservation in renter-occupied housing are discussed. The report summarizes data on the renter-occupied housing stock and energy consumption specific to structure type, functional use, fuel type, and region. Energy conservation opportunities and factors which impede the realization of those opportunities are identified. Incentives and programs are suggested that could reduce energy consumption in rented housing. A number of issues of programmatic significance, considering several concepts which could form the basis for demonstration programs under Section 509 of ECPA, are discussed. The potential costs and benefits of a national program stemming from the demonstration efforts are discussed. (MCW)
Date: December 8, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department