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Towards predicting weld metal microstructure from fundamentals of transport phenomena

Description: Heat transfer and fluid flow during manual metal arc welding Of low alloy steels were investigated by solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in three dimensions. Calculated cooling rates were coupled with an existing phase transformation model to predict the microstructure in low alloy steel welds. The computed results were found to be in good agreement with experimentally observed microstructures. The agreement indicates significant promise for predicting spatial distribution of weld metal microstructure from the fundamentals of transport phenomena.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Mundra, K.; DebRoy, T.; Babu, S. S.; David, S. A. & Paul, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of orientation pinning on the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steel

Description: Despite a large number of investigations on the formation of the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steels, the exact mechanisms leading to the preference of this particular orientation are not completely understood so far. As an alternative to the standard explanation of a favored growth of Goss-oriented grains during secondary recrystallization, recently the concept of orientation pinning has been proposed, which considers that the growth of grains with special orientation relationships corresponding to low-angle and twin grain boundaries is disfavored. The present paper present preliminary EBSD-results on the growth of Goss-grains during secondary recrystallization in high-permeability (HiB) transformer steel sheets. A semi-quantitative model to simulate the effect of orientation pinning on the evolution of the Goss-texture is introduced.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Engler, O. & Friedel, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

Description: Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: James, L.A. & Moshier, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of potential on the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low alloy steels: Part II, electrochemical results

Description: Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels was found to be dependent on externally applied potential in low sulfur steels in high temperature water. EAC could be turned on when the specimen was polarized anodically above a critical potential. However, hydrogen (H) additions inhibited the ability of potential to affect EAC. The behavior was related to formation of H ions during H oxidation at the crack mouth. A mechanism based on formation of H sulfide at the crack tip and H ions at the crack mouth is presented to describe the process by which sulfides and H ions affect the critical sulfide concentration at the crack tip.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Moshier, W.C. & James, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Experimental results

Description: The presence of dissolved metallurgical sulfides in pressure vessel and piping steels has been linked to Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC), a phenomenon observed in laboratory tests that results in fatigue crack growth rates as high as 100 times that in air. Previous experimental and analytical work based on diffusion as the mass transport process has shown that surface cracks that are initially clean of sulfides will not initiate EAC in most applications. This is because the average crack tip velocity would not be sufficiently high to expose enough metallurgical sulfides per unit time and produce the sulfide concentration required for EAC. However, there is a potential concern for the case of a relatively large embedded crack breaking through to the wetted surface. Such a crack would not be initially clean of sulfides, and EAC could initiate. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on two heats of an EAC susceptible, high-sulfur, low-alloy steel in 243{degrees}C low-oxygen water to further study the phenomenon of EAC persistence at low crack tip velocities. A load cycle profile that incorporated a significant load dwell period at minimum load was used. In one experiment, the fatigue cycling history was such that relatively high crack tip velocities at the start of the experiment produced a persistent case of EAC even when crack tip velocities were later reduced to levels below the EAC initiation velocity. The other series of experiments used initial crack tip velocities that were much lower and probably more realistic. Air precracking of the compact tension specimens produced an initial inventory of undissolved sulfides on the crack flanks that directly simulates the array of sulfides expected from the breakthrough of an embedded crack. In all cases, results showed EAC ceased after several hundred hours of cycling.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Li, Y.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

Description: Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t{sub diss} which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t{sub diss} providing V{sub eac}, the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V{sub In}, the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V{sub eac} need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of ...
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Wire, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermo-Chemical-Mechanical Effects on Microstructure Development in Low-Alloy Steel Welds

Description: Effect of aluminum on the decomposition of 5 ferrite to austenite was investigated in a low-alloy steel weld. In addition, the effect of inclusion composition on the transition from bainite to acicular ferrite during austenite decomposition was analyzed. Stress relaxation during decomposition of austenite to allotriomorphic and acicular ferrite was also characterized. Results from the above experiments illustrate the importance of thermomechanical effects on weld microstructure evolution.
Date: May 24, 1999
Creator: Babu, S.S.; David, S.A. & Vitek, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure evaluation in low alloy steel weld metal from convective heat transfer calculations in three dimensions

Description: Heat transfer and fluid flow during manual metal arc welding of low alloy steels were investigated by solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in three dimensions. Cooling rates were calculated at various locations in the weldment. Calculated cooling rates were coupled with an existing phase transformation model to predict percentages of acicular, allotriomorphic, and Widmanstaetten ferrites in various low alloy steel welds containing different concentration of V and Mn. Computed microstructures were in good agreement with experiment, indicating promise for predicting weld metal microstructure from the fundamentals of transport phenomena.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Mundra, K.; DebRoy, T.; Babu, S.S. & David, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual stress and microstructural characterization using Rietveld refinement of a carburized layer in a 5120 steel

Description: Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns has been used to provide microstructural information complementary to conventional X-ray residual stress measurements through a carburized layer containing a maximum vol. 25 % of retained austenite. Layers in a simple specimen were removed incrementally by electropolishing and, at each depth in addition to conventional residual stress measurements in both the martensite and retained austenite, data were collected at {Psi} = 0 for Rietveld refinement. The refinements provide accurate values for the lattice parameters in the respective phases that can be related to carbon content and microstructure. Besides to providing qualitative information concerning the microstructure and possible surface decarburization, the c/a ratio of the martensite potentially offers an independent technique for determining carbon content profiles.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Rangaswamy, P.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Lawson, A.C.; O`Rourke, J. & Goldstone, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

Description: Environmental assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates in air. For low alloy steels with sulfur contents > 0.0125% by weight, EAC is normal behavior in the 240 to 290C range. However, literature yields mixed results for low alloy steels with compositions just below this sulfur level; some reports indicate EAC while others do not. Also, several authors have reported an increased tendency toward EAC when the water temperatures were lowered. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260C. At 260C these forgings did not exhibit EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204C, provided the test conditions (loading frequency, {Delta}K, and R) were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than {approx}2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93C, this critical crack growth rate appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced ...
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Auten, T.A. & Monter, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of oxide inclusions on the kinetics of the austenite to ferrite transformation in low alloy steel weld metal

Description: Isothermal transformation kinetics of austenite to acicular ferrite and allotriomorphic ferrite were measured in reheated low alloy steel weld deposits with similar weld compositions and austenite grain size but different inclusion characteristics. Accelerated kinetics of transformation to acicular ferrite were observed in weld metal containing coarser and titanium-rich inclusions. In contrast, kinetics of transformation to allotriomorphic ferrite were not influenced by inclusion characteristics, but, rather, by the austenite grain size and carbon concentration.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Babu, S. S.; David, S. A.; Vitek, J. M. & DebRoy, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study on the effects of compressive stress on the fatigue crack growth of low-alloy steel

Description: A series of fatigue crack growth rate tests was conducted in order to study effects of negative stress ratio on fatigue crack growth rate of low-alloy steel in air. Four-point bend specimens were used to simulate linear stress distributions typical of pressure vessel applications. This type of testing adds to knowledge on negative stress ratio effects for low-alloy steels obtained in the past from uniform tension-compression tests. Applied bending stress range was varied over twice the yield strength. Load control was used for tests for which the stress range was less than twice the yield strength and deflection control was used for the higher stress range tests. Crack geometries were both short and long fatigue cracks started at notches and tight fatigue cracks for which crack closure could occur over the full crack face. Results are presented in terms of the stress intensity factor ratio R = K{sub MIN}/K{sub MAX}. The negative R-ratio test results were correlated to an equation of the form da/dN = C[{Delta}K/(A-R)]{sup n}, where A, C, and n are curve fitting parameters. It was found that effects of negative R-ratio on fatigue crack growth rates for even the high stress range tests could be bounded by correlating the above equation to only positive R-ratio test results and extending the resulting equation into the negative R-ratio regime.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Jones, D. P.; Hoppe, R. G.; Hechmer, J. L. & James, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Fluid Flow on Inclusion Coarsening in Low-Alloy Steel Welds

Description: Oxide inclusions form in welds because of deoxidation reactions in the weld pool. These inclusions control the weld microstructure development. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculation of oxidation reaction can describe inclusion characteristics such as number density, size, and composition. Experimental work has shown that fluid-flow velocity gradients in the weld pool can accelerate inclusion growth by collision and coalescence. Moreover, fluid flow in welds can transport inclusions to different temperature regions that may lead to repeated dissolution and growth of inclusions. These phenomena are being studied with the help of computational coupled heat transfer, fluid-flow, thermodynamic, and kinetic models. The results show that the inclusion formation in steel welds can be described as a function of the welding processes, process parameters, and steel composition.
Date: February 28, 1998
Creator: Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; DebRoy, T. & Hong, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inclusion formation in low-alloy steel welds

Description: This paper summarizes four models for describing inclusion formation in steel welds. These methods include simple fixed oxidation sequence model, thermodynamic model, thermodynamic-kinetic model, and thermodynamic-kinetic-fluid flow model. Complexities of these models increase with a need to describe details of the inclusion formation. The applicability of the models was illustrated with two examples. In one of the examples, thermodynamic calculations of phase stability between liquid steel, AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} explained the inclusion formation in self-shielded flux cored arc weld. In the second example, thermodynamic-kinetic calculations illustrated the competing effects of weld metal composition and cooling rate effects on the inclusion formation in electron beam and laser beam welds. Limitations of the current inclusion models and recommendations for future work on the inclusion formation were highlighted.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Babu, S.S.; David, S.A. & DebRoy, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature measurements on a HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel

Description: Temperature measurements have been made on HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel number 6-2-3-1. These measurements are intended to give a view of the vessel temperature response under conditions similar to operational conditions, starting from worst case. The vessel`s temperature must be above the minimum operating temperature when used to contain an explosive event to ensure that the vessel material has the desired crack arrest properties. Several series of temperature measurements have been conducted over 24 and 48 hour periods during February 1998. These tests were intended to demonstrate that after running the heaters in the environmental shelter for some time, (1) the vessel warms up to temperatures well above the minimum operating temperature, (2) that through-thickness temperature gradients are negligible, and (3) that the temperature differences from one part of the vessel to another are small.
Date: May 7, 1998
Creator: Lohsen, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparision of Limit Load Solutions with Results of a Collapse Tests of Perforated Plates with a Triangular Penetration Pattern

Description: Limit load solutions obtained by elastic-perfectly plastic finite element analysis (EPP-FEA) are compared to results of tests of low-alloy steel perforated plate geometries loaded to full plastic collapse. Results are given for two plastic-collapse tests of flat circular disks with circular penetrations arranged in a triangular pattern and drilled normal to the surface of the plate. The ligament efficiency (minimum distance between holes divided by the distance between the centers of the holes) of the pattern is 0.32 and the plate thickness is 2.39 inches (60.7 mm). The tests were designed so that a transverse load generated plastic collapse in the outer row of penetrations due to a combination of transverse shear and in-plane bending. Limit-load solutions were obtained using EPP-FEA with small-strain, small-defection linear geometry assumptions. Two FEA models are used: one where the perforated region is modeled using an equivent solid plate (EQS) representation and another where each hole is explicitly modeled by FEA. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the deformation patterns produced by the EPP-FEA solutions match exactly with the deformation patterns produced by the test. The EQS-EPP FEA solution is about 15% lower than the explicit-hole EPP-FEA solution. Using one-third the actual ultimate strength of the material as the strength parameter in the limit load calculation produces a calculated limit load that is greater than a factor of three less than the mean measured plastic-collapse load obtained in the tests. This paper adds to the qualification of the use of limit-load solutions obtained using small-strain, small deflection EPP-FEA programs for the calculation of the limit load for perforated plates.
Date: December 13, 2001
Creator: Jones, D.P. & Gordon, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation plasticity in ductile solids. Annual progress report, June 1, 1993--May 31, 1994

Description: Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing has achieved a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The degree of transformation interaction is sensitive to both strength level and degree of constraint. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A reformulated numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has allowed a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions, including local processes of microvoid nucleation. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability, and new compositions are designed for improved stability.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Olson, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bainitic stabilization of austenite in low alloy steels

Description: Stabilization of retained austenite via bainitic transformation was studied in a triple-phase, ferrite/bainite/austenite steel 0.26C1.52Si-1.2Mn. Volume fraction and stability of retained austenite are varied by isothermal transformation time at 752F following intercritical annealing at 1418F. Austenite stability is measured using the Bolling-Richman technique. Austenite content is measured by and austenite carbon content is estimated from lattice parameters. Strength and ductility measured in both uniaxial and plane-strain tension are correlated with austenite amount and stability. While austenite content peaks at 3 minutes transformation time, stability continues to increase out to 5 minutes associated with a saturation of austenite carbon content and continued refinement of austenite particle size. Despite the reduced austenite content of 8 percent, the higher stability provided by the 5 minutes treatment gives superior mechanical properties.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Brandt, M. L. & Olson, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of water flow rate upon the environmentally-assisted cracking response of a low-alloy steel

Description: Effect of water flow rate on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) response of a high-sulfur ferritic steel was studied at 243C. In contrast to earlier studies with compact-type specimens, this study employed relatively large tight semi-elliptical surface cracks tested under generally linear-elastic conditions. Flow velocities parallel to the crack as low as 1.68 {minus} 1.84 m/s were effective in mitigating EAC.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: James, L. A.; Wire, G. L. & Cullen, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution

Description: This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Nguyen, D. T.; Nichols, D. E. & Lohry, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-metallic oxide inclusion formation in C-Mn low alloy steel welds

Description: Inclusion characteristics influence weld metal microstructure development, especially the formation of high toughness acicular ferrite phase. Important inclusion characteristics are: size distribution, number density, volume fraction, composition. Previous work considered a sequential formation of various oxides and compounds to estimate the inclusion characteristics; however, effects of weld metal composition, nucleation and growth conditions on inclusion formation were ignored. In this work, the principles of ladle deoxidization and transformation kinetics involving nucleation and growth are used to estimate the inclusion characteristics as a function of weld metal composition and cooling conditions.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Babu, S. S.; Mundra, K.; DebRoy, T.; David, S. A. & Vitek, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

Description: Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.
Date: December 5, 2011
Creator: Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Bullard, S.; Rozman, K. & Kruzic, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report is a compendium of sets of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following the short-term effects of hydrogen exposure. The property sets include the following: Yield Strength; Ultimate Tensile Strength; Uniform Elongation; Reduction of Area; Threshold Cracking, K{sub H} or K{sub th}; Fracture Toughness (K{sub IC}, J{sub IC}, and/or J-R Curve); and Fatigue Crack Growth (da/dN). These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).
Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Lam, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative Microanalysis with high Spatial Resolution: Application of FEG-DTEM XEDS Microanalysis to the Characterization of Complex Microstructures in Irradiated Low Alloy Steet

Description: To assist in the characterization of microstructural changes associated with irradiation damage in low alloy steels, the technique of quantitative x-ray mapping using a field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM) equipped with an x-ray energy Dispersive spectrometer (XEDS) has been employed. Quantitative XEDS microanalyses of the matrix and grain boundaries of irradiated specimens have been compared with previous quantitative analyses obtained using 3D-Atom Probe Field-Ion Microscopy (3D-APFIM). In addition, the FEG-STEM XEDS maps obtained from the irradiated steel have revealed the presence of 2 to 3 nm Ni-enriched 'precipitates' in the matrix, which had previously been detected using 3D-APFIM. These quantitative FEG-STEM XEDS results represent the first direct and independent microchemical corroboration of the 3D-APFIM results showing ultra-fine irradiation-induced hardening features in low alloy steel.
Date: November 14, 2001
Creator: Williams, D.B., Watanabe, M. and Burke, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department