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Persistence and transport potential of chemicals in a multimedia environment

Description: Persistence in the environment and potential for long-range transport are related since time in the environment is required for transport. A persistent chemical will travel longer distances than a reactive chemical that shares similar chemical properties. Scheringer (1997) has demonstrated the correlation between persistence and transport distance for different organic chemicals. However, this correlation is not sufficiently robust to predict one property from the other. Specific chemicals that are persistent mayor may not exhibit long-range transport potential. Persistence and long-range transport also present different societal concerns. Persistence concerns relate to the undesired possibility that chemicals produced and used now may somehow negatively affect future generations. Long-range transport concerns relate to the undesired presence of chemicals in areas where these compounds have not been used. Environmental policy decisions can be based on either or both considerations depending on the aim of the regulatory program. In this chapter, definitions and methods for quantifying persistence and transport potential of organic chemicals are proposed which will assist in the development of sound regulatory frameworks.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: van de Meent, D.; McKone, T.E.; Parkerton, T.; Matthies, M.; Scheringer, M.; Wania, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

Description: This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Allwine, K Jerry & Flaherty, Julia E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Framework for the Development of an Air Quality Monitoring Station in Denton, Texas

Description: Denton, Texas consistently reaches ozone nonattainment levels. This has led to a large focus of air pollution monitoring efforts in the region, with long-range transport being explored as a key contributor. For this study, the University of North Texas Discovery Park campus was chosen as a prospective location for an extensive air quality monitoring station. Sixteen years of ozone and meteorological data for five state-run monitoring sites within a 25 mile radius, including the nearest Denton Airport site, was gathered from TCEQ online database for the month of April for the years 2000 to 2015. The data was analyzed to show a historical, regional perspective of ozone near the proposed site. The maximum ozone concentration measured at the Denton Airport location over the 16 year period was measured at 96 ppb in 2001. Experimental ozone and meteorological measurements were collected at the Discovery Park location from March 26 to April 3 and April 8 to April, 2016 and compared to the Denton Airport monitoring site. A time lag in ozone trends and an increase in peak ozone concentrations at the proposed location were observed at the proposed site in comparison to the Denton Airport site. Historical and experimental meteorological data agreed in indicating that southern winds that rarely exceed 20 miles per hour are the predominant wind pattern. Back trajectories, wind roses, pollution roses, and bivariate plots created for peak ozone days during experimental periods support long range transport as a considerable cause of high ozone levels in Denton. Furthermore, a study of the precursor characteristics at the Denton Airport site indicated the site was being affected by a local source of nitrogen dioxide that was not affecting the proposed location. The differences in the Denton Airport site and the proposed site indicate that further monitoring at Discovery Park would ...
Date: August 2016
Creator: Boling, Robyn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

Description: The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.
Date: March 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyzed alanates for hydrogen storage

Description: The discovery that hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed from complex hydrides (the alanates) by the addition of catalysts has created an entirely new prospect for lightweight hydrogen storage. Unlike the interstitial intermetallic hydrides, these compounds release hydrogen through a series of decomposition/recombination reactions e.g.: NaAlH{sub 4} {Leftrightarrow} 1/3Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} + 2/3Al + H{sub 2} {Leftrightarrow} NaH + Al + 3/2H{sub 2}. Initial work resulted in improved catalysts, advanced methods of preparation and a better understanding of the hydrogen absorption and desorption processes. Recent studies have clarified some of the fundamental material properties as well as the engineering characteristics of catalyst enhanced sodium alanate. Phase transitions observed real-time through in situ X-ray powder diffraction demonstrate that the decomposition reactions occur through long-range transport of metal species. SEM imaging and EDS analysis verify aluminum segregation to the surface of the material during decomposition. The equilibrium thermodynamics of decomposition have now been measured down to room temperature. They show a plateau pressure for the first reaction of 1 atm at 33 C, which suggest that, thermodynamically, this material is ideally suited to onboard hydrogen storage for fuel cell vehicles. Room temperature desorption with slow but measurable kinetics has been recorded for the first time. Studies at elevated temperatures (125-165 C), approaching that found in fuel cell operations, were performed on a scaled-up test bed. The bed demonstrated surprisingly good kinetics and other positive material properties. However, these studies also pointed to the need to develop new non-alkoxide based catalysts and doping methods to increase capacity and reduce the level of hydrocarbon impurities found in the desorbed hydrogen. For this reason, new Ti-Cl catalysts and doping processes are being developed which show higher capacities and improved kinetics. An overview of the current state-of-the-art will be presented along with our own studies ...
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Gross, K. J.; Thomas, G. J. & Jensen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

Description: There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.
Date: March 25, 2003
Creator: Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L. & Sivintsev, Y.U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of trace constituent transport with the University of Wisconsin global isentropic-sigma model

Description: The main goal of this report is to demonstrate the ability of the University of Wisconsin (UW) hybrid isentropic-sigma ({theta}-{sigma}) model for global NWP, especially the global distribution of precipitation and simulating the long-range transport of an inert trace constituent. Results from this prototype climate model are compared against the results of a nominally identical global {sigma} model in order to establish the relative advantages and disadvantages of each coordinate system for simulating long-range transport processes. The current work is an extension of works by Johnson et al. and Zapotocny et al. The first study used analytically specified initial conditions for {theta}-{sigma} and {sigma} coordinate channel models, the second study incorporated observed data into regional versions of both models, while the third study documented the first global results with the UW {theta}-{sigma} model. Section 2 of this report describes additions to the UW {theta}-{sigma} model since the Zapotocny et al. study, Section 3 evaluates a five day precipitation forecast produced by the UW {theta}-{sigma} model and presents a comparison of each model`s ability to prognostically simulate and conserve an inert trace constituent. A summary is presented in Section 4.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Zapotocny, T. H.; Johnson, D. R. & Reames, F. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

Description: SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling and Analysis of Global and Regional Hydrologic Processes and Appropriate Conservation of Moist Entropy

Description: The research supported by DOE funding addressed the fundamental issues of understanding and modeling of hydrologic processes in relation to regional and global climate change. The emphasis of this research effort was on the application of isentropic modeling and analysis to advance the accuracy of the simulation of all aspects of the hydrologic cycle including clouds and thus the climate state regionally and globally. Simulation of atmospheric hydrologic processes by the UW hybrid isentropic coordinate models provided fundamental insight into global monsoonal circulations, and regional energy exchange in relation to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Inter-comparison of UW hybrid model simulations with those from the NCAR Community Climate Model and other climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models investigated the increased accuracies gained in modeling long-range transport in isentropic coordinates and isolated differences in modeling of the climate state. The inter-comparisons demonstrated advantages in the simulation of the transport of the hydrologic components of the climate system and provided insight into the more general problems of simulating hydrologic processes, aerosols and chemistry for climate. This research demonstrated the viability of the UW isentropic-eta model for long-term integration for climate and climate change studies and documented that no insurmountable barriers exist to simulation of climate utilizing hybrid isentropic coordinate models. The results provide impetus for continued development of hybrid isentropic coordinate models as a means to advance accuracies in the simulation of global and regional climate in relation to transport and the planetary distribution of heat sources and sinks.
Date: June 8, 2007
Creator: Donald Johnson, Todd Schaack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer circulations and dispersion on New Mexico`s Pajarito Plateau

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) contains a radioactive waste storage and disposal facility. It is located on Mesita del Buey, which extends east-southeasterly on the New Mexico`s Pajarito Plateau. This mesa is one of a series of narrow mesas, hundreds of meters wide, that define the topography of the plateau. The mesas are separated by steep canyons, tens to hundreds of meters deep. Pajarito Canyon is to the south of Mesita del Buey, while Canada del Buey lies to the north. In general, the entire plateau slopes downward toward the east and the Rio Grande Valley, with the highest peaks of the Jemez Mountains to the west. Meterological observations collected at various sites around the Pajarito Plateau indicate that the atmospheric conditions in the area are complex and strongly influenced by the highly-variable local topography. For this study, numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the area around TA-54 are carried out to produce a more detailed depiction of the wind flow than can be provided by the Laboratory`s network of meterological observation towers. Plumes of particles released into these wind fields are simulated as an indication of transport and diffusion from a hypothetical release. 4 refs., 1 fig.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Costigan, K. R. & Bossert, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phoenix, Arizona, revisited : indications of aerosol effects on O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, UV-B, and NO{sub 3}.

Description: Fine particulate matter and tropospheric ozone levels are of concern because of their potential for health impacts, as well as their radiative effects. Both ozone and PM-2.5 standards are being exceeded in many urban and regional areas where transport and background levels can appreciably affect observed concentrations. Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides and other primary pollutant species can interact with natural organics to form secondary aerosol products via synthesis of nitric acid and its subsequent reaction with ammonia to yield ammonium nitrate. In addition, natural organics and lower-reactivity organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can generate secondary organic aerosols, both of which contribute to the formation of PM-2.5. Long-range transport and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} via both photochemical reactions and nighttime chemistry can generate significant regional levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) and other oxidants, such as peroxyacyl nitrates.
Date: September 30, 1999
Creator: Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.; Cunningham, M. M.; Baird, J. C.; Dintaman, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

Description: Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Andrews, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric chemistry effects of the 1998 Mexican/Central American fires measured in central New Mexico USA.

Description: Atmospheric effects from large fires have received a great deal of interest recently, especially when the fires have the potential to effect human health when the plumes are transported long distances over areas of high population density. Examples are the recent large fires in Southeast Asia in 1997 (1) and the wildfires occurring in southern Mexico and Central America that were manifested in decreased visibility and high aerosol concentrations in the United States at distances of 2500-4000 km from the fires. In addition to fine aerosols, these biomass fires have the potential to produce and transport large quantities of oxygenated organic species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfate and nitrate species. Most of the literature reports dealing with products of biomass burning have been related to fireplace and wood burning stove emissions (2,3) and with local effects from forest fires(4). The recent super-large fires occurring in Indonesia and Mexico/Central America also bring about the issue of atmospheric reactivity because long-range transport affords long reaction times for photochemical reactions, wet and dry deposition and surface reactions on the aerosol particles. The smoke/haze conditions prompted considerable concern among the general population in New Mexico regarding health hazards and a large number of calls to the Albuquerque, NM Air Quality Division which reported the PM{sub 10} samples collected showed no significant increase in mass(5). The conclusion was that the particles were very fine and therefore had considerable influence on the visibility but did not violate health standards. In this study, organic and inorganic chemical species in the gaseous and aerosol phases have been identified and quantified under non-smoky and smoky conditions in Central New Mexico approximately 3000 km from the source of the fires.
Date: December 16, 1998
Creator: Popp, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional-scale influences on urban air quality : a field study in Phoenix, Arizona.

Description: Regional air quality can play an important role in determining whether urban ozone or PM-2.5 standards are exceeded. Background levels of nitrogen oxide species (NO{sub x}) and their interactions with natural organics can generate secondary aerosol products via formation of nitric acid and its subsequent reaction with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. Natural organics and reactive anthropogenic organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can also lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, contributing to the formation of PM-2.5. Long-range transport and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} via both photochemical reactions and nighttime chemistry can yield significant regional levels of ozone and other oxidants, such as peroxyacyl nitrates (R-C=O-O-O-NO{sub 2}; PANs). The PANs are key species in determining the apparent age of an air parcel (Gaffney et al., 1989, 1993, 1997). The most common member of the family is peroxyacetyl nitrate (R=CH3-; PAN), which typically accounts for more than 85% of the PANs found in an urban or rural site. The PANs are in equilibrium with NO{sub 2}. Peroxyacyl radicals (R-C=O-O-O) are typically produced by the photooxidation reactions of organics, particularly those of aldehyde oxidation products with OH radical during the daytime (photochemically active) periods. Proposed mechanisms for nighttime formation of PANs (Gaffney et al., 1989) include abstraction reactions of nitrate radical (NO{sub 3}) and the initiation of OH chemistry by olefin-ozone reactions.
Date: October 12, 1998
Creator: Gaffney, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

Description: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L. & Kim, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pb Isotopes as an Indicator of the Asian Contribution to Particulate Air Pollution in Urban California

Description: During the last two decades, expanding industrial activity in east Asia has led to increased production of airborne pollutants that can be transported to North America. Previous efforts to detect this trans-Pacific pollution have relied upon remote sensing and remote sample locations. We tested whether Pb isotope ratios in airborne particles can be used to directly evaluate the Asian contribution to airborne particles of anthropogenic origin in western North America, using a time series of samples from a pair of sites upwind and downwind of the San Francisco Bay Area. Our results for airborne Pb at these sites indicate a median value of 29 Asian origin, based on mixing relations between distinct regional sample groups. This trans-Pacific Pb is present in small quantities but serves as a tracer for airborne particles within the growing Asian industrial plume. We then applied this analysis to archived samples from urban sites in central California. Taken together, our results suggest that the analysis of Pb isotopes can reveal the distribution of airborne particles affected by Asian industrial pollution at urban sites in northern California. Under suitable circumstances, this analysis can improve understanding of the global transport of pollution, independent of transport models.
Date: October 25, 2010
Creator: Ewing, Stephanie A.; Christensen, John N.; Brown, Shaun T.; Vancuren, Richard A.; Cliff, Steven S. & DePaolo, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

Description: Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement/lime, iron/steel, and gasoline/diesel factors, while associations with the sludge incineration factor and components ...
Date: June 30, 2010
Creator: Rohr, Annette; Morishita, James Wagner Masako; Keeler, Gerald & Harkema, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

Description: As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of ...
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Crist, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

Description: As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and ...
Date: April 2, 2006
Creator: Crist, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

Description: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the ...
Date: October 2, 2005
Creator: Crist, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

Description: Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

Description: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter ...
Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Crist, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

Description: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in ...
Date: April 2, 2004
Creator: Crist, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department