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Description: Loop L-2-19 operated in HB-2 of the WTR for 1148.9 hours of circulation and 2705 Mwhr of LITR operation. The solution contained 0.17 m enriched UO/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/, 0.02 m CuSO/sub 4/, 0.12 m excess H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and 0.20 m Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in H /.sub 2/O, The main stream was 280 deg C and the pressurizer 295 deg C. There was no unusual difficulty during loop operation. A revised loop sample procedure gave better flushing of the sample lines. Four valves failed due to severe corrosion and fracturing of the 420 SS stems. 1-131 was not detected in a sample of gas taken from the gas hold-up tank. The run was terminated when the circulating pump failed. (auth)
Date: June 19, 1958
Creator: Lorenz, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Methods were developed for the syntheses of alkalimetal p--bar ethylbenzenesulfonates. P--bar ethylbenzenesulfonic acid is isolated and is purified as barium p--bar -ethylbenzenesulfonate which is converted to the Na, K, or Cs p-bar -ethylbenzenesulfonate by means of a slight excess of the corresponding alkali-metal carbonate. Lithium sulfate is used to form the lithium p-bar -ethylbenzenesulfonate. (auth)
Date: March 30, 1962
Creator: White, J.C. & Holsopple, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: < = B 9 8 9 = = ; < eposits formed on surfaces of the containing system during circulation of aqueous ThO/sub 2/ slurries at high temperature. Although entire surfaces of systems were coated with 1/4 to 1/8-in.- thick thoria deposits, cake formation was usually localized, forming preferentially in the pump impeller. Frequently, impeller deposits accelerated bearing failure. Cake formation was usually accompanied by formation of equal dense spherical aggregates 5 to 60 mu in diameter which remained suspended in the slurry. Caking and sphere forming phenomena, as investigated by tests of slurry properties in the laboratory and in a 30-gpm slurry loop, are described, as are methods for preventing caking. Thoria cakes and spheres are believed to form by reagglomeration of small particles or fragments worn or chipped off the larger thoria particles composing the initial slurry. It is thought that small fragments are forced over each other by the shear stress into positions of minimum energy where they are held together by van der Waals' forces. Thoria solubility is not believed to be an appreciable factor in cske or sphere formation. The extent of chemical bonding in the deposits is not clear. Greatest cake-forming tendency was noted in thoria prepared by calcination of Th(C/sub 2/O/sub 4/)/sub 2/ at 800 deg C, though cakes did occur with other ThO/ sub 2/ preparations. Deposits formed from oxide batches that contained particles more resistant to degradation were softer, apparently because there were fewer fine fragments. A deposition preference between different metal surfaces as well as between differert velocity sections was noted. Cake formation by fresh batches of thoria, that is, slurry in which the initial oxide particles were not made finer by previous circulation, is prevented by any factor which reduces particle comminution. Cake formation is avoided if particles are ...
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Morgan, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Deposition of U, Cu, and Ni sulfates from dilute simulated HR fuel solution circulated through a heated Zircaloy-2 pipe section is reported. It was found that deposition occurred under boiling conditions in horizontal pipes because of a gas space which prevented wetting in the upper part of the pipe. Other salt deposition studies in an in-pile loop are reported. Effectiveness of oftwo different hydroclone mountings in removing corrosion products from a loop was studied. Results of chemical stability tests or aqueous solutions containing /sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 300 C are given and discussed. Fluoride ion had no suppressing effect on stress corrosion cracking caused by O/sub 2/- and Cl/sub 2/ containing phosphate-treated boiler water. The pretreatment of U-bend specimens of type 347 stainless steel in UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-CuSO/sub 4/at 100 to 300 C gave substantial protcction against stress-corrosion cracking in the same solution containing chlorides. Cast type 347 stainless steel was found more resistant to chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking than wrought material. Cold-working destroyed the resistance. Corrosion of Zircaloy-2 by the heavy- phase of a high-temperaturc UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution was found to be insignificant; Cu had no effect. In l00-hr tests at 250 C Ti was not corroded signifieantly by OZ-free UO/sub 2/SO/sub4/ solutions, and no solution instability was noted. The corrosion rate of Incoloy 804 was tolerable but less than type 347 stainless steel in UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at l00 to 300 C. A hard Cr-rich electrolyzed coating on 304 stainless steel was found to be useless in high- temperature fuel solutions but was stable at l00 in chloride-free environment. For preceding period see CF-58-10-95.) (T.R.H.)
Date: January 30, 1959
Creator: Griess, J.C.; Savage, H.C.; Greeley, R.S.; English, J.L.; Bolt, S.E.; Hess, D.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Using six hot-wire columns and three concentric tube thermal diffusion columns a cascade system was arranged to produce 0.04 g of 90% C/sup 13/ per day using methane as the feed gas-. The ten liter shipment of purchased methane enriched to 60% C/sup 13/ was received. This gas will be enriched to 90% C/slup 13/. Before removing the equilibrated gas from the concentric tube columns in preparation for using methane enriched in C/sup 13/ as feed material, a sample of methane taken from the bottom of the last column contained greater than 65% C/sup 13/. The hydrolysis of protactinium was found to be completely controllable and reversible and can serve as the basis for its separation from other elements, particularly its decay products. The tendency to hydrolyze is not a unlque characteristic of protactinium, but is exhibited, under appropriate conditions, by Th/sup 227/ and Ra/sup 223/ at trace levels. Traces of protactinium in 1N H/ sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be removed from solution by a coarse glass wool filter through which the decay products pass readily. The reverse is true if the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration is increased to 6N. The desorption of protactinium from platinum was a function of the reagent, the reagent concentration, and the amount of protactinium adsorbed. The relative solubility of protactinium in various reagents increased in the order: HNO/sub 3/ < HCl < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ < H/ sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ < HF. Equations for computing the growth of the principal alpha-emitters in the Ac/sup 227/ decay chain were recalculated based on the recently redetermined half lives of Ac/sup 227/, Th/sup 227/, and Ra/sup 223/. Several laboratory experiments on waste disposal problems indicated that radioactivity levels in influent water can be significantly reduced by precipitating aluminum hydroxide as well as bismuth hydroxide in the ...
Date: March 30, 1963
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.; Grove, G.R.; Jones, L.V. & Rembold, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: 6 9 2 4 8 < E 5 0 2 5 H 5 of a solution containing 0.04 M UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 0.025 M D/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 0.03 M CuSO/sub 4/ and 750 ppm of nickel as nickel sulfate at 300 deg C in D/sub 2/0 but both nickel and copper were lost from solution when the nickel concentration was increased to 1700 ppm. The chemical stability of a solution containing 0.036 M UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 0.022 M D/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 0.009 M CuSO/sub 0.013 M NiSO/sub 4/ and 0.0016 M MnSO/sub 4/ in D/sub 2/0 was also demonstrated at 300 deg C. The corrosion of stainless steel in 0.04 M UO/sub 2/S/sub 4/O/sub 4/ containing 0.025 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 0.0 1 M CuSO/sub 4/ was found to be relatively severe above the critical velocity at 250 and 300 deg C. The critical velocities observed were 10 to 20 and 30 to 40 fps, respectively at 250 and 300 deg C. Loop runs in which oxygen was removed from solution have shown that as uranium precipitated excess acid, ferrous and nickelous ions formed. On addition of oxygen to such a solution, uranium dissolved and ferrous ions were oxidized to ferric ions which precipitated from solution. A sixth test of the bellows and stainless steel-Zircaloy-2 traasition joint mockup was completed satisfactorily. The total exposure of the mockup was 9153 hr, including 8600 hr on fuel solution 312 thermal cycles between 300 and 1OO deg C and 518 mechanicai deflections. Tests to determine if type 304 stainless steel York mesh would corrode appreciably in uranyl sulfate solutions containing iodine and a hydrogen and oxygen atmosphere at 1OO deg C produced negative results. No significant corrosion of the steel was observed. A solution of 0.04 M U0/sub 2/S0/sub 4/ containing 0.04 ...
Date: April 30, 1958
Creator: Griess, J.C.; Savage, H.C.; English, J.L.; Greeley, R.S.; Buxton, S.R.; Hess, D.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: 6 6 5 4 ; 6 6 5 6 4 8 4 : the chemica: stability of possible fuel solutions, and the results obtained from these runs have been compared with data obtained by others. A solution containing 0.04 m UO/sub 2/SO/ sub 4/, 0.03 m CuSO/sub 4/, 0.03 m NiSO/sub 4/, and 0.023 m D/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in heavy water was not completely stable at 175 deg C or at other higher temperatures. About 7% of the copper was lost at 175 to 275 deg C, and an additional 9% was lost when the temperature was increased to 300 deg C. In the same solution the nickel solubility decreased by 40% up to 200 deg C and then increased up to 275 deg C and at 300 deg C again decreased. Throughout the run no uranium was lost from solution. A second solution containing 0.01 m UO/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/, 0.02 m D/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 0.01 m CuSO/sub 4/ and 850 ppm nic kel in heavy water was stable at 300 deg C. However, when an additional 450 ppm of nickel was added to the solution, about 10% of the uranium, 6% of the copper, and 20% more nickel than was added in the final addition precipitated from solution. Several other runs were made in which 0.04 m UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions containing 0.025 m D/sub 2/SO/sub 2/, 0.03 m CuSO/sub 4/, and 0.04 m alkali or alkalineearth metal suIfates were circulated at 300 deg C in a titanium loop. Solutions containing lithium and rubidium sulfate lost 30 and 15% of their copper, respectively. The loss of copper from solutions containing either beryllium or magnesium suIfate was no greater than 5%. Other runs with the latter two solutions in stainless steel loops showed that the boryllium- containing solution was ...
Date: July 31, 1958
Creator: Griess, J.C.; Savage, H.C.; Greeley, R.S.; English, J.L.; Boit, S.E.; Buxton, S.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Homogeneous Reactor Test. Experiments and tests conducted preparatory to operation with unenriched UO//sub 2/SO/sub 4/ are reviewed. Remote maintenance practlces and operation at reduced pressures and temperatures were analyzed. A simplified freeze jackct design for remote operation wlil be used in the HRT system. A differential-temperature flowmeter was designed for use on feed and purge pumps. The preliminary design of the replacement pressure vessel is shown. Fuel and blanket feed and purge pump test using UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions were continued. Performance and corrosion results are given. HRT controls and instrumentation status is reviewed. Flowsheets for the fuel and blanket chemical processing systems are shown. The construction and engineering test status of the fuel processing plant are presented. Reactor Design and Analysis. Prellminary design parameters indicate the feasibility of a 500 Mw homogeneous research reactor using UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The fuel costs for homogeneous reactors whose fuel is processed on a batch rather than a continuous basis were analyzed. Tables of data were prepared indicating the effecta of fuel isotopic concentration, the use of Li//sub 2/SO/sub 4/ additives, fission product removal, reactor operating periods, and Fu recovery on per krv power cost. The effects of Xe/sup 135/ on reactor conditions following shutdown were determined for the case of a U/sup 235/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, D/sub 2/O, spheri cal reactor operating at 280 deg C, assuming no fission product removal. Engineering Development. Developmental studies of ThO/sub 2/ blanket slurries were continued. Experience with ThO/sub 2/ deposits in circulation loops is tabulated; and shear diagrams, friction factors, and heat transfer characteristics are plotted. Slurry blanket system operational tests indicate satisfactory operation up to 300 deg C. Corrosion and Matertals. Studies of the corrosive effects of UO/sub 2/SO/ sub 4/ on Zircaloy, stainless steel, and Al//sub 2/O/sub were continued. The appearance of liquid phases ...
Date: October 1, 1956
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCO sub 4 systems

Description: The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein, we have shown that when NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4} is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H{sub 2}A{sub (g)} at {approximately}163{degrees}C, NH{sub 3(g)} at 365--418{degrees}C, and a mixture of SO{sub 2(g)} and SO{sub 3(g)} at {approximately}900{degrees}C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V{sub 2}A{sub 5} and possibly other metal oxides.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Wentworth, W.E. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department