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Vitrification of Three Low-Activity Radioactive Waste Streams from Hanford

Description: As part of a demonstration for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Incorporated (BNFL), the Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has produced and characterized three low-activity waste (LAW) glasses from Hanford radioactive waste samples. The three LAW glasses were produced from radioactive supernate samples that had been treated by the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) at SRTC to remove most of the radionuclides. These three glasses were produced by mixing the waste streams with between four and nine glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to between 1120 and 1150 degrees C. Compositions of the resulting glass waste forms were close to the target compositions. Low concentrations of radionuclides in the LAW feed streams and, therefore, in the glass waste forms supported WPTS conclusions that pretreatment had been successful. No crystals were detected in the LAW glasses. In addition, all glass waste forms passed the leach tests that were performed. These included a 20 degrees C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Ha, B.C. & Bibler, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Description: From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Gant, K.S. & Kettelle, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision document low-level waste feed staging strategy

Description: This report documents the decision to use the Indirect Staging- As Soon As Possible feed staging strategy to deliver supernate feed to the private low-activity waste contractors during Phase I of TWRS Privatization. Two double-shell tanks are needed for intermediate feed staging tanks in addition to the two double-shell tanks that will be turned over to the private contractors as feed tanks. This report was originally issued on May 7, 1996, by Phil M. Daling of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as an unnumbered report. It is being released as a supporting document so that others can search for and find this report. Its original citation was: WHC, 1996, Decision Document, Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Strategy, May 7, 1996.
Date: October 7, 1996
Creator: Certa, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

Description: 'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'
Date: June 22, 1999
Creator: Peeler, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

Description: This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portland cement: A solidification agent for low-level radioactive waste

Description: This bulletin discusses the solidification of waste streams using portland-type cement to provide the structural stability required by 10 CFR 61. Portland cement has been used in this role since early in the commercial nuclear program as a simple and inexpensive solidification medium for immobilization of radioactive wastes. Through the use of additives, most waste streams can be satisfactorily immobilized with portland cement. However, some problem waste streams can not be solidified with portland cement at this time, and those are discussed in this document.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

Description: Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Schmittroth, F.A. & De Lorenzo, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 3

Description: This document is the April 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts, Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities, and court rulings and calendars. State and compact items featured include Texas licensing procedures, renewal of Envirocare`s license, and Ward Valley. Massachusetts Board suspension of some siting tasks and Massachusetts Court rules for US DOE regarding rebates are also reported.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank farms compacted low-level waste

Description: This report describes the process of Low-Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Hetzer, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An informal expert judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management sites on the Nevada Test Site

Description: An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Crowe, B.M.; Leary, K.; Jacobson, R.; Bensinger, H. & Dolenc, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K. & Feng, Xiangdong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

Description: The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

Description: Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80{degree}C) and at ambient pressures.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R. & Murguia, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

Description: This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Morrissey, M.F. & Whitney, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Winter meeting, January 26--28, 1994

Description: The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium-content low-level, radioactive, liquid wastes: Phase 1, SBS demonstration with simulated low-level waste. Final test report

Description: The attached vendor report was prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company by Babcock & Wilcox as documentation of the Phase I Final Test Report, Cyclone Combustion Melter Demonstration.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Holmes, M.J.; Scotto, M.V. & Shiao, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of liquid integrity monitoring methods for gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks, which contain a supernatant over a layer of radioactive sludge, are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best way to remove the sludge and remediate the tanks. As part of this study, a preliminary assessment of liquid integrity (or ``tightness``) monitoring methods for the Gunite tanks has been conducted. Both an external and an internal liquid integrity monitoring method were evaluated, and a preliminary assessment of the liquid integrity of eight Gunite tanks was made with the internal method. The work presented in this report shows that six of the eight GAAT considered here are liquid tight and that, in the case of the other two, data quality was too poor to allow a conclusive decision. The analysis indicates that when the release detection approach described in this report is used during the upcoming treatability study, it will function as a sensitive and robust integrity monitoring system. Integrity assessments based on both the internal and external methods can be used as a means of documenting the integrity of the tanks before the initiation of in-tank operations. Assessments based on the external method can be used during these operations as a means of providing a nearly immediate indication of a release, should one occur. The external method of release detection measures the electrical conductivity of the water found in the dry wells associated with each of the tanks. This method is based on the fact that the conductivity of the liquid in the GAAT is very high, while the conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells and the underdrain system for ...
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2649 (Transported Waste Receiving Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: This document covers the design aspects of the new tank system and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for storing or treating hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during fabrication, installation, and testing of the new tank system in order to prove compliance of the final installation with governing requirements. The assessment is responsive to the Environmental Restoration Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation.
Date: January 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLW Forum summary report, volume 2. No. 2. June 1994

Description: Information provided for each compact and its host state includes: governing body, member states, compact establishment date, current waste management, regulatory and program responsibility, siting responsibility, other involvement, disposal technology, siting, licensing, development costs, and operational date.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project

Description: The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-activity waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This statement of work describes the work scope (encompassing definition of new installations and retrofit modifications to four existing grout vaults), to be performed by the Architect-Engineer, in preparation of a conceptual design for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Interim Storage Facility.
Date: February 6, 1997
Creator: Carlson, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burial container subsidence load stress calculations

Description: This document captures the supporting analyses conducted to determine if the LLCE (Long-Length Contaminated Equipment) burial containers are structurally adequate under different trench closure scenarios. The LLCE is equipment that was inside tank farm tanks.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Veith, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level waste feed staging plan

Description: The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.
Date: August 12, 1996
Creator: Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W. & Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department