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Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Liquid Crystals and Their Blends

Description: Tensile properties, namely the elastic modulus, tensile strength, percent of elongation at yield and at the break were determined for the pure components and blends. The results are connected to the respective phase diagrams and demonstrate that blending makes property manipulation possible. Blends for which the mechanical properties are better than those of pure EPs can be obtained.
Date: May 1994
Creator: López, Betty Lucy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computer simulations of mechanical behavior of polymer liquid crystals

Description: In this dissertation molecular dynamics simulations of behavior of polymer liquid crystals (PLC's) under tensile deformation have been performed. PLC's composed of random or block copolymers of rigid and flexible segments have been studies. Systems of fully flexible chains have been simulated for comparison. Stress-strain relations and fracture mechanics have been investigated.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Blonski, Slawomir
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alternative Donor--Acceptor Stacks from Crown Ethers and Naphthalene Diimide Derivatives: Rapid, Selective Formation from Solution and Solid State Grinding

Description: Self assembling {pi}-conjugated molecules into ordered structures are of increasing interest in the field of organic electronics. One particular example is charge transfer complexes containing columnar alternative donor-acceptor (ADA) stacks, where neutral and ionic ground states can be readily tuned to modulate electrical, optical, and ferroelectrical properties. Aromatic-aromatic and charge transfer interactions have been the leading driving forces in assisting the self-assembly of ADA stacks. Various folding structures containing ADA stacks were assembled in solution with the aid of solvophobic or ion-binding interactions. Meanwhile, examples of solid ADA stacks, which are more appealing for practical use in devices, were obtained from cocrystalization of binary components or mesophase assembly of liquid crystals in bulk blends. Regardless of these examples, faster and more controllable approaches towards precise supramolecular order in the solid state are still highly desirable.
Date: January 22, 2009
Creator: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Advanced Light Source.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical Study of Guest-Host Orientational Interaction in LiquidCrystalline Materials

Description: Guest-host interaction has long been a subject of interest in many disciplines. Emphasis is often on how a small amount of guest substance could significantly affect the properties of a host material. This thesis describe our work in studying a guest-host effect where dye-doping of liquid crystalline materials greatly enhances the optical Kerr nonlinearity of the material. The dye molecules, upon excitation and via intermolecular interaction, provides an extra torque to reorient the host molecules, leading to the enhanced optical Kerr nonlinearity. We carried out a comprehensive study on the dynamics of the photoexcited dye-doped liquid crystalline medium. Using various experimental techniques, we separately characterized the dynamical responses of the relevant molecular species present in the medium following photo-excitation, and thus were able to follow the transient process in which photo-excitation of the dye molecules exert through guest-host interaction a net torque on the host LC material, leading to the observed enhanced molecular reorientation. We also observed for the first time the enhanced reorientation in a pure liquid crystal system, where the guest population is created through photoexcitation of the host molecules themselves. Experimental results agree quantitatively with the time-dependent theory based on a mean-field model of the guest-host interaction.
Date: December 20, 2005
Creator: Truong, Thai Viet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals

Description: Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.
Date: January 28, 2002
Creator: Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical behavior and performance of injection molded semi-crystalline polymers.

Description: I have used computer simulations to investigate the behavior of polymeric materials at the molecular level. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method with Lennard-Jones potentials defining the interactions between particles in the system. Significant effort was put into the creation of realistic materials on the computer. For this purpose, an algorithm was developed based on the step-wise polymerization process. The resulting computer-generated materials (CGMs) exhibit several features of real materials, such as molecular weight distribution and presence of chain entanglements. The effect of the addition of a liquid crystalline (LC) phase to the flexible matrix was also studied. The concentration and distribution of the second phase (2P) were found to influence the mechanical and tribological properties of the CGMs. The size of the 2P agglomerates was found to have negligible influence on the properties within the studied range. Moreover, although the 2P reinforcement increases the modulus, it favors crack formation and propagation. Regions of high LC concentration exhibit high probability of becoming part of the crack propagation path. Simulations of the tensile deformation under a uniaxial force have shown that the molecular deformation mechanisms developing in the material depend on several variables, such as the magnitude of the force, the force increase rate, and the level of orientation of the chains. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical visualization tools were developed for representation and analysis of the simulation results. These also present interesting educational possibilities. Computer simulations provide us information which is inaccessible experimentally. From the concomitant use of simulations and experiments, a better understanding of the molecular phenomena that take place during deformation of polymers has been established.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Simoes, Ricardo J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

OPTICAL DETERMINATION OF SMECTIC A LAYER SPACING IN FREELY SUSPENDED THIN FILMS

Description: Optical measurements of smectic A layer spacings in freely suspended thin films of three liquid crystals are reported. Although the measured spacings are close to those reported for the bulk, some anomalous behavior is noted. In addition, we report that the smectic A phase in the film can exist at unusually high temperatures.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Rosenblatt, Charles & Amer, Nabil M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

Description: In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E. & Wick, David Victor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of a Single-Shot Pixelated Phase-Shifting Interferometer Utilizing a Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator

Description: This article introduces a novel phase shifting pixelated interferometer based on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator and simulates the expected performance. The phase shifted frames are captured simultaneously which reduces the problems arising from vibrations and air turbulence. The liquid crystal spatial light modulator is very flexible and can be configured to provide a large number of phase shift levels and geometries to reduce the measurement error.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Baker, K L & Stappaerts, E A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of noise in disordered systems

Description: We use particle dynamics simulations to probe the correlations between noise and dynamics in a variety of disordered systems, including super conducting vortices, 2D electron liquid crystals, colloids, domain walls, and granular media. The noise measurements offer an experimentally accessible link to the microscopic dynamics, such as plastic versus elastic flow during transport, and can provide a signature of dynamical reordering transitions in the system. We consider broad and narrow band noise in transport systems, as well as the fluctuations of dislocation density in a system near the melting transition.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Reichhardt, C. (Charles) & Reichhardt, C. J. (Cynthia J.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

Description: We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Epstein, Richard I & Malloy, Kevin J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epoxy + Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Coreacted Networks

Description: Molecular reinforcement through in-situ polymerization of liquid crystalline epoxies (LCEs) and a non-liquid crystalline epoxy has been investigated. Three LCEs: diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenol (DGE-DHBP) and digylcidyl ether of 4-hydroxyphenyl-4"-hydroxybiphenyl-4'-carboxylate (DGE-HHC), were synthesized and blended with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBP-F) and subsequently cured with anhydride and amine curing agents. Curing kinetics were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Parameters for autocatalytic curing kinetics of both pure monomers and blended systems were determined. The extent of cure for both monomers was monitored by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The glass transitions were evaluated as a function of composition using DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results show that the LC constituent affects the curing kinetics of the epoxy resin and that the systems are highly miscible. The effects of molecular reinforcement of DGEBP-F by DGE-DHBP and DGE-HHC were investigated. The concentration of the liquid crystalline moiety affects mechanical properties. Tensile, impact and fracture toughness tests results are evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces shows changes in failure mechanisms compared to the pure components. Results indicate that mechanical properties of the blended samples are improved already at low concentration by weight of the LCE added into epoxy resin. The improvement in mechanical properties was found to occur irrespective of the absence of liquid crystallinity in the blended networks. The mechanism of crack study indicates that crack deflection and crack bridging are the mechanisms in case of LC epoxy. In case of LC modified epoxy, the crack deflection is the main mechanism. Moreover, the effect of coreacting an epoxy with a reactive monomer liquid crystalline epoxy as a matrix for glass fiber composites was investigated. Mechanical properties of the modified matrix were determined by tensile, flexural and impact testing. The improvement in toughness of the bulk matrix ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Punchaipetch, Prakaipetch
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular engineering of polymer alloys: A final report of results obtained on CRADA No. 1078

Description: This report summarizes the technical progress made in the past three years on CRADA No. 1078, Molecular Engineering of Polymer Alloys. The thrust of this CRADA was to start with the basic ideas of PRISM theory and develop it to the point where it could be applied to modeling of polymer alloys. In this program, BIOSYM, Sandia and the University of Illinois worked jointly to develop the theoretical techniques and numerical formalisms necessary to implement the theoretical ideas into commercial software aimed at molecular engineering of polymer alloys. This CRADA focused on developing the techniques required to make the transition from theory to practice. These techniques were then used by BIOSYM to incorporate PRISM theory and other new developments into their commercial software.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S. & Honeycutt, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-amplitude motion in polymer crystals and mesophases

Description: Large-amplitude motion of macromolecules involves mainly rotation about bonds (conformational motion). In the liquid phases, the large- amplitude motion is coupled with disorder and accounts for the flow and viscoelastic behavior. Perfectly ordered crystals, in contrast, permit only little large-amplitude motion. The mesophases are intermediate in order and mobility. In crystals, large-amplitude motion leads initially to gauche defects and kinks (conformational defects), and ultimately may produce conformationally disordered crystals (conis crystals). Molecular dynamics simulations of crystals with up to 30,000 atoms have been carried out and show the mechanism of defect formation, permit the study of the distribution of defects, and the visualization of hexagonal crystals. Distinction between main-chain liquid-crystalline macromolecules and condis crystals, the two mesophases of polymers, can be done on basis of analysis of phase separation (partial crystallinity), present in condis crystals and not in liquid crystals. Solid state NMR is the tool of choice for detecting mobile and rigid phases. In highly drawn fibers one can find four different states of order and mobility. Besides the (defect) crystalline phase and the isotropic amorphous phase, an intermediate oriented phase and a rigid amorphous phase exists.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Wunderlich, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotropization of nematic liquid crystals by TMDSC

Description: Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and traditional DSC are used to study the transition between the nematic liquid crystalline state and the isotropic liquid for two small molecules [4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole and N,N`-bis(4-n-octyloxybenzal)-1,4-phenylenediamine] and one macromolecule (4,4{prime}-dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene copolymerized with a 1:1 molar mixture of 1,7-dibromoheptane and 1,9-dibromononane). The DSC measurements with 4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole were used for temperature calibration with varying heating and cooling rates. Quasi-isothermal TMDSC with small temperature amplitude and standard TMDSC with underlying heating and cooling rates were utilized to analyze the breadth of the transitions. It could be verified that the isotropization transition of a nematic liquid crystal is, indeed, reversible for all three molecules. The nature of the transition changes, however, from relatively sharp, for small, rigid molecules, to about three kelvins wide for the small molecule with flexible ends, to as broad as 20 K for the macromolecule. It was also demonstrated that quantitative heats of fusion of sharp transitions can be extracted from TMDSC, but only from the time-domain heat-flow signal.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, Wei; Dadmun, M.; Zhang, Ge; Boller, A. & Wunderlich, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly of Hybrid Bridged Silsesquioxane Film and Particulate Mesophases with Integral Organic Functionality

Description: Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica mesophases, the development of organic modification schemes to impart functionality to the pore surfaces has received much attention. Most recently, using the general class of compounds referred to as bridged silsesquioxanes (RO){sub 3}Si-R{prime}-Si(OR){sub 3} (Scheme 1), three research groups have reported the formation of a new class of poly(bridgedsilsesquioxane) mesophases BSQMs with integral organic functionality. In contrast to previous hybrid mesophases where organic ligands or molecules are situated on pore surfaces, this class of materials necessarily incorporates the organic constituents into the framework as molecularly dispersed bridging ligands. Although it is anticipated that this new mesostructural organization should result in synergistic properties derived from the molecular scale mixing of the inorganic and organic components, few properties of BSQMs have been measured. In addition samples prepared to date have been in the form of granular precipitates, precluding their use in applications like membranes, fluidics, and low k dielectric films needed for all foreseeable future generations of microelectronics.
Date: June 12, 2000
Creator: LU,YUNFENG; FAN,HONGYOU; DOKE,NILESH; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; ASSINK,ROGER A.; LAVAN,DAVID A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photorefractive conjugated polymer-liquid crystal composites

Description: A new mechanism for space-charge field formation in photorefractive liquid crystal composites containing poly(2,5-bis(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEH-PPV) and the electron acceptor N,N{prime}-dioctyl-1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide, NI, is observed. Using asymmetric energy transfer (beam coupling) measurements that are diagnostic for the photorefractive effect, the direction of beam coupling as a function of grating fringe spacing inverts at a spacing of 5.5 {micro}m. The authors show that the inversion is due to a change in the dominant mechanism for space-charge field formation. At small fringe spacings, the space-charge field is formed by ion diffusion in which the photogenerated anion is the more mobile species. At larger fringe spacings, the polarity of the space charge field inverts due to dominance of a charge transport mechanism in which photogenerated holes are the most mobile species due to hole migration along the BEH-PEV chains coupled with interchain hole hopping. Control experiments are presented, which use composites that can access only one of the two charge transport mechanisms. The results show that charge migration over long distances leading to enhanced photorefractive effects can be obtained using conjugated polymers dissolved in liquid crystals.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Wasielewski, M. R.; Yoon, B. A.; Fuller, M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Niemczyk, M. P. & Svec, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application & testing of high temperature materials for solenoid coils

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has designed and proven-in two new Solenoid coils for a highly-reliable electromechanical switch. Mil-Spec Magnetics Inc., Walnut CA manufactured the coils. The new design utilizes two new materials: Liquid Crystal Polymer (Vectra C130) for the bobbin and Thermal Barrier Silicone (VI-SIL V-658) for the encapsulant. The use of these two new materials solved most of the manufacturing problems inherent in the old Sandia design. The coils are easier to precision wind and more robust for handling, testing, and storage. The coils have some unique weapon related safety requirements. The most severe of these requirements is the 400{degrees}C, 1600 V test. The coils must not, and did not, produce any outgassing products to affect the voltage breakdown between contacts in the switch at these temperatures and voltages. Actual coils in switches were tested under these conditions. This paper covers the prove-in of this new coil design.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E. & Zich, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photorefractivity in liquid crystalline composite materials

Description: We report recent improvements in the photorefractive of liquid crystalline thin film composites containing electron donor and acceptor molecules. The improvements primarily result from optimization of the exothermicity of the intermolecular charge transfer reaction and improvement of the diffusion characteristics of the photogenerated ions. Intramolecular charge transfer dopants produce greater photorefractivity and a 10-fold decrease in the concentration of absorbing chromophores. The mechanism for the generation of mobile ions is discussed.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Wiederrecht, G.P. & Wasielewski, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of high magnetic fields on orientation and properties of liquid crystalline thermosets

Description: In this report we provide the first description of the orientation of liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT`s) in field strengths of up to 18 T, as well as the first report of tensile properties for both unoriented and oriented LCT`S. The LCT we have chosen for study is the diglycidyl ether of dihydroxy-a-methylstilbene cured with the diamine, sulfanilamide. Orientation in magnetic fields leads to an increase of almost three times the modulus compared to the unoriented material. These values are much greater than can be obtained with conventional thermosets. The strain at break is also significantly affected by the chain orientation. The coefficient of thermal expansion and x-ray diffraction of oriented samples show high degrees of anisotropy, indicating significant chain alignment in the magnetic field. We are working to further understand the field dependence of orientation and properties plus the mechanisms of the alignment process.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, D.P.; Earls, J.D. & Priester, R.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-organization of OPV-PEG diblock copolymers in THF/water.

Description: Oligo(phenylenevinylene)-poly(ethyleneglycol) (OPV-PEG) diblock copolymers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution at concentrations of 5 to 25 gl self-assemble into rod-like structures with a radius of about 80 {angstrom} for an OPV-PEG diblock copolymer comprising 13 PV and 45 EG monomers. These aggregates consist of a liquid crystalline OPV core and a PEG shell. Addition of about 10% water to the solution induces the formation of a phase of packed rods, as revealed by a sudden and dramatic transition of the scattering pattern. Further addition of water leads to swelling and at about 30% ultimately to disruption of the packed-rod phase.
Date: July 2, 1999
Creator: Jurban, V.; Littrell, K. C.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Wang, H. B.; Wang, H. H. & Yu, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department