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Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

Description: The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.
Date: July 21, 2009
Creator: Brenner, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

Description: The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: KUTZMAN,R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Description: The level of radon and its daughters inside conventional buildings is often higher than the ambient background level. Interest in conserving energy is motivating homeowners and builers to reduce ventilation and hence to increase the concentration of indoor generated air contaminants, including radon. It is unliekly that the current radiation levels in conventional homes and buildings from radon daughters could account for a significant portion of the lung cancer rate in non-smokers. However, it is likely that some increased lung cancer risk would result from increased radon exposures; hence, it is prudent not to allow radon concentrations to rise significantly. There are several ways to implement energy conservation measures without increasing risks.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Budnitz, R.J.; Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE INHALATION TOXICITY OF INDIUM SESQUIOXIDE IN THE RAT

Description: Albino rats were exposed to a In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dust aerosol of mean concentration 64 mg/m) for 3 months. The retention of In in the tissues and the mobilization of In from the lungs and tracheobronchlal lymph nodes were determined. The results indicate chemical toxicity. (D.L.C.)
Date: February 10, 1961
Creator: Leach, L.J.; Scott, J.K.; Armstrong, R.D. & Steadman, L.T.f Maynard, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

Description: Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Traub, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System, Phase II: Dodecahedral Micro-Model

Description: In the first year of this contractual effort a hypo-elastic constitutive model was developed and shown to have great potential in modeling the elastic response of parenchyma. This model resides at the macroscopic level of the continuum. In this, the second year of our support, an isotropic dodecahedron is employed as an alveolar model. This is a microscopic model for parenchyma. A hopeful outcome is that the linkage between these two scales of modeling will be a source of insight and inspiration that will aid us in the final year's activity: creating a viscoelastic model for parenchyma.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P. & Jacob, Rick E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Spirituality in Ethnic Minority Patients with COPD

Description: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States and is the sixth leading cause of death for low-to middle income countries (Downs & Appel, 2006; GOLD, 2011). COPD is a largely preventable disease due to the lifestyle factors that heavily contribute to disease onset and severity. Although traditionally COPD research has focused on health outcomes related to risk factors, compliance, comorbid psychological and physical conditions, and treatment interventions, a growing body of research suggests religious and spiritual factors may play an equally important role in health outcomes for several medical conditions, including pulmonary disease. However, studies of this kind have not specifically examined COPD nor have they examined the role of religious and spiritual beliefs in COPD management among ethnic minority patients. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether spiritual ethnic minority patients with COPD hold religious fatalistic attitudes and less active religious problem solving . A sample of 35 ethnic minority patients from the Louis. B. Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center (LSCVAMC) Outpatient Pulmonary Clinic in Cleveland, OH. were recruited to participate in the study. Due to the acknowledgeable limitations of the present study, results are preliminary but convey associations between religious health fatalistic beliefs and religious problem solving approaches. Implications and areas of future study are discussed.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Bell, Keisha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Decreased expression of RNA interference machinery, Dicer and Drosha, is associated with poor outcome in ovarian cancer patients

Description: The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.
Date: May 6, 2008
Creator: Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

Description: Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Hong-geller, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences within Los Alamos county in New Mexico

Description: Many millions of office workers are exposed to radon while at work and at home. Though there has been a multitude of studies reporting the measurements of radon concentrations and potential lung and effective doses associated with radon and progeny exposure in homes, similar studies on the concentrations and subsequent effective dose rates in the workplace are lacking. The purposes of this study were to measure radon concentrations in office and residential spaces in the same county and explore the radiation dose implications. Sixty-five track-etch detectors were deployed in office spaces and 47 were deployed in residences, all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA. The sampling periods for these measurements were generally about three months. The measured concentrations were then used to calculate and compare effective dose rates resulting from exposure while at work and at home. Results showed that full-time office workers receive on average about nine times greater exposure at home than while in the office (691 mrem yr{sup -1} versus 78 mrem yr{sup -1}). The estimated effective dose rate for a more homebound person was 896 mrem yr{sup -1}. These effective dose rates are contrasted against the 100 mrem yr{sup -1} threshold for regulation of a 'radiological worker' defined in the Department of Energy regulations occupational exposure and the 10 mrem yr{sup -1} air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Whicker, Jeffrey J & Mcnaughton, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

Description: This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.
Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Wendt, Jost O. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Morphometry for alpha particle hits of critical targets in the lungs. Final technical report

Description: The objective of this study is to provide detailed data on the number, location and type of critical target cells in the airspaces and to use these data in order to make risk assessments of the health effects of radon and radon progeny in the lungs. This will be done by quantitative morphometric study of the distribution of the various cell types and mucous lining layers in the lungs. The results provide anatomically correct models for dosimetry in the rate and human airways which significantly improve the ability to do risk assessment for radon exposures by providing quantitative data for specific cell types and provide a basis for mechanism based comparison between data available in animal exposures and human epidemiology.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Mercer, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examination of Genetic Alterations in Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Lesions of the Lung From Uranium Miners. Final Technical Report

Description: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and in Western Europe. The incidence of lung cancer in developing countries is rising as their cigarette smoking habits increase. The objectives of this proposed research are to analyze genetic alterations associated with the development and progression on non-small cell lung carcinoma (MSCLC). Endpoints that may be realized from this proposed research are: (1) detection of early genetic and/or cellular alterations which ultimately could lead to diagnostic modalities for the early detection of lung cancer; and (2) detection of novel tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9p. This proposal will analyze both tumor specimens and sputum samples.
Date: July 12, 2000
Creator: Anderson, Marshall
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

Description: This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF{sub 1} male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of mRb deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses than those from mice receiving 24 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses at low doses and low dose rates; however, the percentage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose {gamma} irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Zhang, Y. & Woloschak, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent advances in lung cancer biology

Description: This paper provides an overview of carcinogenesis, especially as related to lung cancers. Various growth factors and their mutated forms as oncogenes are discussed with respect to gene location and their role in the oncogenic process. Finally the data is related to lung cancer induction in uranium miners and exposure to radon.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Lechner, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identifying and Controlling Pulmonary Toxicants

Description: This Background Paper examines whether the agencies responsible for administering Federal environmental and health and safety laws have taken this concern for respiratory health to heart. This paper provides a partial response to the committees’ request for an assessment of noncancer health risks in the environment and follows OTA’s previous work on carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic substances.
Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cancer from internal emitters

Description: Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Boecker, B.B. & Griffith, W.C. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

Description: This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.
Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Wendt, Jost O. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG/M3, THEN MAINTAINED FOR SIX MONTHS PRIOR TO ASSESSMENT.

Description: The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. To induce a fibrotic lesion, Fischer-344 rats were exposed to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg Si0{sub 2}/m{sup 3} for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for six months and then maintained in an animal room, equipped with a laminar flow unit, for six months prior to assessment of the end points.
Date: November 1, 1984
Creator: KUTZMAN,R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department