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Preparation Characteristics of Some Coals Available for the Synthetic Liquid Fuels Industry

Description: From Introduction: "The first major assignment was the sampling and testing of a series of typical American coals deemed to be suitable for hydrogenation based on early research work conducted by the Bureau of Mines. The first series of tests has been completed and is reported in this paper."
Date: 1950
Creator: Fraser, Thomas; Crentz, William L. & Barrett, Orrin T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Problem of Liquid Fuels (for Aircraft Engines)

Description: "The crisis which troubles the world market for liquid fuel in general and for carburants in particular is doubtless one of the most serious ever experienced by modern industry. It is a national crisis of economic and political independence for countries like Italy and France. The solutions suggested for meeting the lack of liquid fuel may be summed up under two general headings: the economical use of the petroleum now available; creation of petroleum substitutes from natural sources within the country" (p. 1).
Date: July 1924
Creator: Gallo, Gino
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Oxygen on the Ignition of Liquid Fuels

Description: The ignition temperature, ignition lag, and ignition strength of simple and homogeneous fuels in combustion air of small oxygen content differ from what they are in air of greater oxygen content. In the case of small oxygen content, these fuels behave as if mixed unevenly. In the case of air with a definite oxygen content, the simple fuels have two ignition points, between which ignition takes place within a certain temperature range. The phenomena are explained by pyrogenous decomposition, comparison of the individual heat quantities, and the effect of the walls.
Date: January 1929
Creator: Pahl, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Fluidized Catalyst Reactor with a Nitrided, Fused-Iron Catalyst

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over testing conducted on "the synthesis of liquid fuels from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis" (p. 1). Descriptions of the equipment and methods used are presented. The results are also discussed. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: 1959
Creator: Demeter, Joseph J. & Schlesinger, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

German Low-Temperature Coal-Tar Industry

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing a low-temperature coal-tar industry in Germany. As stated in the Purpose and Scope of the Investigation, "the primary purpose of the investigation covered by this report was to determine to what extent the production and use of low-temperature tar in Germany had advanced during the 10-year period prior to the close of the last war" (p. 7). This report includes tables, illustrations, and a photograph.
Date: February 1949
Creator: Rhodes, E. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of hydrodynamic (landau) instability in liquid-propellant combustion at normal and reduced gravity

Description: The burning of liquid propellants is a fundamental combustion problem that is applicable to various types of propulsion and energetic systems. The deflagration process is often rather complex, with vaporization and pyrolysis occurring at the liquid/gas interface and distributed combustion occurring either in the gas phase or in a spray. Nonetheless, there are realistic limiting cases in which combustion may be approximated by an overall reaction at the liquid/gas interface. In one such limit, distributed combustion occurs in an intrusive regime, the reaction zone lying closer to the liquid/gas interface than the length scale of any disturbance of interest. Such limiting models have recently been formulated thereby significantly generalizing earlier classical models that were originally introduced to study the hydrodynamic stability of a reactive liquid/gas interface. In all of these investigations, gravity appears explicitly and plays a significant role, along with surface tension, viscosity, and, in the more recent models, certain reaction-rate parameters associated with the pressure and temperature sensitivities of the reaction itself. In particular, these parameters determine the stability of the deflagration with respect to not only classical hydrodynamic disturbances, but also with respect to reactive/diffusive influences as well. These instabilities thus lead to a number of interesting phenomena, such as the sloshing type of waves that have been observed in mixtures of HAN and triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN) with water. Although the Froude number was treated as an O(l) quantity in these studies, the limit of small inverse Froude number corresponding to the microgravity regime is increasingly of interest. In the present work, the author formally exploits this limiting parameter regime to compare some of the features of hydrodynamic instability of liquid-propellant combustion at reduced gravity with the same phenomenon at normal gravity.
Date: October 1997
Creator: Margolis, S. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1949: Synthetic Liquid Fuels, Part 3. - Liquid Fuels from Agricultural Residues

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the development and production of synthetic liquid fuels derived from agricultural products. The amount of synthetic fuels developed from corn is presented. The report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: February 1950
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy From Biological Processes

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment that examines the "energy potential of various sources of plant and animal matter (biomass)," giving an analysis of "prominent biomass issues, summaries of four biomass fuel cycles, a description of biomass' place in two plausible energy futures, and discussions of policy options for promoting energy from biomass" (p. iii).
Date: July 1980
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT

Description: The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: KRISHNA,C. R. & BUTCHER,T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

Description: As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Ricks, Allen & Blanchat, Thomas K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

Description: A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Hawkes, Grant L. & McKellar, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOVEL SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC CARBIDE CATALYSTS FOR COPROCESSING OF COAL WITH WASTE METERIALS

Description: The overall objectives of this project are to explore the potential of novel monometallic and bimetallic Mo-based carbide catalysts for heavy hydrocarbon coprocessing, and to understand the fundamental chemistry related to the reaction pathways of coprocessing and the role of the catalysts in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbon resources into liquid fuels based on the model compound reactions.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Oyama, S. Ted; Cox, David F.; Song, Chunshan; Allen, Fred; Wang, Weilin; Schwartz, Viviane et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsating hydrodynamic instability and thermal coupling in an extended Landau/Levich model of liquid-propellant combustion. 2. Viscous analysis

Description: A pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability has recently been shown to arise during liquid-propellant deflagration in those parameter regimes where the pressure-dependent burning rate is characterized by a negative pressure sensitivity. This type of instability can coexist with the classical cellular, or Landau, form of hydrodynamic instability, with the occurrence of either dependent on whether the pressure sensitivity is sufficiently large or small in magnitude. For the inviscid problem, it has been shown that when the burning rate is realistically allowed to depend on temperature as well as pressure, that sufficiently large values of the temperature sensitivity relative to the pressure sensitivity causes the pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability to become dominant. In that regime, steady, planar burning becomes intrinsically unstable to pulsating disturbances whose wavenumbers are sufficiently small. In the present work, this analysis is extended to the fully viscous case, where it is shown that although viscosity is stabilizing for intermediate and larger wavenumber perturbations, the intrinsic pulsating instability for small wavenumbers remains. Under these conditions, liquid-propellant combustion is predicted to be characterized by large unsteady cells along the liquid/gas interface.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Margolis, Stephen B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

Description: There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Colberg, Richard D.; Collins, Nick A.; Holcombe, Edwin F.; Tustin, Gerald C. & Zoeller, Joseph R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

Description: Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.
Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Diebold, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

Description: This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Greene, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: September 30, 2000
Creator: Tijrn, Peter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: June 30, 2000
Creator: Tijrn, Peter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Tijrn, Peter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department