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Investigation of annular liquid flow with concurrent air flow in horizontal tubes

Description: Report presenting visual observations and flow analyses made of annular liquid flow with cocurrent air flow in 2- and 4-inch-diameter horizontal transparent tubes. The experiments occurred over a range of air mass velocities, air temperatures, and Reynolds numbers. Results regarding the velocity and thickness of liquid films, description of water-film disturbances, effect of flow variables on liquid-film characteristics, and relation between disturbances and flow conditions are provided.
Date: May 25, 1951
Creator: Kinney, George R. & Abramson, Andrew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Lift Performance at Low Liquid Rates Using Oversized Piping and Lateral Runs

Description: The use of oversized piping in an air lift for transferring solutions at rates less than 5 liters per hour was proven feasible with certain limitations. Reliable operation was also obtained with air lifts containing a lateral run inserted between the point of air injection and the final discharge point. Discharge of the air lifts, especially at low liquid flows, was very erratic under the conditions studied. (auth)
Date: October 10, 1961
Creator: Chamberlain, H. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON THE PROBLEM OF LIQUID ENTRAINMENT

Description: THe problem of liquid entrainmment by a gas phase is considered with the purpose of gathering, presentinf, and correlating available information which may be useful for predicting the liquid carry-over in a boiling water reactor at high pressure. Correlations which predict water carryover as a function of pressure, of the height of the vapor dome, and of the vapor mass flow rate are presented and discussed. Because entrainment depends upon the hydrodynamic conditions and upon the expansion of a two-phase bubbling mixture, the transportation 0f vapor through such mixtures is also discussed. Equations which relate the volumetric vapor fraction to the reduced (superficial) vapor velocity in bubbling at high pressures are presented, and some inconsistencies are noted. Experimental data and correlations which predict the location of the liquid-vapor interface in bubbling at high pressures are also givna. Experimental data on water carry-over at high pressures reported in the literature are summarized. The problems of drop formation for bursting bubbles and of drop ballistics are discussed together with some analytical formulations of the entrainment problem. The bibliography may prove useful as a source of additional information on the problems of carry- over, corrosion and on the purity of steam and of water at high pressures. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Yeh, G. C.K. & Zuber, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRANSIENT TESTS OF HNPF PROTOTYPE SODIUM PUMP DRIVES

Description: The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that the pump speed control system will respond as defined in the equipment specifications and to determine optimum values of controlling variables that will minimize the oscillations that occur in the Na flow rate when transient signals are imposed on the pump speed control system. (W.L.H.)
Date: October 19, 1959
Creator: Atz, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF SODIUM FIRES

Description: A study of sodium fires was performed to obtain detailed information on their characteristics and behavior in order to develop techniques for preventing, containing, and combatting them. lnvestigation was made of the technology of sodium fires, design criteria for improving the fire resistance of equipment and installations using sodium as a coolant, extinguishing materials and procedures for fighting sodium fires, and the evaluation of protective equipment. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1960
Creator: Gracie, J.D. & Droher, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

Description: The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stochastic analysis of well capture zones in heterogeneous porous media

Description: In this study we present a moment-equation-based approach to derive the time-dependent mean capture zones and their associated uncertainties. The flow statistics are obtained by solving the first two moments of flow, and the mean capture zones are determined by reversely tracking the non-reactive particles released at a small circle around each pumping well. The uncertainty associated with the mean capture zones is calculated based on the particle displacement covariance for nonstationary flow fields. For comparison purpose, we also conducted Monte Carlo simulations. It has been found that our model results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Zhang, D. (Dongxiao) & Lu, Z. (Zhiming)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

Description: The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Ortiz, David & McCullough, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THIN WALLED HEAT-EXCHANGERS HAVING NONCIRCULAR FLOW PASSAGES

Description: In heat exchangers, in which the walls are heated by intemal heat sources, it is possible for wall temperatures greater than the mean to occur in the corners of noncircular flow Passages. Thus in a square or triangular passage low velocities occur in the corners, and the resulting decrease in the heat transfer coefficient produces higher temperatures in the walls at these locations. A generalized analysis is presented taking into account the variation in the heat transfer coefficient along the surface, by which it is possible to compute local temperatures in the walls of noncircular flow passages in the vicinity of the corners. Computations have been made for a representative component composed of a honey comb of rectangular passages. The resulting temperature at the hottest point is approximately 125 deg F greater than the unifomn plate temperature. This analysis is based on a 90 deg angle between the plate and retaining plate, and a uniforn source distribution throughout all plates. Had the angle between the primary plate and retaining plate been much less than 90 deg on both sides, then the resulting local temperature rise would be several times the above value. If the primary plate and retaining plate are "dead" at junctions and corners then of course a "hot spot" will not occur at these locations. (auth)
Date: October 23, 1951
Creator: Farmer, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMPENDIUM OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE CIRCULATION OF AQUEOUS THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES IN TOROIDS

Description: Data are presented for all toroid runs which circulated aqueous thorium oxide slurries between August 1954, and October 1956. In addition, a tabulation of the properties of numerous thoria preparatiors is presented. (auth)
Date: April 30, 1957
Creator: Moore, G.E.; Benson, R.F.; McDaniel, F.E. & Wheeler, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF A REDUCED PRESSURE BACKFLOW PREVENTER USING ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

Description: Despite its advantages of economy and convenience, the reduced-pressure- principle backflow preventer was oniy partialiy accepted as a substitutr for air- gap separation in preventing pollution of potable winter. To evaluate the protection provided by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer, a unit was tested under the following static conditions; ionic diffusion, lower pressure on the supply side than on the discharge side, vacuum on the supply side, water hammer on the supply side, and water hammer on the discharge side. Using a solution of Mn and K nitrates as a nonradioactive tracer, backflow from the discharge side to the supply side was not detectable by activation and radiochemical analyses having a sensitivity of approximates 0.2 ppb Mn. The protection factor for the device is defined as: P. F. = (Reagent concentration in the discharge zone/ Reagent concentration in the supply zone due to backflow). The minimum protection factor proved in these tests based upon the limit of the sensitivity of Mn analysis is 6.5 x 10/sup 8/. This factor provides a rational basis for inatallation where the concentration of radioactivity or other contaminant can be estimated, measured, or limited. The K analyses also showed no detection of backflow but with a lesser sensitivity. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Baird, J.N. Jr.; Sanford, W.R. & Cristy, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia support for PETC Fischer-Tropsch research: Experimental characterization of slurry-phase bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics

Description: Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale 48 cm ID stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure measurements. Other diagnostic techniques are also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J. & Adkins, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Gas and Liquid Velocities in an Air-Water Two-Phase Flow using Cross-Correlation of Signals from a Double Senor Hot-Film Probe

Description: Local gas and liquid velocities are measured by cross-correlating signals from a double sensor hot-film anemometer probe in pure water flow and air water two-phase flow. The gas phase velocity measured in two-phase flow agrees with velocity data obtained using high-speed video to within +/-5%. A turbulent structure, present in the liquid phase, allows a correlation to be taken, which is consistent with the expected velocity profiles in pure liquid flow. This turbulent structure is also present in the liquid phase of a two-phase flow system. Therefore, a similar technique can be applied to measure the local liquid velocity in a two-phase system, when conditions permit.
Date: February 19, 2002
Creator: Gurau, B.; Vassalo, P. & Keller, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of discrete fracture flow paths in dual-continuum models

Description: Movement of water through fractures plays an important role in performance assessments of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The magnitude and frequency of water flowing through individual fractures impacts predictions of the near-field environment and waste-package corrosion. Discrete fracture flow paths, referred to as ``weeps``, have been derived from dual continuum models of fracture flow. The required parameters include the geometric fracture spacing, an assumed width of each weep, and a scaling factor that accounts for reduced flow between fracture and matrix elements in dual continuum models. The formulation provides a convenient means to determine discrete weep spacing and flow rates that are mathematically consistent with the dual continuum model. Specific applications and examples related to seepage into drifts are also discussed.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Ho, C.K. & Wilson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department