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An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Parks, M.B. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

Description: A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G. & Arviso, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

Description: The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central ballast tanker design

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data and methods for the assessment of the risks associated with the maritime transport of radioactive materials: Results of the SeaRAM program studies. Volume 2 -- Appendices

Description: This report describes ship accident event trees, ship collision and ship fire frequencies, representative ships and shipping practices, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, a ship fire spread model, cask to environment release fractions during ship collisions and fires, and illustrative consequence calculations. This report contains the following appendices: Appendix 1 -- Representative Ships and Shipping Practices; Appendix 2 -- Input Data for Minorsky Calculations; Appendix 3 -- Port Ship Speed Distribution; and Appendix 4 -- Cask-to-Environment Release Fractions.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Sprung, J. L.; Bespalko, S. J. & Kanipe, F. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

Description: Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Radloff, H.D. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of RADTRAN

Description: This document presents details of the verification process of the RADTRAN computer code which was established for the calculation of risk estimates for radioactive materials transportation by highway, rail, air, and waterborne modes.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kanipe, F.L. & Neuhauser, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

Description: Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Porter, V.L. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research methods to develop Measures of Effectiveness of the United States Coast Guard`s Vessel Inspection and Boarding Program. Volume 2, Main report

Description: The primary objective of this study is to provide Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) of the US Coast Guard Marine Inspection and Boarding Program based on objective scientific methods. A secondary objective of the study is to provide USCG management with a methodologically and theoretically sound aid to effective policy decision-making. The MOEs constructed in this study are specific to the Marine Inspection and Boarding Program, but the methodology of the study is based on sound theoretical principles that are probably applicable to a range of USCG activities. Hence the methodology applied equally to other important USCG programs and can be similarly used to measure their effectiveness and as an aid to decision-making.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Wheeler, T.; Cox, R.; Gawande, K.; Stone, R.; Waisel, L. & Wallace, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panama Canal capacity analysis

Description: Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).
Date: April 27, 1995
Creator: Bronzini, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of methods for evaluating structure during ship collisions

Description: A comparison is provided of the results of various methods for evaluating structure during a ship-to-ship collision. The baseline vessel utilized in the analyses is a 67.4 meter in length displacement hull struck by an identical vessel traveling at speeds ranging from 10 to 30 knots. The structural response of the struck vessel and motion of both the struck and striking vessels are assessed by finite element analysis. These same results are then compared to predictions utilizing the {open_quotes}Tanker Structural Analysis for Minor Collisions{close_quotes} (TSAMC) Method, the Minorsky Method, the Haywood Collision Process, and comparison to full-scale tests. Consideration is given to the nature of structural deformation, absorbed energy, penetration, rigid body motion, and virtual mass affecting the hydrodynamic response. Insights are provided with regard to the calibration of the finite element model which was achievable through utilizing the more empirical analyses and the extent to which the finite element analysis is able to simulate the entire collision event. 7 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Ammerman, D.J. & Daidola, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

Description: Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D. & Beene, D.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

Description: Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously. Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10`s or 100`s of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship`s bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Mills, G.S. & Neuhauser, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

Description: Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Koski, J.A.; Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data and methods for the assessment of the risks associated with the maritime transport of radioactive materials: Results of the SeaRAM program studies. Volume 1 -- Main report

Description: This report describes ship accident event trees, ship collision and ship fire frequencies, representative ships and shipping practices, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, a ship fire spread model, cask to environment release fractions during ship collisions and fires, and illustrative consequence calculations.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J. & Kanipe, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

Description: The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Koski, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

Description: Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R.; Johnson, J.D.; Reardon, P.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-level accident rates of surface freight transportation : a reexamination.

Description: State-level accident rates for truck, rail, and barge transportation have been updated for mid-1990s shipping conditions. The updated accident, fatality, and injury rates reflect multiyear data for interstate-registered highway carriers, American Association of Railroads member carriers (i.e., all Class 1 and Class 2 railroads), and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicated or otherwise inaccurate or unusable entries in the public-use accident data files applied. State-to-state variation in rates, reflecting recent developments in freight flows, the possible effect of speed limit changes on highway rates, and the stability of rates over time, are discussed. Carrier-specific information was used to confirm the general accuracy of the computed rates for highway shipments. Study conclusions suggest that these rates may be used for the next several years. However, further investigation is suggested, within two to three years, to verify or reject the emergence of a trend toward higher truck accident rates in states that raised highway speed limits between 1995 and 1996.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Saricks, C. L. & Tompkins, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SeaRAM: an evaluation of the safety of RAM transport by sea

Description: SeaRAM is a multi-year Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to validate the safety of shipping radioactive materials (RAM) by sea. The project has an ultimate goal of developing and demonstrating analytic tools for performing comprehensive analyses to evaluate the risks to humans and the environment due to sea transport of plutonium, vitrified high-level waste (VHLW), and spent fuel associated with reprocessing and research reactors. To achieve this end, evaluations of maritime databases and structural an thermal analyses of particular severe collision and fire accidents have been and will continue to be conducted. Program management for SeaRAM is based at the DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration. Technical activities for the project are being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Several private organizations are also involved in providing technical support, notably Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc. (ECO). The technical work performed for SeaRAM also supports DOE participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Program (CRP) entitled Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper discusses activities performed during the first year of the project.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.; Carter, M.H.; Keane, M.P.; Keith, V.F. & Heid, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PORTSIM v.4.3 : user's manual.

Description: This manual documents the capabilities and functions of the Port Simulation (PORTSIM) Model, Version 4.3, which operates on Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000. Step-by-step procedures for using PORTSIM are provided. PORTSIM is a discrete-event simulation model that allows for a comprehensive analysis of all critical seaport operations for embarkation. It is applicable to ports worldwide. This simulation system addresses the complexities of port operations and gives you a way to measure the desirability of any given plan of action. PORTSIM models all cargo items, ships, and port infrastructure resources as individual objects. A typical scenario may process more than 10,000 cargo items. Cargo is simulated from the time it arrives at a port to the time it is loaded onto a ship. Note that PORTSIM Version 4.3 models only embarkation activities. Modeling of debarkation currently is being handled under another software framework. You can use PORTSIM to specify the availability of port resources to provide the most realistic simulation possible. The simulation provides detailed information on cargo throughput and infrastructure utilization. With PORTSIM, you can simulate the movement of entire military units through a specified port. You can also selectively constrain resources or operational parameters, to identify potential bottlenecks. To support your analysis, the software provides utilization statistics for all port resources (e.g., gates, staging areas, interchange yards, berths, inspectors, and container handling equipment). Simulation results are presented in three ways. (1) During the simulation run, utilization information is presented graphically in real time as continuous display meters that can help you monitor activity and identify potential problems visually as they develop. (2) During the run, you can also view a summary screen showing the current status of transports and cargo. (3) After the run, reports and graphs showing the final results can be viewed and saved.
Date: August 16, 2001
Creator: Davidson, R. S.; VanKuiken, J. C.; Bragen, M. J.; Andrew, J. M. & Macal, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

Description: Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Johnson, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

Description: The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department