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Fuel design considerations for the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

Description: Fuel design considerations for a conceptual design of a commercial mirror hybrid reactor, optimized for breeding /sup 239/Pu, are briefly discussed. /sup 238/U/sub 3/Si fuel and lithium hydride breeding material are proposed, along with helium gas cooling. Selection of materials for the blanket follows conventional fission reactor practice. A table of reactor parameters is presented. The Mirror Hybrid Reactor offers potential economical production of fissile material. (RME)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D. & Schultz, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuration and layout of the tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator

Description: Studies have been performed during the past year to determine the configuration of a tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator (FPD) machine capable of producing 1750 MW of fusion power. The FPD is seen as the next logical step after the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) toward operation of a power reactor. The design of the FPD machine allows a phased construction: Phase I, a hydrogen or deuterium checkout machine; Phase 2, a DT breakeven machine; Phase 3, development of the Phase 2 machine to provide net power and act as a reactor demonstrator. These phases are essential to the development of remote handling equipment and the design of components that will ultimately be remotely handled. Phasing also permits more modes funding early in the program with some costs committed only after reaching major milestones.
Date: November 30, 1983
Creator: Clarkson, I.R. & Neef, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future engineering needs of mirror fusion reactors

Description: Fusion research has matured during the last decade and significant insight into the future program needs has emerged. While some will properly note that the crystal ball is cloudy, it is equally important to note that the shape and outline of our course is discernable. In this short summary paper, I will draw upon the National Mirror Program Plan for mirror projects and on available design studies of these projects to put the specific needs of the mirror program in perspective.
Date: July 30, 1982
Creator: Thomassen, K.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutral beam requirements for mirror reactors

Description: The neutral beam requirements for mirror reactors as presently envisioned are 200 keV for the Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) and 1200 keV for the Tandem Mirror (TMR). The hybrid version of the Standard Mirror, FRM and TMR require 100 to 120 keV. Due to the energy dependence of atomic processes, negative ions should produce neutrals more efficiently than positive ions above some energy and below this energy, positive ions are probably more efficient. This energy is probably somewhere between 100 and 150 keV for D/sup 0/, and 150 and 225 for T/sup 0/. Thus we conclude that hybrid reactors can use D/sup +/ ions but all of the fusion reactor designs call for D/sup -/ ions to make the neutral beams. Trends in the energy requirements are discussed. The hardening of neutral beams against neutron and gamma radiation is discussed.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering problems of future neutral beam injectors

Description: Because there is no limit to the energy or power that can be delivered by a neutral-beam injector, its use will be restricted by either its cost, size, or reliability. Studies show that these factors can be improved by the injector design, and several examples, taken from mirror reactor studies, are given.
Date: November 23, 1977
Creator: Fink, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tanden Mirror Reactor Systems Code (TMRSC)

Description: This paper describes a computer code developed to model a tandem mirror reactor. This is the first tandem mirror reactor model to couple the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are included in this paper. These studies are designed (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Reid, R.L.; Rothe, K.E. & Barrett, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved tandem mirror fusion reactor

Description: An improved version of the tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented in which a power gain factor Q approx. 10 to 20 can be obtained at a few 100 MWe electrical output with much simpler technology in the end plugs. The improvement is obtained by raising the electron temperature in the end plugs well above that in the central cell (which would be ignited). The heating power required to maintain the high electron temperature is greatly reduced - to 20 to 40 MW per plug - by creating negative depressions in the potential that serve to thermally insulate electrons in the end plugs from those in the central cell. The overall concept and several proposed methods for creating the thermal barriers are discussed. A reactor example is then discussed.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Baldwin, D.E.; Logan, B.G. & Fowler, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the mirror-next-step (MNS) study

Description: A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - the Mirror Next Step, or MNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. The project goals and organization of the study are outlined, some initial device parameters are described, and the technological requirements are related to ongoing development programs.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Damm, C.C.; Doggett, J.N. & Bulmer, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical structure of the Mirror Hybrid Reactor Power Plant

Description: The mechanical structure of the LLL/GA Mirror Hybrid Reactor vessel is briefly discussed. Functional requirements and over-all design considerations leading to selection of a post-tensioned concrete reactor vessel and a modular blanket approach are indicated. Module design life of four years, module replacement, capability and remote fueling are provided by the chosen structural design. (RME)
Date: June 6, 1977
Creator: Culver, D.W. & Neef, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion-power demonstration. [Next step beyond MFTF-B]

Description: As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.
Date: March 29, 1983
Creator: Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic fusion: planning for the future

Description: A brief review of international cooperation in the fusion program is given. The author shares his views on the technical prospects and future potential of fusion as a practical energy source. (MOW)
Date: February 7, 1984
Creator: Fowler, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of hot beam injection angle on twin beam mirrors

Description: The purpose of this work is to study the effect on fusion power density of injecting the high energy beam component in a ''twin beam mirror'' (T.B.M.) device at an acute angle, rather than perpendicular, to the magnetic field. Increasing the power density for T.B.M. is desirable for its use in a Fusion Engineering Research Facility (F.E.R.F.).
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Campbell, M.; Choi, C. & Miley, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drift-pump coil design for a tandem mirror reactor

Description: This paper describes both the theory and mechanical design behind a new concept for trapped ion removal from tandem mirror end plugs. The design has been developed for the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). The new drift-pump coils replace charge-exchange pump beams. Pump beams consume large amounts of power and seriously reduce reactor performance. Drift-pump coils consume only a few megawatts of power and introduce no added burden to the reactor vacuum pumps. In addition, they are easy to replace. The coils are similar in shape to a paper clip and are located at two positions in each end plug. The coils between the transition coil and the first anchor yin-yang serve to remove ions trapped in the magnetic well just outboard of the high field choke coil. The coils located between the anchor coil set and the plug coil set remove sloshing ions and trapped cold ions from the plug region.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Logan, B. G. & Neef, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror hybrid reactor study (LLL Purchase Order 6887809 dated August 31, 1979)

Description: The results, bases, qualifications, and exclusions of the preconceptual cost estimate are presented below. This estimate is an order-of-magnitude assessment of the direct level POP Costs. The direct level cost consists of: (1) total cost of all materials forming the permanent part of the completed plant, and (2) total cost of all labor engaged in installing and erecting all materials forming the permanent part of the completed plant. A cost summary and a supporting breakdown of this estimate are shown.
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion power demonstration - a baseline for the mirror engineering test reactor

Description: Developing a definition of an engineering test reactor (ETR) is a current goal of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). As a baseline for the mirror ETR, the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) concept has been pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with Grumman Aerospace, TRW, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Envisioned as an intermediate step to fusion power applications, the FPD would achieve DT ignition in the central cell, after which blankets and power conversion would be added to produce net power. To achieve ignition, a minimum central cell length of 67.5 m is needed to supply the ion and alpha particles radial drift pumping losses in the transition region. The resulting fusion power is 360 MW. Low electron-cyclotron heating power of 12 MW, ion-cyclotron heating of 2.5 MW, and a sloshing ion beam power of 1.0 MW result in a net plasma Q of 22. A primary technological challenge is the 24-T, 45-cm bore choke coil, comprising a copper hybrid insert within a 15 to 18 T superconducting coil.
Date: December 2, 1983
Creator: Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Neef, W.S.; Dorn, D.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ MHD energy conversion for fusion. [R]

Description: An advanced concept, in-situ MHD conversion, is described for converting fusion energy to electricity. Considerable cost savings can be realized because of the conversion of thermal energy to electricity achieved in the blanket by means of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators. The external disk generator, also described, is another application of the MHD idea, which may have certain advantages over the in-situ scheme for advanced-fuel tokamaks. The feature that makes these schemes fusion-specific is the novel use of the electro-magnetic radiation naturally emitted by the plasma. The synchrotron radiation can be used either to heat the nonequilibrium MHD plasma, or possibly improve its stability. A Rankine cycle with cesium-seeded mercury as a working fluid is used in either case. Performance predictions by a quasi-one-dimensional model are presented. An experiment to determine the effect of microwave radiation on channel performance is planned.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G. & Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Progress report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

Description: The Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) reference system selected is that defined by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1977. Some elaboration of this design is necessary to enable the definition of maintenance scenarios and downtime estimates. This work is continuing as the scenarios for additional maintenance actions are defined. The tokamak system selected for comparison with the TMR is the tokamak Improved Maintenance System defined in earlier maintainability studies under this contract. These reactor concepts both produce 1000 MWe. The reactor concepts have been examined and potentially critical maintenance actions have been selected for further analysis.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Zahn, H.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering overview of the Minimars reactor

Description: A two-year study to describe an attractive tandem mirror reactor is in progress. The reactor, called Minimars, will produce 600 MW of net electrical power at a cost of less than 50 mills/kWh and will be inherently safe. The first year of the study has emphasized innovative concepts and trade studies that lead to good cost vs performance ratings. a set of baseline parameters and a preliminary engineering description of the machine have been generated, along with a first cost estimate. The second year of the study will develop the proposed concepts into an integrated point design and provide a ''bottoms-up'' cost estimate.
Date: November 18, 1985
Creator: Nelson, W.D.; Lousteau, D.C.; Taylor, G.E. & Doggett, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics-magnetics trade studies for tandem mirror reactors

Description: We describe and present results obtained from the optimization package of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. We have found it to be very useful in searching through multidimensional parameter space, and have applied it here to study the effect of choke coil field strength and net electric power on cost of electricity (COE) and mass utilization factor (MUF) for MINIMARS type reactors. We have found that a broad optimum occurs at B/sub choke/ = 26 T for both COE and MUF. The COE economy of scale approaches saturation at quite low powers, around 600 MW(e). The saturation is mainly due to longer construction times for large plants, and the associated time related costs. The MUF economy of scale does not saturate, at least for powers up to 2400 MW(e).
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Campbell, R.B.; Perkins, L.J. & Blackfield, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

Description: A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department