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Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

Description: In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.
Date: March 4, 1999
Creator: Christenson, T.R. & Feddema, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

Description: Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.
Date: September 17, 1996
Creator: Berglin, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Robot positioning based on point-to-point motion capability

Description: This paper presents an optimal search method for determining the base location of a robot manipulator so that the robot can have a designated point-to-point (PTP) motion capabilities. Based on the topological characterization of the manipulator workspace and the definitions of various p-connectivity, a computational method is developed for enumerating various PTP motion capabilities into quantitative cost functions. Then an unconstrained search by minimizing the cost function yields the task feasible location of the robot base. This methodology is useful for placement of mobile manipulators and robotic workcell layout design.
Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Park, Y. S.; Cho, H. S. & Koh, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report provides an overview of applications within the DOE complex which could benefit from the use of modular robotics technology during remediation operations. Each application area contains one or more specific tasks which are presently conducted by humans under hazardous conditions or which are deemed highly impractical, or are altogether impossible without automation. Five major areas were investigated for specific needs with respect to automation. Information was collected on Mixed Waste Operations, Contaminant Automated Analysis, Tanks, Decontamination and Dismantlement and Automated Plutonium Processing. During this investigation, information was gathered from available literature, telephone interviews with informed personnel and on-site visits. This data serves to provide design requirements and guidelines for the design of a family of modular actuators, which will be used to construct manipulators suited to each task. In addition, a survey of existing modular manipulator designs is presented. This survey addresses modular manipulators developed inside government labs and in universities for such applications as space exploration or controls research. It also addresses efforts at commercially viable industrial manipulators which have been built. This survey of robotic systems provides the reader with a glimpse into what technology currently exists in the way of modular manipulator automation and, to a degree, where this technology may be applicable or, more often, where these systems are unsuited to EM applications. From the information gathered during this study, it is possible to sufficiently define the requirements of one manipulator system which can be used to conduct automated transfer operations within Plutonium gloveboxes. This manipulator will be constructed from ARM Automation actuator modules and will provide this application with a viable option for automation within these gloveboxes. The design issues surrounding this manipulator and its specifications are discussed in the final portion of this report.
Date: October 8, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

Description: Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say ...
Date: April 25, 1999
Creator: Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C. & Noakes, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the Hanford Slave Manipulator for Use in the Multicurie Cells at Hanford

Description: Introduction: "During the early planning of the multicurie cells at Hanford it was decided that a slave type manipulator would be necessary to perform the experiments for which the cells were being designed. The design required steel roofs for installation through a port hole in the face. Technical Services Equipment Development began developing the proposed manipulator in January 1951 by making a study of those existing at that tune. None met the requirements which had been established; therefore, the design of a special manipulator was started immediately."
Date: October 31, 1952
Creator: Field, Richard E. & Gifford, John F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

Description: Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.
Date: February 7, 1996
Creator: Howden, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control and Analysis of a Single-Link Flexible Beam with Experimental Verification

Description: The objective of this report is to ascertain the general conditions for the avoidance and reduction of residual vibration in a flexible manipulator. Conventional manipulators usually have a 1.5 to 2-m reach, and their associated dynamic models typically are composed of lumped parameter elements; the major compliance emanates from the, drive trains because of torsional loading effects. The energy storage of the drive system is predominantly potential energy because of the low inertia in the drive tram; thus simple spring models have been adequate. A long-reach manipulator with a large aspect ratio (length to diameter) is a fundamentally different problem. Energy storage for this type of manipulator is distributive by nature because of the potential energy resulting from bending and the kinetic energy due to deflection rates. Instead of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are required to describe this system, making the analysis more difficult. The general flexibility problem associated with a distributive dynamic system, with specific emphasis on flexible manipulator, will be addressed in this report. Furthermore, three control schemes will be discussed and demonstrated on, a single flexible manipulator to determine their general merits.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Jansen, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact mitigation using kinematic constraints and the full space parameterization method

Description: A new method for mitigating unexpected impact of a redundant manipulator with an object in its environment is presented. Kinematic constraints are utilized with the recently developed method known as Full Space Parameterization (FSP). System performance criterion and constraints are changed at impact to return the end effector to the point of impact and halt the arm. Since large joint accelerations could occur as the manipulator is halted, joint acceleration bounds are imposed to simulate physical actuator limitations. Simulation results are presented for the case of a simple redundant planar manipulator.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Morgansen, K.A. & Pin, F.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

Description: This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling`s Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)
Date: December 1995
Creator: Jansen, J. F. & Kress, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

Description: The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanks require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L. & Jansen, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

Description: The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.
Date: April 20, 1997
Creator: Unseren, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote telerobotic replacement for master-slave manipulator

Description: A remotely replaceable telerobotic manipulator (TRM) has been developed and deployed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in support of its radioactive operation. The TRM replaces a Master-Slave Manipulator (MSM). The TRM is in use for both routine and recovery operations for the radioactive waste vitrification melter, the primary production device within the DWPF. The arm was designed for deployment and operation using an existing MSM penetration. This replacement of an existing MSM with a high power robotic device demonstrates the capability to perform similar replacement in other operating facilities. The MSM`s were originally deployed in the DWPF to perform routine light capacity tasks. During the testing phase of the DWPF, prior to its radioactive startup in 5/96, the need to remove glass deposits that can form at the melter discharge during filling of glass containment canisters was identified. The combination of high radiation and contamination in the DWPF melter cell during radioactive operation eliminated personnel entry as a recovery option. Therefore remote cleaning methods had to be devised. The MSM`s had neither the reach nor the strength required for this task. It became apparent that a robust manipulator arm would be required for recovery from these potential melter discharge pluggage events. The existing wall penetrations, used for the MSM`s, could not be altered for seismic and radiological reasons. The new manipulator was required to be of considerable reach, due to existing physical layout, and strength, due to the glass removal requirement. Additionally, the device would have to compatible with high radiation and remote crane installation. The physical size of the manipulator and the weight of components must be consistent with the existing facilities. It was recognized early-on that a manipulator of sufficient strength to recover from a pluggage event would require robotic functions to constrain undesirable motions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Heckendorn, F.M.; Iverson, D.C. & LaValle, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micro-grippers for assembly of LIGA parts

Description: This paper describes ongoing testing of two microgrippers for assembly of LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung) parts. The goal is to place 100 micron outside diameter (OD) LIGA gears with a 50 micron inner diameter hole onto pins ranging from 35 to 49 microns. The first micro gripper is a vacuum gripper made of a 100 micron OD stainless steel tube. The second micro gripper is a set of tweezers fabricated using the LIGA process. Nickel, Permalloy, and copper materials are tested. The tweezers are actuated by a collet mechanism which is closed by a DC linear motor.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Feddema, J.; Polosky, M.; Christenson, T.; Spletzer, B. & Simon, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resolving kinematic redundancy with constraints using the FSP (Full Space Parameterization) approach

Description: A solution method is presented for the motion planning and control of kinematically redundant serial-link manipulators in the presence of motion constraints such as joint limits or obstacles. Given a trajectory for the end-effector, the approach utilizes the recently proposed Full Space Parameterization (FSP) method to generate a parameterized expression for the entire space of solutions of the unconstrained system. At each time step, a constrained optimization technique is then used to analytically find the specific joint motion solution that satisfies the desired task objective and all the constraints active during the time step. The method is applicable to systems operating in a priori known environments or in unknown environments with sensor-based obstacle detection. The derivation of the analytical solution is first presented for a general type of kinematic constraint and is then applied to the problem of motion planning for redundant manipulators with joint limits and obstacle avoidance. Sample results using planar and 3-D manipulators with various degrees of redundancy are presented to illustrate the efficiency and wide applicability of constrained motion planning using the FSP approach.
Date: February 1996
Creator: Pin, F.G. & Tulloch, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Motion planning of a robotic arm on a wheeled vehicle on a rugged terrain

Description: This paper presents a set of motion planners for an exploration vehicle on a simulated rugged terrain. The vehicle has four wheels for its movement and a robotic arm mounted on the vehicle for object manipulation. Given a target point to reach with the hand of the arm, our planners first compute a path for the vehicle to the vicinity of the target, then compute an optimal vehicle position from which the arm can reach the target point, and then plans a path for the arm to reach the target. The vehicle path is planned in two stages. A rough path is planned considering only global features of the terrain, and the path is modified by a local planner to avoid more detailed features of the terrain. The planners are expected to increase the autonomy of robots and improve the efficiencies of exploration missions.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Hwang, Yong K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refurbishment of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

Description: An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was undertaken. To place the facility in compliance with current regulations, all penetrations within the facility were sealed, the ventilation system was redesigned, upgraded and replaced, the master-slave manipulators were replaced, the hot cell windows were removed, refurbished, and reinstalled, all hot cell utilities were replaced, a lead-shielded glovebox housing an Inductive Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) System was interfaced with the hot cells, and a new CO{sub 2} fire suppression system and other ALHC support equipment were installed.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A. & Coleman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

Description: Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. & Love, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNAKES manipulator and ARD sluicer testing -- April 1997

Description: Long reach arms represent one of the options available for deployment of end effectors which can be used in the retrieval of radioactive waste, from the Hanford single shell tanks. The versatility of an arm based deployment system is such that it has the potential to improve the performance of a wide range of end effectors compared with stand-alone or other deployment methods. The long term reliability and availability of the deployment system is central to the timely completion of a waste retrieval program. However, concerns have been expressed over the dynamic performance of long reach arms and it is essential that an arm based system can cope with operational dynamic loads generated by end effectors. The test program conducted set out to measure static and dynamic loads and responses from a representative arm and sluicer, with the objective of extrapolating the data to a long reach arm system, that can be used for in-tank waste retrieval. As an arm with an appropriate reach was not available, the test program was undertaken to measure dynamic characteristics of a Magnox Electric 18 ft multi-link, hydraulically actuated SNAKES manipulator. This is the longest reach unit in service, albeit only one third of the 50 ft length required for in-tank waste retrieval. In addition operational performance and loading measurements were obtained from a low pressure confined system sluicer under development by ARD Environmental, to add to the end effector data base. When subject to impulse loading, the arm was found to behave in a repeatable manner having fundamental natural frequencies in the vertical and transverse directions of 1 Hz. There were also a large number of higher natural frequencies measured up to 100 Hz.
Date: May 29, 1997
Creator: Berglin, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

Description: Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Love, Lonnie; Kress, Reid & Jansen, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department