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Test Results for 36-V Li/FeS Battery

Description: This report describes a collaborative effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Westinghouse Naval Systems Division from 1986 to 1989. This effort resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two 36-V lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide (Li/FeS) batteries. The test results provided validation of a conceptual design for a full-scale electric van battery, as well as design and performance data for 12-V Li/FeS modules and fractional-scale battery components.
Date: January 1990
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Malecha, R. F.; DeLuca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F. & Hogrefe, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost Estimate for the Commercial Manufacture of Lithium/Iron Sulfide Cells for Load-Leveling

Description: An estimate was made of the cost of commercial manufacture of batteries for load-leveling in utility networks, based on the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide system. The battery design chosen is the 0.92-kWh cell proposed for the BEST Facility. The manufacturing plant was sized to produce 5000 of such cells per day. These cells are assembled for sale in battery cases or sub-modules, 24 cells to a case. The plant investment is estimated to be $12,500,000. A selling price of $29.16 per kWh is projected; this price yields a 25 percent return on invested capital. An allowance for recycle lithium yields a net price of $27.33 per kWh.
Date: 1976
Creator: Towle, W. L.; Graae, Johan E. A.; Chilenskas, A. A. & Ivins, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved power source for doubling the exchange time interval of LLC.

Description: This LDRD project attempts to use novel electrochemical techniques to understand the reaction mechanism that limits the discharge reaction of lithium CF{sub x} chemistry. If this advanced component development and exploratory investigations efforts are successful we will have a High Energy Density Li Primary Battery Technology with the capability to double the run time in the same volume, or provide the same energy in a much smaller volume. These achievements would be a substantial improvement over commercial Li/Thionyl chloride battery technology. The Li(CF{sub x}){sub n} chemistry has the highest theoretical energy (and capacity) and hence very attractive for long life battery applications. However, the practical open circuit voltage (OCV) is only 3.2 V which is {approx}1.3 V lower than the thermodynamic cell voltage (for an in depth explanation of the voltage depression refer to 'Introduction'). The presence of intermediate has been invoked to explain the lower OCV of the cell. Due to the reduction in cell voltage the cell out put is reduced by {approx}40%. To account for the initial voltage loss a mechanism has been proposed which involves the formation of a ternary compound (like C(LiF){sub x}). But neither its presence nor its nature has been confirmed. Our work will seek to develop understanding of the voltage depression with a goal to produce a primary battery with improved properties that will have significant impact in furthering advancements.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Nagasubramanian, Ganesan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

Description: This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.
Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George & Roth, Emanuel Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Li-Al/FeS Battery Manufacturing Technology. Final Report. November 1983. An Evaluation for the US Army, Belvoir R and D Center

Description: Research and development work on rechargeable lithium/molten salt batteries, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has been under way at Argonne National Laboratory and several industrial laboratories for the past decade. In 1978, a program for the US Army (Belvoir R and D Center) was initiated with ANL and Eagle-Picher Industries to ascertain the status and to aid the development of the manufacturing technology of the Li-Al/FeS battery as a power source for forklift trucks. A long-lived cell, achieving greater than 1000 discharge cycles, was developed in the Army program and was used as a basis for a forklift truck battery design. The projected performance of the Li-Al/FeS battery showed a 200% increase in stored energy when compared with a lead-acid battery of equal volume.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Shimotake, H.; Malecha, R.; Battles, J.; Miller, W.; Yao, N. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation for Automatic Cycling of Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide Secondary Cells

Description: In the development of lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide secondary cells at Argonne National Laboratory, an instrumentation system was necessary to automatically operate experimental cells over extended periods of times. The system described in this report provides the capability for control of cell cycling and recording of data without the need for constant attendance by research personnel. In these tests, electrical performance, power, energy storage capacity cycle-life and cell lifetimes are determined by repetitive charging and discharging of the cells.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Olsen, W. F. & Slaweki, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Li-Alloy/FeS Cell Design and Analysis Report

Description: This report contains historical information on the Li-alloy/FeS system that will be useful in its future applications. This document includes the following: (1) the chemical and electrochemical reactions for the Li-alloy/FeS system, accomplishments in past cell development efforts, and performance attained by state-of-the-art cells vs performance goals; (2) detailed drawings of state-of-the-art cell designs, documentation of cell fabrication techniques, and comparisons of alternative types of cell components (such as BN felt vs MgO powder separators, stainless vs low-carbon steel cell housings) and fabrication techniques (such as charged vs uncharged electrodes); (3) results of post-test cell analyses, including cell failure mechanisms, electrode morphology and active material distribution, and in-cell corrosion rates; (4) data from trade-off studies between specific power and energy; (5) discussion of battery design considerations (e.g., volumetric energy density, battery charger, and high-efficiency thermal insulation); (6) results of cost studies, which include materials and manufacturing costs of cells and batteries and heating costs involved in battery operation; and (7) projections of cell designs having the greatest potential for meeting electric-vehicle performance requirements.
Date: July 1985
Creator: Gay, E. C.; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Miller, W. E.; Battles, J. E.; Kaun, T. D.; Martino, F. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design of Electrical Balance of Plant for Advanced Battery Energy Storage Facility. Annual Report March 1979

Description: Large-scale efforts are in progress to develop advanced batteries for utility energy storage systems. Realization of the full benefits available from those systems requires development, not only of the batteries themselves, but also the ac/dc power converter, the bulk power interconnecting equipment, and the peripheral electric balance of plant equipment that integrate the battery/converter into a properly controlled and protected energy system. This study addresses these overall system aspects; although tailored to a 20-MW, 100-MWh lithium/sulfide battery system, the technology and concepts are applicable to any battery energy storage system.
Date: January 1980
Creator: King, Joseph M.; Vivirito, Joseph R. & Kornbrust, Frederick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference Design of 100 MW-h Lithium/Iron Sulfide Battery System for Utility Load Leveling

Description: This report covers the first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.
Date: March 1980
Creator: Zivi, S. M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollock, I.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Barney, Duane L.; Grieve, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Designs for Utility Load-Leveling Battery with Li/FeS Cells

Description: In 1978, a conceptual design of a 100 MW-h load-leveling battery system having Li alloy/FeS cells was developed as a result of a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. Most of this cost was contributed by the submodule structure and the charge equalization scheme, which was the same as that developed for electric-vehicle batteries.
Date: July 1980
Creator: Zivi, S. M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of an Internally Pressurized Prismatic Cell Can

Description: This report contains an elastic stress and displacement analysis of a prismatic cell can subjected to internal pressure. A computer program was written to perform the analysis. The results show that, for the geometry chosen, the thicknesses of the cell-can walls and the magnitude of the internal pressure are the most important parameters that determine the stresses and deformations of the cell can. Recommendations for future studies are included.
Date: April 1980
Creator: Majumdar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Batteries at Argonne National Laboratory : Summary Report for 1979

Description: A summary for 1979 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of advanced batteries is presented. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications. The principal cells under investigation at present are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing negative electrodes of Li-Al alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte; the cell operating temperature is 400 to 500 degrees C. A small effort on the development of a calcium/metal sulfide cell is also being conducted.
Date: April 1980
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-Test Examinations of Li-Al/FeSx Secondary Cells

Description: Post-test examinations were conducted to determine failure mechanisms, electrode morphologies, and in-cell corrosion of cell components, and to recommend appropriate design changes for improved cell performance and reliability. The reactive electrode materials required the design and construction of a special metallographic glovebox facility. Combinations of macro- and microscopic examinations determined that electrical short circuits were the predominant causes of cell failure. The major short circuit mechanism was extrusion of active material from one electrode and its subsequent contact with the opposing electrode (opposite polarity). Other mechanisms for short circuits included metallic deposits across separators, metallic deposits across the feed-through insulator (electrolyte leakage and corrosion), equipment malfunctions, cell assembly difficulties, etc. Post-test examinations confirmed that the short circuits were of mechanical origin; appropriate design changes were, therefore, recommended. Extensive microscopic examinations were conducted on both negative and positive electrodes to determine the morphology. Agglomeration of Li-Al was observed in the negative electrodes of most multi-plate cells. Examinations showed that the sulfides in the positive electrode remained as discrete particles in an electrolyte matrix. Also discussed are the results of post-test examinations to determine the following: lithium gradients in the negative electrodes, electrode expansion, materials distribution, copper deposition within electrode separators of FeS cells, Li2S deposits within electrode separators of FeS3 cells, and the in-cell corrosion of current collector materials in positive and negative electrodes.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Battles, J. E.; Mrazek, F. C. & Otto, N. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Preliminary Estimate of the Manufacturing Cost for Lithium/Metal Sulfide Cells for Stationary and Mobile Applications

Description: A preliminary estimate has been made of the manufacturing cost for lithium/iron sulfide cells for stationary energy-storage and electric-vehicle applications. This preliminary cost analysis indicated that the manufacturing cost (in 1979 dollars) is $24 to 41/kW-h for stationary energy-storage cells and $31 to 55/kW-h for electric-vehicle cells. The materials cost was found to contribute between 52 and 65% of this manufacturing cost. The most expensive materials and components were lithium (metal and compounds), $4.61 to $14.26/kW-h; BN felt, $4.00 to 8.50/kW-h; feed-through components, $2.40/kW-h; positive current collectors, $1.48 to 2.20/kW-h; and aluminum, $1.43 to 1.66/kW-h. The projected lithium requirements were determined for use in lithium/iron sulfide batteries and conventional uses to the year 2006. The results showed that the lithium requirements were about 275,000 short tons by 2006, which is equivalent to about 51% of presently known US resources. Of this amount, about 33% would be used in battery production and 67% consumed in conventional uses. It is expected that the lithium used in battery production would be recycled.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

Description: Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James. (Bookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY) & Roth, Emanuel Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the International Workshop on High-Temperature Molten Salt Batteries : April 16-18, 1986

Description: This three-day workshop on high-temperature molten salt batteries provided an excellent opportunity to bring together those who are actively involved in the research and development of rechargeable, molten-salt battery systems. Twenty-six papers are presented in three sessions, titled: basic properties of molten salt battery systems, engineering development of lithium-alloy/metal sulfide batteries; and research and development in molten salt systems. This format has been retained in the publication of the workshop papers, with each part having separate pagination.
Date: 1986
Creator: McLarnon, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries for Electric-Vehicle Propulsion and Other Applications Progress Report for October 1979-March 1980

Description: This report covers the research and development activities of the program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on lithium/iron sulfide batteries during the period October 1979-March 1980.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Miller, W. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries for Electric-Vehicle Propulsion and Other Applications Progress Report for October 1980-September 1981

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs involving high-performance lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories during the period October 1980 through September 1981. These batteries, which are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications, consist of vertically oriented prismatic cells with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hudson, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fifty Cell Test Facility

Description: This report describes the design of a facility capable of the simultaneous testing of up to 50 high-temperature (400 to 500 C) lithium alloy/iron sulfide cells; this facility is located in the Chemical Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The emphasis will be on the lifetime testing of cells fabricated by ANL and industrial contractors to acquire statistical data on the performance of cells of various designs. A computer-based data-acquisition system processes the cell performance data generated from the cells on test. The terminals and part of the data-acquisition equipment are housed in an air-conditioned enclosure adjacent to the testing facility; the computer is located remotely.
Date: July 1980
Creator: Arntzen, J. D.; Kolba, V. M.; Miller, W. E. & Gay, E. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries for Electric-Vehicle Propulsion and Other Applications Progress Report for October 1979-September 1980

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs involving high-performance lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories during the period October 1979 through September 1980. These batteries, which are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage applications, consist of vertically oriented prismatic cells with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2 facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte.
Date: February 1981
Creator: Barney, Duane L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries for Electric-Vehicle Propulsion and Other Applications Progress Report for October 1981-September 1982

Description: This report describes the work done on development of lithium/iron sulfide batteries at Argonne National Laboratory during FY 1982. The work at ANL has been concerned principally with the electrochemical and materials aspects of lithium-alloy negative electrodes and iron sulfide positive electrodes, materials research, cell design studies, and the testing and post-test examinations of cells fabricated by two industrial contractors--Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould Inc.
Date: September 1983
Creator: Barney, Duane L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department