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A Liquid-Metal Heat-Transfer Experiment

Description: From Introduction: "The primary objective of the Boiling Liquid Metal Program in the Reactor Engineering Division at Argonne is to be obtain experimental information pertinent to the the boiling-heat transfer and fluid-flow behavior of the alkali metals, especially sodium."
Date: June 1965
Creator: Holtz, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistance of Materials to Attack by Liquid Metals

Description: From Forward: "As their contribution, the Metallurgy Division of Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assemble all available unclassified and declassifiable data on the resistance of materials to attack by liquid metals. The resulting collation of data is contained in this report."
Date: July 1950
Creator: Kelman, LeRoy R.; Wilkinson, Walter D. & Yaggee, Frank L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of the Surface Tension of Liquid Metals in Making High-Vacuum Seals

Description: Abstract: "The free energy (surface tension) of a liquid film can withstand atmospheric pressure across a maximum theoretical gap of 10-(-3) cm between solids if the liquid wets and bridges the sides of the gap continuously. The eutectic alloy of Ga, lm and Sm is used for this purpose. This alloy is molten at room temperature with surface tension > 500 dynes/cm, vapor pressure < 10-(-8) cm at 500 C and excellent wetting properties. This alloy can be utilized in valves, motion seals, flanged joints and for electrical contacts mounted in any position. Using ultrasonic soldering techniques without heat or flux this alloy is readily wetted on W, Mo, Ta, pyrex, quartz and certain ceramics. These materials will withstand the corrosive action of this alloy at at least 400 C. Some de-wetting has been observed with only the nonmetals at high temperatures. This de-wetting may be due to thermal decomposition of gallium oxide. Stainless steel is easily wetted, but is attacked at temperatures above 300 C. Copper and brass are attacked at room temperature."
Date: August 30, 1957
Creator: Milleron, Norman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary study of circulation in an apparatus suitable for determining corrosive effects of hot flowing liquids

Description: "A simple apparatus particularly applicable to the determination of the corrosive effects of flowing liquid metals on structural materials is described. In this apparatus, flow of the liquid medium at known velocities may be induced in toroidal shaped channels fabricated from the test structural material only, with no pump, valves, or flow meter required. A circulating velocity of 25 ft/sec has been obtained in preliminary tests and no basic limitation on increasing the speed was encountered" (p. 1).
Date: June 29, 1951
Creator: Desmon, Leland G. & Mosher, Don R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Co-continuous Metal-Ceramic Nanocomposites

Description: A room temperature technique was developed to produce continuous metal nanowires embedded in random nanoporous ceramic skeletons. The synthesis involves preparation of uniform, nanoporous ceramic preforms, and subsequent electrochemical metal infiltration at room temperature, so to avoid materials incompatibilities frequently encountered in traditional high temperature liquid metal infiltration. Structure and preliminary evaluations of mechanical and electronic properties of copper/alumina nanocomposites are reported.
Date: January 31, 2005
Creator: Zhang, Xiao Feng; Harley, Gabriel & De Jonghe, Lutgard C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Viscosity and Settling Rates of TBP Waste Metal Slurries as a Function of Shear

Description: This report follows work that is meant to determine the settling rate and viscosity of Hanford Waste metal slurry as a function of prolonged agitation and shear, and to repeat these determinations on a synthetic incubated material similar to that used in the acidification studies, HW-18367, and to make a direct comparison between the genuine and simulated wastes.
Date: January 2, 1951
Creator: Varga, L. P. & Harmon, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Friction and surface damage of several corrosion-resistant materials

Description: Friction and surface damage of several materials that are resistant to corrosion due to liquid metals was studied in air. The values of kinetic friction coefficient at low sliding velocities and photomicrographs of surface damage were obtained. Appreciable surface damage was evident for all materials tested. The friction coefficients for the combinations of steel, stainless steel, and monel sliding against steel, stainless steel, nickel, Iconel, and Nichrome ranged from 0.55 for the monel-Inconel combination to 0.97 for the stainless-steel-nickel combination; for steel, stainless steel, monel, and tungsten carbide against zirconium, the friction coefficient was approximately 0.47.
Date: February 20, 1952
Creator: Peterson, Marshall B. & Johnson, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Characteristics of a Liquid Metal MHD Generator

Description: Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing the performance of magnetohydrodynamic generators. As stated in the abstract, "an experimental study was made of the performance characteristics of a liquid metal MHD generator utilizing single-phase sodium-potassium and two-phase sodium-potassium-nitrogen fluids. The purpose of this study was to compare the generator performance with theory for single-phase flow and to determine the effects of the introduction of the gaseous phase on the generator output and efficiency" (p. 9). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: July 1964
Creator: Petrick, Michael & Lee, Kung-You
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

Description: Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.
Date: January 30, 2007
Creator: Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MATERIALS FOR LIQUID METAL SYSTEMS

Description: Lecture presented at the Atomic Industrial Forum's Third Course on Reactor Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California, July 9-19, 1957A review of progress in the use of liquid metals is presented. A number of liquid metals are compared, and the general problems of selecting container materials are considered. In addition. a discussion of corrosion mechanisms and corrosion testing methods commonly employed are examined as well as problems encountered with the liquid metals of greatest interest. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 28, 1957
Creator: Holman, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LITHIUM SYMPOSIUM--ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE CORROSION. Reading List

Description: ABS>A list of 222 references pertaining to corrosion by molten Li and related subjects was compiled in connection with a Lithium Symposium held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on August 7-8, 1957. This list is by no means exhaustive but it is thought to contain most of the information presently available on these subfects. In many cases the individual references will contain additional references. (auth)
Date: January 20, 1958
Creator: Hoffman, E.E. & Jansen, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiple Input Electrode Gap Control During Vacuum Arc Remelting

Description: Accurate control of the electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace has been a goal of melters for many years. The size of the electrode gap has a direct influence on ingot solidification structure. At the high melting currents (30 to 40 kA) typically used for VAR of segregation insensitive Ti and Zr alloys, process voltage is used as an indicator of electrode gap, whereas drip-short frequency (or period) is usually used at the lower currents (5 to 8 kA) employed during VAR of superalloys. Modem controllers adjust electrode position or drive velocity to maintain a voltage or drip-short frequency (or period) set-point. Because these responses are non-linear functions of electrode gap and melting current, these controllers have a limited range for which the feedback gains are valid. Models are available that relate process voltage and drip-short frequency to electrode gap. These relationships may be used to linearize the controller feedback signal. An estimate of electrode gap may then be obtained by forming a weighted sum of the independent gap estimates obtained from the voltage and drip-short signals. By using multiple independent measures to estimate the gap, a controller that is less susceptible to process disturbances can be developed. Such a controller was designed, built and tested. The tests were carried out at Allvac Corporation during VAR of 12Cr steel at intermediate current levels.
Date: January 14, 1999
Creator: Beaman, J.J.; Hysinger, C.L.; Melgaard, D.K. & Williamson, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department