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Masking Meaning

Description: Chapter I describes the purpose of the project, which was to develop a body of work that exhibits my current thought process. The questions presented to myself consisted of the following: 1. How effective was the expression of my ideas socially and politically after the change to the work? 2. Was the minimal approach a tool that contributes or detracts from this effectiveness? 3. Did an increase in scale successfully act as an element of confrontation? Chapter II describes the inspiration behind the making of my work it also discusses problems encountered with an understanding of the viewer concerning imagery. Chapter III summarizes the methodology behind the execution of the new body of work. It also discusses how simplification of imagery works as a solution to my problems.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Allee, Jake R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Masking Noise Upon the Performance of a Simple Motor Task Comparing Brain-Injured and Non-Brain-Injured Children

Description: Two questions can be posed for study: 1) Will the effect of auditory masking provided by a clinical noise significantly affect the performance of hearing children on the Knox Cube Test? 2) Are there significant differences among brain-injured, mentally, retarded, and "normal" children in ability to adjust to auditory masking in the performance of the Knox Cube Test?
Date: August 1967
Creator: Moss, Barbara A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Environmentally friendly polysilane photoresists

Description: Several novel polysilanes synthesized by the free-radical hydrosilation of oligomeric polyphenylsilane or poly(p-tert- butylphenylsilane) were examined for lithographic behavior. This recently developed route into substituted polysilanes has allowed for the rational design of a variety of polysilanes with a typical chemical properties such as alcohol and aqueous base solubility. Many of the polysilane resists made could be developed in aqueous sodium carbonate and bicarbonate solutions. These materials represent environmentally friendly polysilane resists in both their synthesis and processing.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Beach, J.V.; Loy, D.A.; Hsiao, Yu-Ling & Waymouth, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ICP Etching of SiC

Description: A number of different plasma chemistries, including NF{sub 3}/O{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}/Ar, ICl, IBr, Cl{sub 2}/Ar, BCl{sub 3}/Ar and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar, have been investigated for dry etching of 6H and 3C-SiC in a Inductively Coupled Plasma tool. Rates above 2,000 {angstrom} cm{sup {minus}1} are found with fluorine-based chemistries at high ion currents. Surprisingly, Cl{sub 2}-based etching does not provide high rates, even though the potential etch products (SiCi{sub 4} and CCl{sub 4}) are volatile. Photoresist masks have poor selectivity over SiC in F{sub 2}-based plasmas under normal conditions, and ITO or Ni are preferred.
Date: February 4, 1999
Creator: Grow, J.M.; Lambers, E.S.; Ostling, M.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Description: In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture

Description: The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.
Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N. & Naulleau, Patrick P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations

Description: In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.
Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick & George, Simi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEMATECH EUV resist benchmarking results

Description: Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading candidates for next generation lithography technology for the 32 nm HP and beyond. The availability of EUV resists is one of the most significant challenges facing its commercialization. To accelerate EUV resist development, SEMATECH provides access to two exposure tools: (1) The EUV Resist Test Center (RTC) at SEMATECH at the University at Albany, SUNY, NY; and (2) the SEMATECH microexposure tools (ALS-MET) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).
Date: October 27, 2007
Creator: Ma, Andy; Park, Joo-On; Dean, Kim; Wurm, Stefan & Naulleau, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A high-throughput contact-hole resolution metric for photoresists:Full-process sensitivity study

Description: The ability to accurately quantify the intrinsic resolution of chemically amplified photoresists is critical for the optimization of resists for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Iithography. We have recently reported on two resolution metrics that have been shown to extract resolution numbers consistent with direct observation. In this paper we examine the previously reported contact-hole resolution metric and explore the sensitivity of the metric to potential error sources associated with the experimental side of the resolution extraction process. For EUV exposures at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool, we report a full-process error-bar in extracted resolution of 1.75 nm RMS and verify this result experimentally.
Date: January 22, 2008
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N. & Naulleau, Patrick P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

Description: A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.
Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Donahue, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Polymer Dissolution

Description: In the LIGA process for manufacturing microcomponents, a polymer film is exposed to an x-ray beam passed through a gold pattern. This is followed by the development stage, in which a selective solvent is used to remove the exposed polymer, reproducing the gold pattern in the polymer film. Development is essentially polymer dissolution, a physical process which is not well understood. We have used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the early stage of polymer dissolution. In each simulation a film of non-glassy polymer was brought into contact with a layer of solvent. The mutual penetration of the two phases was tracked as a function of time. Several film thicknesses and two different chain lengths were simulated. In all cases, the penetration process conformed to ideal Fickian diffusion. We did not see the formation of a gel layer or other non-ideal effects. Variations in the Fickian diffusivities appeared to be caused primarily by differences in the bulk polymer film density.
Date: February 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep x-ray lithography based processing for micromechanics

Description: Deep x-ray lithography based fabrication provides a means to fabricate microactuators with useful output forces. High energy x-ray exposure provides a tool for fabrication of the next generation of precision engineered components. Device characterization, materials science, an metrology continue to pose challenges at this scale.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Christenson, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mask substrate requirements and development for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

Description: The mask is deemed one of the areas that require significant research and development in EUVL. Silicon wafers will be used for mask substrates for an alpha-class EUVL exposure tool due to their low-defect levels and high quality surface finish. However, silicon has a large coefficient of thermal expansion that leads to unacceptable image distortion due to absorption of EUV light. A low thermal expansion glass or glass-ceramic is likely to be required in order to meet error budgets for the 70nm node and beyond. Since EUVL masks are used in reflection, they are coated with multilayers prior to patterning. Surface imperfections, such as polishing marks, particles, scratches, or digs, are potential nucleation sites for defects in the multilayer coating, which could result in the printed defects. Therefore we are accelerating developments in the defect reduction and surface finishing of low thermal expansion mask substrates in order to understand long-term issues in controlling printable defects, and to establish the infrastructure for supplying masks. In this paper, we explain the technical requirements for EUVL mask substrates and describe our efforts in establishing a SEMI standard for EUVL masks. We will also report on the early progress of our suppliers in producing low thermal-expansion mask substrates for our development activities.
Date: September 28, 1999
Creator: Hector, S D; Shell, M; Taylor, J S & Tong, W M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography

Description: A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Gouge, M.J. & Fisher, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser-induced reactions in a deep UV resist system: Studied with picosecond infrared spectroscopy

Description: One of the most technologically important uses of organic photochemistry is in the imaging industry where radiation-sensitive organic monomers and polymers are used in photoresists. A widely-used class of compounds for imaging applications are diazoketones; these compounds undergo a photoinduced Wolff rearrangement to form a ketene intermediate which subsequently hydrolyses to a base-soluble, carboxylic acid. Another use of organic molecules in polymer matrices is for dopant induced ablation of polymers. As part of a program to develop diagnostics for laser driven reactions in polymer matrices, we have investigated the photoinduced decomposition of 5-diazo-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (5-diazo Meldrum`s acid, DM) in a PMMA matrix using picosecond infrared spectroscopy. In particular, irradiation of DM with a 60 ps 266 nm laser pulse results in immediate bleaching of the diazo infrared band ({nu} = 2172 cm{sup -1}). Similarly, a new band appears within our instrument response at 2161 cm{sup -1} (FWHM = 29 cm{sup -1}) and is stable to greater than 6 ns.; we assign this band to the ketene photoproduct of the Wolff rearrangement. Using deconvolution techniques we estimate a limit for its rate of formation of {tau} < 20 ps. The linear dependence of the absorbance change with the pump power (266 nm) even above the threshold of ablation suggest that material ejection take place after 6ns.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Lippert, T.; Koskelo, A. & Stoutland, P.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a two-mirror, four-reflection, ring-field optical system at {lambda}=13 nm

Description: Performance of an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) imaging optic was characterized by printing resolution test images in resist. While features as small as 0.137 {mu}m were successfully printed, a resolution of 0.175 {mu}m better represents the performance of the system over the full 0.9 mm{sup 2} image field. The contrast of the aerial image was estimated to be about 40% or less for the fine features printed. This low contrast value is attributed to a degradation of the modulation transfer function due to presence of scattered light in the image.
Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: La Fontaine, B.; Gaines, D.P.; Kania, D.R.; Sommargren, G.E.; Baker, S.L. & Ciarlo, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrahigh spatial-frequency, high-contrast periodic structures produced by interference lithography

Description: We have developed a process to produce high-aspect ratio, high- frequency periodic profiles recorded in a photoresist layer by interference lithography. We are able to independently control the period, duty cycle, and sidewall angle of the profiles. High-contrast diazonapthoquinone-based photoresist and single mode operation of the exposure laser are critical. The high-aspect ratio profiles are necessary for many applications such as transfer etch masks for etching oxides and field emitter array patterning. 5 refs., 5 figs.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Nguyen, H.T., Britten, J.A., Boyd, R.D., Shore, B.W., Perry, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beamline and exposure station for deep x-ray lithography at the Advanced Photon Source

Description: APS is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source. With an x-ray energy of 19.5 keV and highly collimated beam (<0.1 mrad), APS is well suited for producing high-aspect-ratio microstructures in thick resist films (> 1 mm) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The 2-BM beamline was constructed and will be used for DXRL at APS. Selection of appropriate x-ray energy range is done through a variable-angle mirror and various filters in the beamline. At the exposure station, the beam size will be 100(H) x 5(V) mm{sup 2}. Uniform exposure will be achieved by a high-speed (100 mm/sec) vertical scanner, which allows precise angular ({approximately}0.1 mrad) and positional (< 1 {mu}m) control of the sample, allowing full use of the highly collimated beam for lateral accuracy and control of sidewall slopes during exposure of thick resists, as well as generation of conicals and other profiles. For 1-mm-thick PMMA, a 100 x 25 mm{sup 2} area can be fully exposed in about 1/2 hr, while even 10-mm-thick PMMA will require only 2-3 hours.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lai, B.; Mancini, D.C.; Yun, W. & Gluskin, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: A molecular based approach for the synthesis of functional hybrid materials

Description: Bridged polysilsesquioxanes (BPS) are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel polymerization of molecular building blocks that contain a variable organic component and at least two trifunctional silyl groups. The resulting xerogels and aerogels have physical and mechanical properties that are strongly influenced by the organic bridging group. This talk focuses on the synthesis of functional bridged polysilsesquioxanes. Incorporation of functional groups that respond to chemical, photochemical, or thermal stimuli can provide handles for modifying bulk morphology and/or provide function. These materials can find use as ion exchange media, chromatographic stationary phases, photoresists and high capacity selective chemical absorbents.
Date: May 9, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uniformity model for energetic ion processes using a Kaufman ion source

Description: Processes that use energetic ions for large substrates require that the time-averaged erosion effects from the ion flux be uniform across the surface. A numerical model has been developed to determine this flux and its effects on surface etching of a silica/photoresist combination. The geometry of the source and substrate is very similar to a typical deposition geometry with single or planetary substrate rotation. The model was used to tune an inert ion-etching process that used single or multiple Kaufman sources to less than 3% uniformity over a 30-cm aperture after etching 8 {micro}m of material. The same model can be used to predict uniformity for ion-assisted deposition (IAD).
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, D.J.; Warner, J.A. & LeBarron, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design tools and issues of silicon micromachined (MEMS) devices

Description: This paper describes the design and design issues associated with silicon surface micromachined device design Some of the tools described are adaptations of macro analysis tools. Design issues in the microdomain differ greatly from design issues encountered in the macrodomain. Microdomain forces caused by electrostatic attraction, surface tension, Van der Walls forces, and others can be more significant than inertia, friction, or gravity. Design and analysis tools developed for macrodomain devices are inadequate in most cases for microdomain devices. Microdomain specific design and analysis tools are being developed, but are still immature and lack adequate functionality. The fundamental design process for surface micromachined devices is significantly different than the design process employed in the design of macro-sized devices. In this paper, MEMS design will be discussed as well as the tools used to develop the designs and the issues relating fabrication processes to design. Design and analysis of MEMS devices is directly coupled to the silicon micromachining processes used to fabricate the devices. These processes introduce significant design limitations and must be well understood before designs can be successfully developed. In addition, some silicon micromachining fabrication processes facilitate the integration of silicon micromachines with microelectronics on-chip. For devices requiring on-chip electronics, the fabrication processes introduce additional design constraints that must be taken into account during design and analysis.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S. & Montague, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department