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Feigning ADHD: Effectiveness of Selected Assessment Tools in Distinguishing Genuine from Simulated ADHD

Description: Research indicates that some college students may be strongly motivated to feign AHDD symptoms for desired external incentives, such as stimulant medication or academic accommodations. To date, literature examining feigned ADHD has been primarily focused on ADHD specific self-report measures (e.g., CAARS) and continuous performance tests (e.g., CPTs); however, little attention has been devoted to the use of multi-scale inventories in detecting feigned ADHD. For CPT measures, virtually no literature exists on the effectiveness of the TOVA to identify feigned ADHD, despite its frequent clinical use for establishing this diagnosis. The current study utilized a between-subjects simulation design to validate feigning cut scores on ADHD-specific measures using 66 feigners and 51 confirmed ADHD cases. As prior literature suggested, the results convincingly demonstrated that face-valid ADHD assessment measures were easily faked. Across both TOVA modalities (e.g., Auditory and Visual), the ADHD simulators performed significantly poorer than those diagnosed with ADHD. As an innovative approach, a Dissimulation-ADHD (Ds-ADHD) scale was developed and initially validated. The Ds-ADHD is composed of ten MMPI-2-RF items mistakenly believed to be clinical characteristics associated with ADHD. Requiring cross-validation, Ds-ADHD optimized cut scores and classification of ADHD feigners appears promising. They were clearly distinguishable from ADHD client, as well as those feigning general psychopathology. Recommendations for the utilization of the Ds-ADHD scale, and future directions for research are discussed.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Robinson, Emily
Partner: UNT Libraries

The relationship between the MCMI-III and the MMPI-2 in a chronic pain population.

Description: The purpose of the present study was to study the relationship of MCMI-III clinical scales with MMPI-2 clusters in a chronic pain population. Data was obtained through assessment data (N = 242) from the Dallas Spinal Rehabilitation Center (DSRC), that included MMPI-2 and MCMI-III, as well as pre-and post-assessment information (n = 21) and follow-up questionnaires (n = 19). Subjects' age ranged from 18 to 64. Each patient had a primary diagnosis related to a back and/or a cervical injury, a chronic pain diagnosis, and often medical prescription dependency and/or addition. Each has experienced back pain in the lumbar region (L1 to L5) or cervical region (C1 to C7) for an average of 32 months. Patients with thoracic (mid-spine) and carpal tunnel pain were excluded from this study. A multivariate cluster analysis procedure was performed that yielded 3 homogeneous female MMPI-2 clusters and 4 MMPI-2 homogeneous male clusters. Seven multiple regression analyses were performed to determine which MCMI-III clinical scales predicted cluster membership in the MMPI-2 clusters. Results indicated that MCMI-III clinical scales "7" Compulsive, "X" Validity and "C" Borderline were predictors for membership in the male MMPI-2 clusters. Membership in the female MMPI-2 clusters were predicted by MCMI-III clinical scales "4" Histrionic, "T" Drug Dependence and "2A" Avoidant. Nineteen pre-and post-MCMI-IIIs were analyzed for change after participants completed the six-week pain management program. Paired-sample t-tests were performed on these data and revealed that significant change was noted on 10 MCMI-III clinical scales. Follow-up data questionnaires were available on these same individuals. Results from a correlation analysis indicated that patients who reported having supportive relationships with their spouse and family and a secure source of income report better quality of sleep, better mood, are able to relax and are believe that they are able to manage their pain. Participants who ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Hardie, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

QEEG and MMPI-2 patterns of adults reporting childhood sexual abuse: Determining differences and predictor models.

Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a number of adult psychological maladies. The MMPI-2 has shown specific patterns such as an inverted V in the validity scales, a floating profile, and a 4-5-6 configuration to be present more often in adults who have experienced childhood trauma. Both children and adults who have experienced trauma have shown a number of neurophysiological differences when compared to non-traumatized individuals. However, little research has looked at differences in quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns in these individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine differences seen in the MMPI-2 and the QEEG when comparing adults who report CSA to adults who deny any history of childhood abuse. Differences between the two groups in MMPI-2 basic scales and supplementary scales PK and PS were determined. This study also examined the ability to correctly classify individuals into the two groups using three patterns seen in the MMPI-2 basic scale profiles (inverted V, floating profile, and 4-5-6 configuration). In addition, this research included exploratory analyses to develop predictor models for CSA group membership. Predictors in the models were derived from MMPI-2 scales, alpha relative power at each of the 19 sites in the International 10/20 electrode placement system, as well as alpha/delta, alpha/theta, and alpha/beta ratios at each of the 19 sites. A total of 46 participants were included in this study, 24 from archived files and 22 newly recruited individuals. Each participant received a MMPI-2 and a QEEG. Significant differences were found between the MMPI-2 scores of the two groups, but MMPI-2 patterns were unable to correctly classify individuals. Models were found which were clinically relevant and statistically significant. The models were based on depression and social maladjustment. The depression models included scales F and 2 of the MMPI-2 and alpha relative power at left ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Townsend, Alicia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment Outcomes Related to EEG-Biofeedback for Chemical Dependency: Changes in MMPI-2™ (University of Minnesota) Personality Measures and Long Term Abstinence Rates

Description: Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1990) demonstrated the effectiveness of alpha-theta EEG-Biofeedback (EEG-BFB) in treating inpatient alcoholics noting significant improvements in depression, psychopathology, serum β-endorphin levels, and abstinence rates. The present study is an extension of a previously unpublished replication of the Peniston EEG-BFB protocol with 20 chemically dependent outpatients (Bodenhamer-Davis, Callaway, & DeBeus, 2002). Fifteen subjects were "high risk for re-arrest" probationers. Data for the EEG-BFB group was collected from archival records. Subjects completed an average of 39 sessions (SD = 6.096), with 33 of those being EEG-BFB. Pre/post-treatment MMPI-2s™ (University of Minnesota) were collected and follow-up (4-11 years) data obtained (abstinence rates, re-arrests in some cases). Treatment effects were evaluated by comparing assessment data (pre/post) and documenting abstinence rates. Post-treatment MMPI-2 results were within normal limits, with several scales significantly reduced from baseline suggesting less psychopathology. Results were then compared to 20 subjects receiving standard addiction treatment (OT-CD group), but not EEG-BFB. OT-CD subjects completed a 2-week inpatient program followed by 18 outpatient sessions. Pre/post assessment and follow-up data was collected on the OT-CD group. The OT-CD group's post-assessment results showed three elevations (MMPI-2 scales 4/6/8), suggestive of characteriological problems. Post-MMPI-2 results of the two groups were compared via ANCOVAs. Findings indicated no significant differences between groups on targeted scales; however, there was a trend for the EEG-BFB group to have lower scores. Follow-up data was obtained on 13 EEG-BFB subjects. Results indicated 92% (n = 12) were sober, with 8% (n = 1) claiming significantly reduced alcohol intake. Probationer re-arrest and revocation rates were collected on the subset of probationers (n = 14 out of 15). The majority of the probationers (79%, n = 11) had not been re-arrested nor had their probation been revoked. Short-term follow-up information (35-131 days post-assessment), available at the time of writing, for ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Callaway, Tonya Gayle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Criterion Validity of the MMPI-2 in a State Hospital Setting

Description: The current study investigated the criterion validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 (MMPI-2) by comparing participants' profiles with other variables, including diagnosis, length of hospitalization, and chronicity. The specific diagnostic groups investigated were depressed (major depressive disorder; dysthymic disorder; and bipolar disorder, depressed), schizophrenic (schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and schizoaffective disorder), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Statistical analyses included use of univariate analyses of variance (ANOVAs), multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs), regression analyses, and measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP). MANOVA results indicated significant differences between diagnostic groups on Scales F, 2, 3, 4, 7, ANX. FRS. DEP. BIZ. M f i , LSE, and FAM. There were considerable differences between males and females when separate MANOVAs were performed for gender groups. Cutoff see ires for classification by diagnosis resulted in significant specificity rates and negative predictive power, but sensitivity rates and positive predictive power were not significant.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Connell, Richard (Richard Nicholas), 1965-
Partner: UNT Libraries