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Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

Description: As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Brockway, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

Description: PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-level evaluations of the Weatherization Assistance Program in 1990--1996: A metaevaluation that estimates national savings

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) is implemented in all fifty states. The Program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent comprehensive National Evaluation of the Program was based on an analysis of changes in pre- and post-weatherization energy consumption for homes weatherized in 1989. The National Evaluation estimated average savings for several fuel types. For dwellings that heated primarily with natural gas, which made up over 50% of the sample, average savings per dwelling were 17.3 MBtu, which was 18.3% of space heating consumption, or 13.0% of the total consumption of natural gas for all end users.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Berry, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress report of the National Weatherization Assistance Program

Description: The National Weatherization Evaluation of the 1989 Program Year and the Metaevaluation of 1996 are described in two ways in this summary document. The text pages summarize the results of the two evaluations conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The photographs and explanations illustrate weatherization operations and tactics. An overview and history of the program is provided, followed by the scope of weatherization, metaevaluation methods and results for 1996, national evaluation methods and results for 1989, response to evaluation findings, remaining opportunities, and next steps. Conclusions and significant findings are then given.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A. & Kinney, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

Description: This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Baxter, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE/Project SEED student scholars partnership. Final report, June 7, 1994--April 27, 1995

Description: Project SEED is an innovative career development activity administered by ACS for economically disadvantaged high school students. SEED students spend 10 weeks during the summer in an academic, industrial, or governmental research laboratory working under the supervision of a researcher. Intent is to attempt to overcome obstacles which have excluded the economically disadvantaged from professional careers. Students are required to prepare a technical summary, give presentations to their sponsoring groups, and design and display a poster session. Each student also completed a pre- and post-program survey.
Date: June 13, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuation application, progress report, year IV, June 8, 1993--June 7, 1994

Description: Project SEED is an innovative career development program sponsored by the American Chemical Society for economically disadvantages high school students. SEED students spend ten weeks during the summer in an academic, industrial, or governmental research laboratory working under the supervision of a researcher or research assistant. The primary objective of Project SEED is to encourage participants to pursue strong academic programs in order to more fully develop their career potential and help overcome social, institutional, attitudinal, and educational obstacles which have traditionally excluded the economically disadvantaged. This summer the University of New Mexico at Los Alamos initiated a special course for Project SEED students. The weekly sessions focused on academic skills training in anticipation of post secondary programs coupled with the development of greater self confidence through academic success and effective communication.
Date: March 11, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been ...
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Tonn, Bruce Edward; Schmoyer, Richard L & Eisenberg, Joel Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

Description: This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Pratt, R.G. & Miller, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard practice: Estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated DSM programs

Description: The purpose of this document is to describe and illustrate a methodology for estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated demand-side management (DSM) programs, extending California {open_quotes}standard practice{close_quotes} to address the special evaluation challenges arising from these programs. A coordinated DSM program is one that is co-administered by a state or local government agency and a gas or electric utility. Although the primary subject of this document is coordinated low-income programs, the principles are easily extended to estimating the cost-effectiveness of all coordinated programs.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Hill, L. J. & Brown, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baltimore residential assistance demonstration project: Final report

Description: At the request of the City of Baltimore for assistance in developing the Global Action Plan (GAP) EcoTeam Program, DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy provided GAP with $10,000 for a one-year demonstration project. The results of this action are as follows: four EcoTeams were established representing 28 households and 47 people; the self reported resource savings to date per household are on average: energy savings--9%, auto emission reduction--16%, solid waste reduction--52%, water savings--25%, dollar savings--$174; the initial seed team (prior to this funding) replicated and started 2 new teams, one of those teams replicated and started 2 more teams, the other team did not replicate; 4 volunteer coaches were recruited to coach each of these teams; a volunteer coordinator was recruited to provide local guidance for this demonstration project and help GAP reach out to the Fairfield low-income neighborhood, the volunteer coordinator was unable to establish any EcoTeams in this neighborhood as their priorities were establishing a neighborhood action team and addressing immediate health-related environmental issues; the volunteers have communicated information about this demonstration project among many community and Baltimore government leaders to solicit support for a full campaign and to assess the level of that support.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment and social justice

Description: The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. & Hardee, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

Description: In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficient Low-Income Housing Demonstration With Houston Habitat for Humanity. Final Status Report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

Description: Using DOE grant funds, the Alliance to Save Energy developed and managed an award-winning low-income housing demonstration in cooperation with Houston Habitat for Humanity at the 1996 and 1997 annual NAHB Builders Show in Houston, Texas. Using a unique group of over 30 national, state and local partners, the energy design of Houston Habitat houses was permanently upgraded to the Energy Star Homes Program threshold. Meeting Energy Star Homes Program criteria, the partner design team increased the level of efficiency approximately 30% over the 1992 Model Energy Code. This innovative design using commercially available materials added approximately $1,400 in cost-effective energy upgrades with an estimated payback of less than 8 years. The 30 public-private partners successfully demonstrated energy and resource efficient housing techniques to the 65,000 NAHB home show attendees and the over 3,000 Habitat affiliates. This project resulted in the Houston Habitat affiliate becoming the nation`s first low-income Energy Star Homes Program home builder. By the year 2000, Houston Habitat anticipates building over 500 homes to this new level of efficiency as well as set an example for other Habitat affiliates nationwide to follow. The 1997 demonstration house utilized an all-women volunteer builders team to construct a 3 bedroom home in Houston Habitat`s Woodglen Subdivision. Energy consumption was remotely metered by Texas A and M.
Date: September 30, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

Description: Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Cohen, T.M. & Bleakly, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Museum in a School (reaching the unreachable audience). Final report, February 2, 1993--December 14, 1995

Description: SciTech, an interactive science and technology center located 45 miles west of Chicago, is dedicated to providing hands-on and minds-on experiences that explore the spectrum of science and mathematics. SciTech opened at its present location during the summer of 1990 in Aurora, a changing community with a large minority population. Since then, SciTech has received over 331,000 visitors from the entire Chicago metropolitan area. There are now more than 250 exhibits housed in the museum. SciTech has grown quickly in part due to the strong volunteer support from the research and development corridor population it serves, as well as through international ties. SciTech has become known as an innovative force in the science museum community for its original exhibits and unique youth and school programs. SciTech`s traveling outreach program, ``Museum in a School,`` has served over 391 public and private schools in 111 districts in the Chicago metropolitan area, and has reached over 3,099 teachers and 98,837 students throughout its history. This program serves a wide variety of students, including bilingual, economically depressed, and learning impaired. SciTech is concerned with every American`s need for increasing basic science literacy.
Date: February 21, 1996
Creator: Diaz, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Student science enrichment training program: Progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

Description: This is a status report on a Student Science Enrichment Training Program held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC. The topics of the report include the objectives of the project, participation experienced, financial incentives and support for the program, curriculum description, and estimated success of the program in stimulating an occupational interest in science and research fields by the students.
Date: April 21, 1989
Creator: Sandhu, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Say YES to a Youngster`s Future{trademark}. Final quarterly technical report, November 1995--August 1996

Description: Those persons more greatly affected negatively by social violence have often survived circumstances which seemed insurmountable to others in society, who are better isolated economically and socially from social ills. Such is the case of the young students and their families in the West Las Vegas, Nevada community. This year`s Say YES Family Learning Center began in the midst of drive-by shootings, fear and apprehension on the part of both Say YES staff members and their clients. Meetings were held with community leaders and parents. Not much was done to resolve the core problems that caused the shootings, but just the communal gathering and sharing was enough to move on, to keep working, trying to make a difference for the younger generation. Though the NUC and Department of Energy administrators and support staff did their best at trying to reconcile the many differences and conflicts, tension continued to characterize the work at the Las Vegas Family Learning Centers. The staff appeared distrustful of any delays or inaction due to the frozen finances of the US government, and of the resulting cutbacks. Inclement weather in the nation`s capital did not help an already strained program. Still children and their parents and/or adult assistants learned Hands-On Family Math, Science, and Technology the Say YES way. The veteran Family Learning Center staff worked diligently despite human and bureaucratic shortcomings. Teachers in the Clark County School District were once again trained and made ready to share their knowledge daily in the classroom. This report describes the Say YES program and its implementation in West Las Vegas, NV.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Martin-Ross, B.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of the National Energy Audit (NEAT) with data from a gas utility low-income residential weatherization program in New York State

Description: This study uses two approaches to the validation of the National Energy Audit (NEAT). The first consists of comparisons of audit-predicted savings to savings observed in a pre- and post-retrofit analysis of metered gas consumption. Here, realization rates, which are the ratio of measured savings to audit-predicted savings, are examined for 49 houses to determine how accurately NEAT predicts savings in a field setting. The second approach involves assessing the accuracy of NEAT`s internal algorithms by comparing its results to those obtained with another engineering model, DOE-2.1E, which is an industry standard. In this analysis, both engineering models are applied to two houses, using the same building description data, and measure-specific estimates of savings are compared. 12 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Gettings, M.B.; Berry, L.G.; Beyer, M.A. & Maxwell, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

Description: During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect assumptions regarding the indoor temperature before and after retrofit used in making the predictions. Incorrect assumptions regarding ...
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Ternes, M.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program

Description: Since 1976, the national Weatherization Assistance Program has been working to improve the energy efficiency of dwelling units occupied by low-income residents. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and implemented by state and local agencies, the program is active in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report focuses on the recent outcomes of Washington State's weatherization efforts. The performance of the Washington Weatherization Program is of interest because few evaluations have been performed in this part of the country and because Washington contains a high proportion of electrically-heated houses, which have received relatively little examination in the past. This study, which calculates the magnitude of energy savings for both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses and compares program benefits and costs, was initiated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the summer of 1998. In conclusion, we find that the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program has achieved substantial energy savings in both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses. A comparison of the findings from this study with those from many other evaluations of state weatherization efforts conducted over the past 10 years indicates that Washington is in the top one-third nationwide in terms of program-induced energy savings. In addition, the relationships between energy savings and both pre-weatherization consumption and weatherization expenditures reported in this document are consistent with the findings from earlier studies. These findings suggest that households with high energy consumption make effective targets for state weatherization efforts and that increasing the amount spent per household yields tangible returns in terms of energy savings.
Date: February 23, 2001
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to electric industry restructuring

Description: This paper briefly describes the electric industry, its residential markets, industry structure and current trends. Its purpose is to provide Weatherization grants managers with the background necessary to assess their leveraging opportunities in an industry that is experiencing sweeping changes, commonly known as electric industry restructuring. The study describes the terrain of a changing industry topography on a national and regional basis, with some state and local information also provided. Weatherization managers and subgrantees who read this paper should be better able to understand the leveraging opportunities that are emerging now in the electricity market place. The reader will be introduced to the basics of the electric industry as it presently operates, the nature of the changes that are in the process of occurring, and the driving forces that are behind those changes. The major industry players are described by type and their interests are explored in further depth. There will also be an overview of the regulatory process as it has operated historically, as well as the changes now underway at both the state and federal levels. Finally, the paper will conclude with a description of some of the assets and opportunities available to those who may be interested in participating in the restructuring process in order to expand or protect low-income programs in their own states.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Eisenberg, J.F. & Berry, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLW Notes supplement, Volume 12, Number 2

Description: Federal criteria for determining whether a project presents an environmental justice concern are currently subject to multiple interpretations. There are no federal statutes or regulations that specifically reference or address environmental justice, and the guidelines that are being developed by the Council on Environmental Quality are currently in draft form. The lack of consistent and clear federal criteria for determining what constitutes an environmental justice impact--and how to determine whether environmental justice issues have been effectively addressed--can create a dilemma for state agencies that wish to include--or have already included--environmental justice, along with legal, economic and technical issues, as a consideration when siting a facility. The following information is therefore provided for those agencies and commissions seeking to site, to license, to construct and to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Topics include: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; NEJAC members; Federal definitions of environmental justice; and EPA`s role in federal land transfers. Federal agencies can achieve environmental justice by identifying and addressing--as appropriate--disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of [federal agency] programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of water, lighting, and cooling energy efficiency measures for low-income homes located in warm climates

Description: In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has performed a literature review of weatherization measures applicable for homes located in warm climate regions. Sources for this information included: (1) documented engineering estimates, (2) vendor information, (3) reported performance from research and field tests, and (4) direct discussions with researchers, vendors, and field reporters. Estimated savings are extrapolated from reported energy savings and applied to the end-use energy consumption for low-income homes reported by the Energy Information Administration. Additionally, installation costs, savings-to-investment ratios, and parameters indicating performance sensitivity to issues such as occupancy, construction, client education, and maintenance requirements are presented. The report is comprised of two sections: (1) an overview of measure performance, and (2) an appendix. The overview of measures is in a tabular format, which allows for quick reference. More detailed discussions and references for each measure are presented in the Appendix and it is highly recommended that these be reviewed prior to measure selection.
Date: February 1998
Creator: Martin, M. A. & Gettings, M. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department