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Description: Numerical studies of laminar natural convection at high Ra numbers in shallow enclosures are reported. In these studies the working fluid is allowed to interact with the horizontal walls. It is shown that even a small amount of heat loss from these walls can lead to a flow structure qualitatively different from the more commonly studied situation where the horizontal walls are adiabatic. This is particularly important in applications where the mass transfer and flow structure are of interest. The results highlight the difficulty in practice of both approximating the adiabatic horizontal wall condition, and interpreting experimental data.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Gadgil, A. & Shiralkar, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Agitated Tanks Containing Non-Newtonian Fluids

Description: The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as KTPB concentration, time, sodium molarity, temperature, salt composition, sludge concentration, and radiation dose, on benzene retention and release. This paper describes the results of the tests.
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

Description: Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.
Date: March 28, 2005
Creator: Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi & Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction

Description: Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J. & Webb, Andrew G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 4. Double Porosity, Multiple-Rate Mass Transfer Processes in Two-Well Convergent Flow Tests

Description: Two-well convergent-flow tracer tests conducted in the Culebra dolomite (Rustler Formation, New Mexico, USA) are analyzed with both single-and multiple-rate, double-porosity models. Parameter estimation is used to determine the mean and standard deviation of a Iog- normal distribution of diffision rate coefficients as well as the advective porosity and longitudinal dispersivity. At two different test sites, both mukirate and single-rate models are capable of accurately modeling the observed data. Estimated model parameters are tested against breakthrough curves obtained along the same transport pathway at a different pumping rate. Implications of the rnultirate mass-transfer model at time and length scales greater than those of the tracer tests include the instantaneous saturation of a fraction of the matrix ~d the possibility of a fraction of the matrix remaining unsaturated at long times.
Date: March 4, 1999
Creator: Haggerty, R.; McKenna, S.A. & Meigs, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

Description: This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Rutledge, Veronica; Christensen, Kristi; Garn, Troy & Law, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.

Description: Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L. & Kerr, Dayle R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor

Description: TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Meikrantz, D. H.; Garn, T. G.; Law, J. D.; Mann, N. R. & Todd, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

Description: The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.
Date: October 13, 2005
Creator: Eldridge, Robert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

Description: This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Tabares Velasco, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boiling heat transfer in compact heat exchangers

Description: Small circular and noncircular channels are representative of flow passages in compact evaporators and condensers. This paper describes results of an experimental study on heat transfer to the flow boiling of refrigerant- 12 in a small circular tube of diameter = 2.46 mm. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of channel size on the heat transfer coefficient and to obtain additional insights relative to the heat transfer mechanisms. The flow channel was made of brass and had an overall length of 0.9 m. The channel wall was electrically heated, and temperatures were measured on the channel wall and in the bulk fluid stream. Voltage taps were located at the same axial locations as the stream thermocouples to allow testing over an exit quality range of 0.21 to 0.94 and a large range of mass flux (63 to 832 kg/m{sup 2}s) and heat flux (2.5 to 59 kW/m{sup 2}). Saturation pressure was nearly constant, averaging 0.82 MPa for most of the testing; a few test data were also taken at a constant lower pressure of 0.52 MPa. Local heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally. Analysis provided additional support for the conclusion, arrived at from previous studies, that a nucleation mechanism dominates for flow boiling in small channels; nevertheless, a convective-dominant region was identified at very low values of wall superheat (<{approx}3{degrees}C). Previous flow boiling studies in small channels, that did not include wall superheats this low, did not encounter the convective dominant mechanism. Conversely, cryogenic studies at very low wall superheats ({approx}l{degree}C) did not encounter the nucleation dominant regime. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the results of this study.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Tran, T.N.; Wambsganss, M.W. & France, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutrino propagation in matter with general interactions.

Description: We present a general analysis of the effective potential for neutrino propagation in matter, assuming a generic set of Lorentz invariant non-derivative interactions. We find that in addition to the known vector and axial vector terms, in a polarized medium also tensor interactions can play an important role. We compute the effective potential arising from a tensor interaction. We show that the components of the tensor potential transverse to the direction of the neutrino propagation can induce a neutrino spin-flip, similar to the one induced by a transverse magnetic field.
Date: April 9, 1999
Creator: Grossman, yuval
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

Description: The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. Goal is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations, could possibly result in an unreviewed safety question. Waste transfer decision rules are presented as a process for assessing compatibility of wastes or waste mixtures. The process involves characterizing the waste comparing waste characteristics with the criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities, and documenting the process.
Date: April 24, 1995
Creator: Fowler, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.
Date: March 14, 2002
Creator: Klasson, KT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department