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Burst Martensitic Transformations in a Steel and in a Pu-Ga Alloy

Description: Upon cooling a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy from the ambient temperature, the metastable delta phase partially transforms martensitically to the alpha-prime phase. Because this transformation involves a 25% volume contraction, plastic accommodation by the delta matrix must occur. When the material is isochronally heated or isothermally annealed above ambient temperatures, the reversion of alpha-prime to delta is likely to occur by the alpha-prime/delta interface moving to consume the alpha-prime particles. This reversion exhibits a burst martensitic mode and is observed as sharp spikes in differential scanning calorimetry data and as steps in resistometry data. These large bursts appear to be the result of an interplay between the autocatalytically driven transformation of individual alpha-prime particles and self-quenching caused by small changes in temperature and/or stress accompanying each burst. The behavior of this Pu-Ga alloy is compared to that of a steel referred to as a ''burst martensite'' in the literature, which also exhibits bursts during both thermal cycling and isothermal holds.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Blobaum, K; Krenn, C; Wall, M & Schwartz, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of carbon partitioning kinetics on final Austenite fraction during quenching and partitioning

Description: The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is a two-stage heat-treatment procedure proposed for producing steel microstructures that contain carbon-enriched retained austenite. In Q&P processing, austenite stabilization is accomplished by carbon partitioning from supersaturated martensite. A quench temperature selection methodology was developed to predict an optimum process quench temperature; extension of this methodology to include carbon partitioning kinetics is developed here. Final austenite fraction is less sensitive to quench temperature than previously predicted, in agreement with experimental results.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Clarke, Amy J; Speer, John G; Matlock, David K; Rizzo, F C; Edmonds, David V & Santofimia, Maria J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reports of the measurement of elastic properties of 51XX series steels for the heat treatment distortion project

Description: We have measured the temperature dependence of the elastic constants of the 51XX series steels [gear steels] for a range of phases. At RT the normalized steel (pearlite) has the highest value of the moduli, the bainite phase the next highest, and martensite the lowest. Extrapolation of the austenite suggests that at RT austenite has lower moduli than martensite. For all the grades and phases of steels examined, the behavior of the elastic constants is similar: a curve could be drawn for each of the moduli from all the phases and all the grades would not deviate by more than {+-}4%. The normalized phase (100% pearlite in 5180) is stable up to 900 C. Bainite is stable up to 500 C. Martensite starts to change above 150 C as it tempers or strain relieves; once this is complete, the martensite moduli increase to similar values to bainite. Extrapolations are discussed. Behavior in lower carbon steels (5140, 5120) should conform to above; there is no explanation for the anomalous behavior of the quenched 5120 steel.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Darling, T.; Migliori, A.; Armstrong, P.E.; Vaidya, R.; Scherer, C. & Lowe, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report DOE project, ''Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations,'' DEFG02-93ER143993

Description: For the first time, experiments on NiTi under pressure loadings were conducted in Ref. (1). This work showed that the stress-strain response of NiTi is highly pressure sensitive and there was an asymmetry of tension and compression results. The results were obtained based on the special rig developed in (Ref. 2) by Sehitoglu and his students. Several experiments under pressure were also conducted on CuZnAl alloys with also pressure dependent response. accounted for variant-variant interaction and texture effects in the case of NiTi alloys (Ref. 3). It was found that the polycrystalline version of these materials has a strong texture due to the cold rolling process (Figure 4). Consequently, they almost behave as single crystals oriented in the [111] direction (Figure 3). We showed that if the texture effects are not accounted for the models give the incorrect trends when compared with experiments (Figure 5). Our work also showed that the evolution of the variants in tension is much more rapid compared to the compression case (Ref. 3). In the second year of the work, our attention focused exclusively on the deformation behavior of single crystals. Several key results were achieved with single crystals. Initially, we studied the role of aging treatment on tension compression asymmetry and crystal orientation dependence. It was shown that the orientation dependence of critical resolved shear stress is significant in the case of peak aged crystals while the orientation dependence decreases with overaging. A micro-mechanical model was developed to explain these trends based on the determination of the local shear stresses due to the precipitate on the 24 possible martensite variants (Figure 6). It was found that those variants that have high resolved shear stress due to external loading experience low local stresses due to the precipitate weakening the orientation dependence (Refs. 4-6). Overall the ...
Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: Sehitoglu, Huseyin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A model of shape memory materials with hierarchical twinning: Statics and dynamics

Description: We consider a model of shape memory material in which hierarchical twinning near the habit plane (austenite-martensite interface) is a new and crucial ingredient. The model includes (1) a triple-well potential ({phi} model) in local shear strain, (2) strain gradient terms up to second order in strain and fourth order in gradient, and (3) all symmetry allowed compositional fluctuation induced strain gradient terms. The last term favors hierarchy which enables communication between macroscopic (cm) and microscopic ({Angstrom}) regions essential for shape memory. Hierarchy also stabilizes between formation (critical pattern of twins). External stress or pressure (pattern) modulates the spacing of domain walls. Therefore the ``pattern`` is encoded in the modulated hierarchical variation of the depth and width of the twins. This hierarchy of length scales provides a hierarchy of time scales and thus the possibility of non-exponential decay. The four processes of the complete shape memory cycle -- write, record, erase and recall -- are explained within this model. Preliminary results based on 2D Langevin dynamics are shown for tweed and hierarchy formation.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Shenoy, S.R.; Wu, Y. & Lookman, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Texture evolution in thin-sheets on AISI 301 metastable stainless steel under dynamic loading

Description: The evolution of texture in thin sheets of metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 301 is affected by external conditions such as loading rate and temperature, by inhomogeneous deformation phenomena such as twinning and shear band formation, and by the concurent strain induced phase transformation of the retained austenitc ({gamma}) into martensite ({alpha}). The present paper describes texture measurements on different gauges of AISI 301 prior and after uniaxial stretching under different conditions.
Date: May 8, 1995
Creator: Kim, K.Y.; Kozaczek, K.; Kulkarni, S.M.; Bastias, P.C. & Hahn, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT: FG02-01ER-45906 - A novel class of artificially modulated magnetic multilayers based on magnetic shape memory alloys

Description: The temperature dependent micromagnetic behavior, structural phase transitions, magnetic transition, and the dynamics of phase transitions have been investigated using magnetic shape memory alloys. Results provide a novel concept of ‘polymagnets’. In thin film form the number of martensite variants is greatly reduced. A new technique to study dynamics of magnetic phase transitions has been developed applicable to bulk, thin films or multilayers. Transition pathways in magnetic shape memory alloys are as follows: Structural transitions followed by magnetic transition on cooling, and magnetic transition followed by structural transition on heating. The anisotropy of exchange spring mulilayers is greatly sensitive to substrate constraints, and shows a marked rotational hysteresis at lower temperatures. Results also show that a large reduction in coercivity of multilayers is a direct result of broadening of domain wall width by interlayer magnetostatic interactions.
Date: June 20, 2005
Creator: Chopra, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha'-Pu martensitein Ga-stabilized delta-Pu

Description: Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is used to investigate the local atomic environment and vibrational properties of plutonium and gallium atoms in the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases of a mixed phase Pu-Ga alloy. EXAFS results measured at low temperature compare the structure of the mixed phase sample with a single-phase {delta}-Pu sample. EXAFS spectral components attributed to both {alpha}{prime}-Pu and {delta}-Pu were observed in the mixed phase sample. Ga K-edge EXAFS spectra indicate local atomic environments similar to the Pu LIII-edge EXAFS results, which suggests that Ga is substitutional for Pu atoms in both the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-Pu and the fcc {delta}-Pu structures. In {delta}-Pu, we measure a Ga-Pu bond length contraction of 0.11 Angstroms with respect to the Pu-Pu bond length. The corresponding bond-length contraction around Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu is only 0.03 Angstroms. Results from temperature-dependent Pu LIII-edge EXAFS measurements are fit to a correlated Debye model, and a large difference in the Pu-Pu bond Debye temperature is observed for the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases: {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}{prime})=159{+-}13 K versus {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=120{+-}3 K. The corresponding analysis for the Ga K EXAFS determines a Ga-Pu bond Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=188{+-}12 K in the {delta}-Pu phase. These results are related to the observed solubility of Ga in {delta}-Pu, the ''stabilization'' of {delta}-Pu by Ga at room temperature, and the insolubility of Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Nelson, E.J.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Schwartz,A.J. & Booth, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence of Transformation Bursts During Thermal Cycling of a Pu-Ga Alloy

Description: The thermodynamics and kinetics of the fcc (delta) to monoclinic (alpha-prime) phase transformation and its reversion in a plutonium-gallium alloy have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, resistometry, and dilatometry. Under ambient conditions, the delta phase is metastable in a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy. Thermal cycling to below the ambient temperature results in a partial transformation to the alpha-prime phase; this transformation is composition-invariant and exhibits martensitic behavior. Because this transformation results in an unusually invariant large 25% volume contraction that cannot be fully accommodated by purely elastic adjustments, the transformation mode is expected to involve burst formation of individual alpha-prime particles. However, upon cooling, these individual bursts were not resolved by the above techniques, although signals corresponding to the overall accumulation of many alpha-prime particles were observed. On the other hand, upon heating, signals from differential scanning calorimetry, resistometry, and dilatometry showed a series of discrete changes occurring in periodic increments beginning at approximately 32 C. These features correspond to the cooperative reversion of many alpha-prime particles to the delta phase; they appear to be the result of an interplay between the autocatalytically driven reversion of a cascade of individual martensite units, and self-quenching caused by small changes of temperature and/or stress accompanying each individual transformation burst. The heat of the delta/alpha-prime transformation is estimated to be about + 4 kJ/mole.
Date: February 9, 2005
Creator: Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Mitchell, J N; Haslam, J J; Wall, M A; Massalski, T B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Unstable austenitic stainless steels undergo a strain-induced martensite transformation. The effect of hydrogen on this transformation is not well understood. Some researchers believe that hydrogen makes the transformation to martensite more difficult because hydrogen is an austenite stabilizer. Others believe that hydrogen has little or no effect at all on the transformation and claim that the transformation is simply a function of strain and temperature. Still other researchers believe that hydrogen should increase the ability of the metal to transform due to hydrogen-enhanced dislocation mobility and slip planarity. While the role of hydrogen on the martensite transformation is still debated, it has been experimentally verified that this transformation does occur in hydrogen-charged materials. What is the effect of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen embrittlement? Martensite near crack-tips or other highly strained regions could provide much higher hydrogen diffusivity and allow for quicker hydrogen concentration. Martensite may be more intrinsically brittle than austenite and has been shown to be severely embrittled by hydrogen. However, it does not appear to be a necessary condition for embrittlement since Type 21-6-9 stainless steel is more stable than Type 304L stainless steel but susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of hydrogen on strain-induced martensite formation in Type 304L stainless steel was investigated by monitoring the formation of martensite during tensile tests of as-received and hydrogen-charged samples and metallographically examining specimens from interrupted tensile tests after increasing levels of strain. The effect of hydrogen on the fracture mechanisms was also studied by examining the fracture features of as-received and hydrogen-charged specimens and relating them to the stress-strain behavior.
Date: December 11, 2008
Creator: Morgan, M & Ps Lam, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Thermal-Stress-Fatigue Behavior of Stainless Steels. Quarterly Progress Report No. 8

Description: Thermal-stress-fatigue (TSF) testing of 304 and 304-L austenitic stainiess steels was completed. The testing of ferritic steel (ASTM Type A302, Grade B) and of martensitic stainless steel (Type 403) was 50% completed. TSF and conventional strain-cycling fatigue (SCF) were performed on A302B and 403 steels. A new graphical technique was developed which simplifies the work required to obtain plastic strain range, the variable found to be entirely independent in TSF. The method allows greater accuracy in obtaining this parameter. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Horton, K.E .
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

Description: A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser and special optics were used to produce surface hardening on 1045 steel and gray cast iron by varying the process parameters. Unlike CO{sub 2} lasers, where absorptive coatings are required, the higher absorptivity of ferrous alloys at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength eliminates the necessity of applying a coating before processing. Metallurgical analysis of the treated tracks showed that very fine and hard martensitic microstructure (1045 steel) or inhomogeneous martensite (gray cast iron) were obtained without surface melting, giving maximum hardness of HRC 61 and HRC 40 for 1045 steel and gray cast iron respectively. The corresponding maximum case depths for both alloys at the above hardness are 0.6 mm. Gray cast iron was more difficult to harden without surface melting because of its lower melting temperature and a significantly longer time-at-temperature required to diffuse carbon atoms from the graphite flakes into the austenite matrix during laser heating. The thermal distortion was characterized in term of flatness changes after surface hardening.
Date: September 30, 1999
Creator: Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Leong, K. H. & Hunter, B. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of electron irradiation on the 3C-4H transformation in a Co-Fe alloy

Description: Preliminary results are presented of a study of electron irradiation on the martensitic transformation in a relatively dilute terminal solid solution of Co+5.75 wt% Fe. The experiments demonstrate qualitatively the profound effect that the damage structure produced by electron irradiation can have on these simple martensitic transformations. Further study is being pursued to attempt to quantify the transformation retardation effect.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Allen, C.W. & Mori, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of stainless steel 304 tubing

Description: Earlier studies have shown that stainless steel 304 (SS304) containing martensite is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This generated concern regarding the structural integrity of SS304 tubing we use in the W87 pit tube. During surveillance operations, the pit tube undergoes a series of bending and straightening as it goes through a number of surveillance cycles. This motivated the study to characterize austenitic SS304 tubing obtained from Rocky Flats. The tubes continued to display structural soundness even after numerous repeated bending and straightening cycles. The minimum and maximum number of bends to failure occurred after 13 and 16 cycles, respectively. After 5 bends, both the inner and outer surfaces of the tubing showed no microcracks. When the bent tubing samples were pressurized and tested using deuterium at 74{degrees}C and at {approximately}78{degrees}C, they failed away from the bent area. Thus deuterium embrittlement of the bent SS304 tubing should not be a problem. Moreover, to increase our 95% confidence level to 5 bends, we are planning to perform at least four additional bends to failure tests.
Date: October 16, 1995
Creator: Sunwoo, A.J.; Brooks, M.A. & Kervin, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nucleation and growth of the Alpha-Prime Phase martensitic phase in Pu-Ga Alloys

Description: In a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy, it is observed experimentally that the amount of the martensitic alpha-prime product formed upon cooling the metastable delta phase below the martensite burst temperature (M{sub b}) is a function of the holding temperature and holding time of a prior conditioning (''annealing'') treatment. Before subjecting a sample to a cooling and heating cycle to form and revert the alpha-prime phase, it was first homogenized for 8 hours at 375 C to remove any microstructural memory of prior transformations. Subsequently, conditioning was carried out in a differential scanning calorimeter apparatus at temperatures in the range between -50 C and 370 C for periods of up to 70 hours to determine the holding time and temperature that produced the largest volume fraction of alpha-prime upon subsequent cooling. Using transformation peak areas (i.e., the heats of transformation) as a measure of the amount of alpha-prime formed, the largest amount of alpha-prime was obtained following holding at 25 C for at prime least 6 hours. Additional time at 25 C, up to 70 hours, did not increase the amount of subsequent alpha-prime formation. At 25 C, the Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy is below the eutectoid transformation temperature in the phase diagram and the expected equilibrium phases are {alpha} and Pu{sub 3}Ga, although a complete eutectoid decomposition of delta to these phases is expected to be extremely slow. It is proposed here that the influence of the conditioning treatment can be attributed to the activation of alpha-phase embryos in the matrix as a beginning step toward the eutectoid decomposition, and we discuss the effects of spontaneous self-irradiation accompanying the Pu radioactive decay on the activation process. Subsequently, upon cooling, certain embryos appear to be active as sites for the burst growth of martensitic alpha-prime particles, and their amount, distribution, and ...
Date: February 9, 2005
Creator: Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Wall, M A; Massalski, T B & Schwartz, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of interface mobility on the evolution of Austenite-Martensite grain assemblies during annealing

Description: The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is a new heat treatment for the creation of advanced high-strength steels. This treatment consists of an initial partial or full austenitization, followed by a quench to form a controlled amount of martensite and an annealing step to partition carbon atoms from the martensite to the austenite. In this work, the microstructural evolution during annealing of martensite-austenite grain assemblies has been analyzed by means of a modeling approach that considers the influence of martensite-austenite interface migration on the kinetics of carbon partitioning. Carbide precipitation is precluded in the model, and three different assumptions about interface mobility are considered, ranging from a completely immobile interface to the relatively high mobility of an incoherent ferrite-austenite interface. Simulations indicate that different interface mobilities lead to profound differences in the evolution of microstructure that is predicted during annealing.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Clarke, Amy J; Santofimia, Maria J; Speer, John G; Zhao, L & Sietsma, Jilt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The effects of hydrogen on the fracture-toughness properties of Type 316L stainless steel from 175 K to 425 K were measured. Fracture-toughness samples were fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel forgings and hydrogen-charged with hydrogen at 34 MPa and 623 K for two weeks prior to testing. The effect of hydrogen on the J-Integral vs. crack extension behavior was measured at various temperatures by fracturing non-charged and hydrogen-charged samples in an environmental chamber. Hydrogen-charged steels had lower toughness values than non-charged ones, but still retained good toughness properties. The fracture-toughness values of hydrogen-charged samples tested near ambient temperature were about 70% of non-charged values. For hydrogen-charged samples tested at 225 K and 425 K, the fracture-toughness values were 50% of the non-charged values. In all cases, fracture occurred by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, although the hydrogen-charged samples had smaller and more closely spaced microvoids. The results suggest that hydrogen effects on toughness are greater at 225 K than they are at ambient temperature because of strain-induced martensite formation. At 425 K, the hydrogen effects on toughness are greater than they are at ambient temperature because of the higher mobility of hydrogen.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Morgan, M & Glenn Chapman, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

Description: This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A. & Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department